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Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats Essay. Pets bring happiness to dan hera a person’s life. Of Swot? They create a special bond with their owners. This bond can help an zeus dan hera owner and examples of swot, his pet live in harmony. Dan Hera? People usually get pets to have a companion in their homes. Couples get pets before having a child because taking care of a pet is Body Sketch: Essay, similar in zeus dan hera, taking care of a child. Pets usually are fish, birds, mammals, and sometimes reptiles, but insects like spiders and ants are still owned by some people that consider them as pets. Dogs and cats are one of the most popular pets to ansoff matrix example have. Dogs and cats make a big percentage in the world’s populations of pets, according to the Humane Society of the United States (2011) there are 78.2 million owned dog and 86.4 million owned cats. Dogs show that they are loyal to an owner and that are easily trained, cats on the other hand can take care of themselves better than dogs and can remove rat infestations from the house of the owner. Both dogs and zeus, cats have their pros and cons, but dogs are better pets than cats because they show more qualities of a better pet than a cat.
Dogs provide an active lifestyle for an owner. Dogs are very energetic which requires constant walks. This makes the owner and on of OPEC, The Website, a dog have a healthier lifestyle than having a cat. Have you ever seen a person walk their cat? If someone would ever see a person walk their cat, that would be their first time seeing that sight. Cats are known as to stay at their home and dan hera, wait for time to pass by. The energy of a dog can also excite their owner making them play together for a certain time. Dogs also learn a variety of Essay on of OPEC, The Website, tricks and can learn them easier than cats. The capability of zeus dan hera, a dog in learning tricks can simply amaze a person, training a cat to of swot sit, rollover, or play fetch can be weird sight to see. Zeus? I personally have not seen a cat do the tricks a dog can do. Essay On A Critique? If I ever see one, I do not know what would my reaction would be.
While training a dog, the time spent in training can help in establishing a good relationship with their owner. Dan Hera? A dog can also provide protection to a home. Example Tesco? Dogs can be trained to alert owners when seeing a stranger in their yard or attack on command when the owner says so. Certain breeds like German Sheperd and Labrador Retriever can be trained to be police dogs. These dogs help in assisting police with their work, providing them help in searching for missing people or objects or in detecting firearms or illegal substances on people. Dogs were also used for zeus dan hera, hunting purposes; their keen sense of smell has helped humans hunt their prey easily. Dogs can also be trained to guide blind people to destinations. Cats can help out in rat infestations at home but they cannot help in death quote, sniffing out people with firearms or guiding people to zeus destinations. Perseverant? Another reason dogs are better than cats is that dogs can understand humans better than cats. Training a dog requires hand gestures, these hand gestures when repeated over zeus and over can be easily understood by a dog that will trigger the action that the ansoff matrix example, owner wanted. Dan Hera? Many people think that dogs show more affection than cats.
According to the journal Animal Cognition, University of ansoff, London, researchers have found that dogs are more likely to approach a crying person than someone who was humming or talking, and that they normally respond to zeus dan hera weeping with submissive behaviors. Cats are known to have an Body Sketch: attachment with their owners because cats know that their owners bring them food every day. Lastly, dogs provide better companionship with their owners. Every time an dan hera owner spends time with his/her dog, it develops their relationship to something better. Dogs are called a man’s best friend because they are always at your side, wanting to play with you, or trying to cheer you up. The bond between a dog and their owner is similar to a parent and a child. A child knows when their parent is Body Sketch:, around or not. The child becomes happy when they see their parents while sad and distressed when they see that they are gone.
Cats can have a bond with their owners too, but they are more adept at being independent on their own. Dogs are better pets than cats but that does not mean that cats are not bad pets. Cats also have their positive sides like, independency. Zeus? As mentioned earlier, cats are independent; they can feed off food that they find from the home of their owners, an example would be rats and mice. Cats also can bathe on their own, so they do not need their owners to give them a bathe regularly. The dependency of a dog can sometimes frustrate an owner, the feeding it needs regularly, the Sketch: The Newest Trend Essay, cleaning of the dog’s dirt, and zeus dan hera, the bath it needs to atmosphere literature keep clean are the factors that can frustrate an owner. Cats are more silent than dogs. The barking of a dog can irritate an owner and the neighbours. A cat’s “meow” cannot be loud enough to wake people up at zeus dan hera midnight. According to Douglas (2004), dogs can vocalize their moods, meaning the loudness of their bark depends on literature what emotion they have at the moment. Cats on zeus the other hand do not, if they are happy, sad, or excited they will “meow” at the same level but evidence from The Newest Essay, (McComb et al., 2009) suggests that cats are capable of purring with a frequency that has a subliminal effect similar to that of a human baby#8217;s cry.
This purr, known as the #8220;solicitation purr,#8221; is slightly different from the regular purr and zeus, is used to ask for food. I have never experienced owning a cat, my family has always owned dogs. From stray dog to a breeded one, it has always been dogs. The loyalty shown by the dog, companionship to their owner, the active lifestyle given by the dog, and Trend, capability of the dog to learn tricks are the dan hera, reasons why my family would own a dog than a cat. I have never thought of having a cat, even in the future. Example Tesco? The cats of our neighbours have helped me in zeus dan hera, making that decision. Body Sketch: The Newest? Every time we leave a door open, a cat would manage to go inside, hop on the dining table and dan hera, get some of the food prepared. Another case would be that some cats bear their children at perseverant speech our garage which would make our dogs bark out loud. These cases have lead me to zeus dan hera make the decision that dogs are better pets than cats.
Animal Cognition (May 30,2013), University of London, http://www.livescience.com/20823canine-comfort-dogs-understand-emotion.html Arden Moore (2007), The Cat Behavior Answer Book, http://www.petfinder.com/cats/catbehavior-and-training/why-cats-meow/ APPA National Pet Owners Survey (2011), The Humane Society of the United States, http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/facts/pet_ownership_statistics.html Douglas, K. (9 December 2009).#8221;Dogs vs. Cats: The Great Pet Showdown. Matrix Tesco? New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20427381.200-dogs-vs-cats-the-great-petshowdown-.html McComb, K., Taylor, A., Wilson, C., Charlton, B. (2009). #8220;The Cry Embedded Within the Purr.#8221; Current Biology, 19(13). Dan Hera? Retrieved 17. December 2009 from the atmosphere, Academic Search Premier database. Zeus? University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 21 April 2016.
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How to teach Cambridge First Certificate Writing Part One essays. Summary: Teaching tips and classroom activities for the essay task in the updated FCE exam from January 2015. Essay questions seemed to have almost completely disappeared from zeus Cambridge FCE until January 2015, when they suddenly became the only possibility in atmosphere literature Writing Part One and therefore half of the dan hera writing exam and its marks. This is presumably to make FCE more of an Essay A Critique of OPEC, academic exam and standardise it with the other Cambridge tests such as Cambridge Advanced, but it is likely to zeus dan hera be a problem for both students and teachers. One potential issues with having to write an Body Sketch: Trend Essay essay in FCE Writing Part One is that it replaces the increasingly common skill of zeus dan hera, emailing. Atmosphere? Students are more likely to have experience of emailing than of essay writing but it has now become just one of four options in Writing Part Two and so not included at all in zeus some tests. There are also more EFL teaching and learning materials available for emailing than essays. The second major issue with having to write an essay in the exam is that FCE essay tasks are not really the same as those which are normally set by teachers in real universities and examples of swot high schools. Dan Hera? They are also quite unlike the more genuinely academic IELTS and TOEFL essays, and indeed any homework tasks I set in my own EFL classes. Hamlet Quote? This means that the tasks, tactics, language and activities used in class and for homework must be quite specific to Cambridge First.
What students have to do with FCE Writing Part One essay tasks. All the six official tests released so far for the updated 2015 FCE include these parts: “In your English class you have been talking about Now, your English teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay using all of the notes and zeus dan hera give reasons for Body The Newest Trend, your point of dan hera, view. (statement) Do you agree?” or “(question asking to choose between two options)?” or “(yes/ no opinion question)?” 3. (your own idea) Write your essay.
You must use grammatically correct sentences with accurate spelling and punctuation in a style appropriate to the situation.” Topics in the tasks released by on A Critique The Website, Cambridge so far include the environment (twice), fashion, work and money, friends and family, and modern life. Zeus Dan Hera? Question stems include “Which is more important or ?”, “Is it better to or?”, “We should Do you agree?”, “Some people say that has a bad effect on people’s lives. Do you agree?”, and “ Do you think these problems can be solved?” The subtopics which students must include in their answers include “the kind/ type of which is/ are”, “the reasons for”, “how much time is spent”, “who you can with”, “who will you when you”, “whether is important”, and “the price of” Many of these are not subtopics that I would choose if I had more freedom to write on the topic and a few are frankly even a little bizarre, so I think it is speech, necessary to think of this part of the task as a problem that needs tackling rather than something that is likely to help students plan as perhaps was intended. Some of the zeus subtopics also seem to hamlet almost exclude one of the two possible opinions that students have been told that they can express. For example, it is difficult to have a paragraph on “the kinds of animals which are in danger” if you disagree with the zeus dan hera statement “We should do everything we can to save animals which are in of swot danger of disappearing from zeus dan hera our planet”. Answers must be between 140 and 190 words, although students don’t seem to Essay of OPEC, automatically lose marks for going a bit over or under this as long as they fully answer the question and zeus dan hera don’t go off topic.
Students will be marked for content, communicative achievement, organisation, and language. Content is A Critique of OPEC, The Website, basically what used to dan hera be called task achievement, meaning properly answering the question. Communicative achievement is literature, successfully communicating ideas at the right level of formality. Organisation means organising and linking together sentences and paragraphs, and language includes both level and accuracy of grammar and vocabulary. To at least pass this part of the exam students must: - Think of one more subtopic to include in their answer before they start writing (in addition to the two which are given) - Decide before they start writing whether they are going to zeus dan hera give their opinion in the introduction and then support it, or if they are only going to give their opinion at the end. - Organise their essay into at least two main paragraphs plus an Body Sketch: The Newest Trend introduction and summary/ conclusion. - Include all three subtopics (the two given plus the one they thought of) in dan hera their answer.
- Support all their arguments. - Use a neutral or formal level of language. - Leave at least a couple of minutes for final editing of spelling, punctuation, grammar, vocabulary, etc. - Finish in about 40 minutes, and no more than 45 minutes max, to leave enough time for Writing Part Two (which is an equal length and has equal marks) - Underline important words in of swot the question and its instructions, to make sure that they answer the question properly. - Use different kinds of support (reasons, examples, personal experience, other people’s experiences, things read or heard, logical arguments, generalisations, facts, etc) for each of their arguments. - Make sure that the things that they add to each opinion do actually support their arguments (meaning they aren’t just vaguely on the same topic, don’t actually support the opposite side of the argument, and aren’t just phrases they’ve learnt which don’t really link to zeus dan hera what they are trying to prove) - Avoid repeating words, instead rephrasing or using referencing expressions (including in the final summary/ conclusion) - Make sure that the quote essay is neat enough to be understood without needing to dan hera be read again (but see below for limits to how much they need to worry about this) - Start writing as soon as they can think of one reasonably suitable third subtopic (rather than wasting time brainstorming better options) - Be ambitious with the death language that they use, showing the examiner that they have a high language level and making up for their inevitable weaknesses in other areas such as accuracy. - Also add more ambitious language at the editing stage. Students should probably: - Choose to express and support whatever opinion seems easier to write about, e.g. because it easily matches the subtopics given, rather than automatically deciding to write their real opinion. - Use as high a level of zeus, formality as they can, including things like avoiding contractions (“I am” rather than “I’m” etc), because more formal language will also be higher level language/ more ambitious language. - Show the strength or weakness of The Newest Essay, their opinions. - Use longer versions of basic phrases, e.g. using “I strongly believe” rather than “I believe” - Give some background to the question by zeus dan hera, describing how it is important, interesting and/ or topical in the introduction (making sure that what they say is believable, not just a recycled phrase from a model answer) - Use rhetorical questions (unlike in some genuine academic writing) - Make up their own personal experiences etc to support their arguments (as long as they are believable) - Write their opposite of their real opinion (if that is easier to support) - Do Writing Part Two first if they have a mental block with the Writing Part One essay, coming back to the first task later.
- Use some slightly more informal but high level language such as phrasal verbs. - Use Latin abbreviations such as “e.g.” and “etc” - Cross things off and use little arrows to insert missing words (rather than overusing their eraser, if they have an erasable pen) - Add whole missing sentences to the middle of the text, by Body Sketch: Essay, putting the sentence in a box at the top or bottom of the dan hera page and drawing a long arrow to show where it should go. - Skip Part One and do two tasks from Part Two instead (they will only ansoff example, be credited for Part Two and zeus so be limited to perseverant a failing 50% mark at zeus dan hera, best) - Use very informal language such as textspeak or Twitter abbreviations (“gr8” for atmosphere, “great”, “lol”, etc), exclamation marks, “”, words all in capitals, underlined words, or slang. - Try to zeus dan hera look at both sides of each of the three subtopics (as there is neither the time nor space within the word limit) - Waste time brainstorming lots of ideas for the best third sub-topic. - Waste time brainstorming lots of support for perseverant speech, their arguments before they start writing (unless perhaps they really can’t decide whether to look at zeus dan hera, both sides or just one side in their essay) - Use academic conventions which aren’t suitable for a school setting such as avoiding personal pronouns, using “The author”, and giving academic references. - Make up things to support their arguments that are outside their own experience such as imaginary statistics, quotations or page numbers of books.
- Use multipurpose phrases like “This is atmosphere literature, a controversial topic nowadays” in dan hera all the on of OPEC, essays that they write (as they will often not match the situation in the question and so will negative proof of dan hera, their real language level) - Start paragraphs with multipurpose phrases like “Secondly” and “On the other hand” (rather than “The second argument for is” and “Turning to atmosphere literature the arguments against”) - Leave editing Part One until they have written Part Two too (as they will almost certainly run out of dan hera, time first) - Assume knowledge that the examiner might not have (such as detailed knowledge of their hometown) - Waste time counting every word. - Include other arguments in Body Essay their summary/ conclusion which they didn’t mention in the body of their essay. - Stick to basic language in zeus an attempt to make sure that they don’t make mistakes (ambitious language being at Body Trend Essay, least as important) - Waste time editing the essay down if they go over 190 words. - Use exactly the dan hera same words in their summary/ conclusion as in the body of the essay. - Use paragraph headings (as these will be used in Writing Part Two reports and atmosphere literature Cambridge like students to show a distinction between the two writing genres, even if that doesn’t really match real life) Students don’t need to: - Produce incredibly neat work (because Cambridge and the examiners know how unrealistic a handwritten essay is nowadays) - Think of an interesting title (or indeed any title) - Worry about how clever their ideas are (as it doesn’t affect their marks one way or the other) - Worry too much about British and American English (just not spelling the same word two different ways is probably enough at FCE) - Deal with the subtopics in the same order as they are given on the question sheet.
- Necessarily look at dan hera, both sides of the The Newest Trend Essay argument (if they have a strong opinion on zeus, one side or the example other) The students have free choice whether they want to give their opinion in the introduction and then support that argument related to zeus dan hera the three sub-topics or give both sides of the argument and speech then give their own opinion in the conclusion. Dan Hera? If students don’t think they can support their position related to all three topics and so want to take the latter approach, they could give reasons for their conclusion related to two topics and give the other side related to the other one. Alternatively, they could deal with all three topics in just two main paragraphs in the body, one for each side of the argument. I would recommend that in the introduction students rephrase the of swot question, give background to the topic etc, but most of the zeus student answers provided by Cambridge just start by answering the question, so that seems to be acceptable. Body Essay? I also strongly recommend against one-sentence paragraphs, including in the final summary, but again this doesn’t seem to be a big issue with Cambridge so students could stop and move onto zeus dan hera, the Part Two question if they have reached the death quote word limit and are already over 40 minutes into the exam.
If they do want another sentence it is fairly easy to add consequences of their conclusion such as “Because of this, governments/ families/ companies/ bosses should” Language that the students are likely to need in FCE essays includes phrases for different ways of zeus, supporting their opinions, giving weak and strong opinions, weak and strong agreeing and disagreeing, summarising, concluding, giving reasons, and looking at both sides (advantages and disadvantages, etc). A review of linking phrases such as the difference between “In contrast” and “On the other hand” would also be useful. You could also teach language for giving the of swot background behind a topic in the introduction (“Nowadays”, “Recently”, “Many people believe that”, etc). Lesson ideas for FCE Writing Part One essays. First lessons including FCE Writing Part One essay questions. Given the importance of this part of the exam and how it can be very useful to zeus get some idea of ansoff, students’ strengths and dan hera weaknesses in ansoff matrix example tesco writing right at the beginning, I highly recommend bringing this topic into the very first lesson of the course and giving an essay task for the first homework. Luckily, this is not too difficult given that the questions are basically opinion questions. First lesson topics that are easily linked to students giving and supporting opinions include good ways of studying English, studying for the exam, improving their skills in particular papers, or using class time.
They could also give their opinions on the exam itself such as which the trickiest (looking) parts of the exam are and what they think about the dan hera 2015 changes. Body Sketch: The Newest? Opinions on language learning can be made amusing by giving them a mix of dan hera, sensible and crazier ways of improving their English, including things like “I think it’s a great idea to on A Critique The Website listen to English radio while you are asleep” and “In my opinion, you should describe everything that you are doing around the house in English as you are doing it”. This is even more fun if students have to choose the ideas at random and dan hera then support whatever opinion they are given. Essay On Of OPEC,? If you give students statements starting with opinions language like “I really think the zeus story task was the easiest”, after the Body Sketch: speaking activity students can try to zeus remember those phrases, then brainstorm similar ones for perseverant, agreeing and disagreeing, supporting arguments, etc. All the topics just mentioned follow on zeus, quite naturally from Body Sketch: The Newest Essay a needs analysis stage where students interview each other about their reasons for taking the zeus dan hera test, their previous FCE studies, their previous English studies, their strengths and weaknesses etc. Other Writing Part One-style topics that can lead on from a needs analysis stage include education and work in their country, and the position of English in modern life. Another way into discussion topics that are similar to the exam is through Speaking Part Four, although as these questions are fairly heavy you’d still need to start the of swot class with something lighter such as asking each other needs analysis questions.
Another possibility is to start with some kind of Speaking Part One (asking personal questions) game or activity, moving onto Writing Part One questions on the same topics like family and zeus dan hera hometowns to discuss, plan one or more of, and write one of for homework. This is example tesco, more realistic than it may sound, because Writing Part One tasks tend to be on fairly light topics like friendship, though you will want to introduce heavier ones like “the environment” later in the course. Combining essay writing with Use of dan hera, English. The easiest way to combine other parts of the FCE exam with Writing Part One is for students to perseverant speech do Use of English exercises that have been designed to test and zeus dan hera expand their knowledge of Essay of OPEC,, useful language for the essay task. For example, you can have multiple choice cloze tasks like “I _______________ think that is dan hera, a good idea” with the options “strongly”, “surely”, “really” and “very”, open cloze tasks like “To ____________ another example”, word formation tasks like “_____________, that argument has no merit at all” with the key word “frank”, or key word sentence transformation tasks like “In my personal experience, this rarely works” with key word and matrix example tesco gapped sentence “_________________ it rarely works. Zeus? FIND”. You can find many games that you can do with those Use of The Newest Essay, English tasks in zeus dan hera my articles on each part of atmosphere literature, that paper.
Other classroom activities for dan hera, FCE Writing Part One essays. There is hamlet death quote, virtually no limit to the number of possible classroom activities that could help with this task, but most of zeus, them fit into one of Essay A Critique, these categories: - Discussing/ analysing model answers. - Looking at other students’ answers. - Brainstorming suitable language. - Other tasks with suitable language such as matching up cards to make nice long Writing Part One phrases. - Giving and zeus discussing tips on The Newest, what they should and shouldn’t do before and during the exam.
- Writing FCE Writing Part One essay questions for dan hera, other groups to discuss and maybe write answers to, probably with typical question stems and/ or topics to help them come up with ideas. - Competing to make suitable sentences more and more formal or longer and examples of swot longer. - Students analysing different exam questions, for example to zeus find the similarities and death quote differences between them. - Discussing their opinions on the questions given (“. Do you agree?” etc), probably before they write about the same topic for homework.
- Giving students tricky positions to support and/ or subtopics and asking them to come up with opinions that their partners can accept. These can also be combined in one lesson. For example, students start by giving each other tips on Writing Part One with topic prompts like “introduction” and “planning”. They then identify the bad tips in a list that they are given, before brainstorming suitable language to do the good things, such as “I totally agree with this idea” for zeus, the tip “Show the strength or weakness of your opinions”. Perhaps after some hints such as phrases with mistakes, gapped phrases or key words, students compare their ideas for useful phrases with the list prepared by Essay The Website, the teacher. Correction tasks for FCE Writing Part One. FCE used to have an error correction task in dan hera the Use of English paper, but perhaps because of an emphasis on perseverant, communication they have both done away with that and dan hera put less and hamlet less emphasis on grammatical accuracy in the writing test. Error correction tasks are still worthwhile though, as long as you see them as a way of presenting useful language for zeus, the exam as much as dealing with typical mistakes.
You will also probably want to ansoff matrix example deal with errors other than grammatical ones such as collocations, functional language like agreeing, formality, punctuation, spelling, paragraphing, task achievement, and not really supporting your opinions. Possible classroom tasks with such typical errors are the same as with non-exam classes, including: - Students racing to dan hera find mistakes in sentences, paragraphs, or complete texts. - Students working in death quote pairs to find out which version is zeus dan hera, correct when their two texts vary, without showing them to each other. - Students working out if phrases are wrong are wrong or just too informal, and then making the speech necessary changes. Making FCE Writing Part One exam practice realistic and useful. There are probably at least as many possible lesson ideas for each of the categories of lesson activity above as there are for error correction, so I won’t attempt to make a complete list. However, sooner or later you will want to do proper exam practice, so that is zeus, worth special mention. I tend to set all timed writing for Body Sketch: The Newest Trend Essay, homework but with clear instructions (spoken and written on the sheet they should write their answers on) making sure they do so in near exam conditions. Near exam conditions mainly consists of not looking at the question until they are ready to zeus start a timed task, not using help like dictionaries and their notes from the class, stopping on exactly 40 minutes, and making sure that they have had as short final edit within that time. I then allow them to do extra work with their help of matrix example tesco, their textbooks, model answers etc. However, I tell them to change colour pen, not use an eraser, write down what kinds of changes they made, and tell me how much extra time they spent on it.
These two stages help them actually expand their language knowledge at dan hera, the same time as getting useful exam practice, as well as giving me loads of useful information about hamlet, their present strengths and weaknesses. Written by Alex Case for zeus, UsingEnglish.com. Latest from ' Teaching English ' Submit Your Article. Submit an article about any area of the English language for publication on our web site.
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5 Must-Dos For Outstanding Essay Writing. By Clare #038; Chris on February 21, 2011 45 Comments. Essay writing is zeus dan hera so important, so here#039;s what you can do to help your child write great ones! Your teen needs to step up to hamlet death, the mark because school is getting harder. High school education continues to move away from tests with one word answers and towards students having to come up with paragraph or even full essay answers.
And there’s a good reason for this. The internet has become so widespread and so accessible, that having a library of singular facts stored in your head is no longer helpful. Zeus? The average cell phone can now access Google or Wikipedia anywhere. Type in examples, your question and boom, there#8217;s your answer. Essays require more than just a memorization of zeus facts. They require students to have an understanding of what they’re talking about. They also require students to know how to express themselves clearly and concisely in writing. Being able to communicate well is an absolute must in Sketch: The Newest Trend, the real world. It#8217;s also necessary in all subject courses at university, and zeus definitely in any professional capacity. Essay writing is definitely a learnable skill, but not necessarily a straight forward one for a lot of students. Because we want your teen to Body Sketch: The Newest, master essay writing as much as they can during their time at high school, here are 5 tips that will significantly increase your teen’s essay marks.
1. Every essay must have a proper structure. An essay must be broken into paragraphs to make it readable. It’s horrible reading a full page of solid text. Breaking down an essay into different sections is what allows it to flow in a logical manner. At high school all essays should follow a simple formula.
Your teen needs to learn this formula off by heart! Introduction: Tell #8217;em what you’re gonna tell ‘em. Introduce the topic and zeus dan hera briefly outline the points you’re going to make in your essay in the order you#8217;re going to write about them. If the essay is meant to argue a point, your teen should make it clear in the introduction what their argument/point of literature view is. Body Paragraphs: Tell ‘em. Zeus? At high school an hamlet essay will usually have 3-5 paragraphs. Each paragraph contains its own main point that contributes to the overall theme or argument of the zeus, essay. (These paragraphs follow their own structure – see tip # 2) Conclusion: Tell ‘em what you told ‘em. Of Swot? Sum up what the essay was about.
2. Each body paragraph must have a proper structure. Not only zeus dan hera, does the essay as a whole need structure, each paragraph needs to meet certain requirements. S = Statement: This is the main point of the paragraph. What part of the film is being discussed and what did it mean to the film? What was important about an historical event and on A Critique how did it affect later events? Basically, what’s the point you’re about to discuss in this paragraph. Dan Hera? E = Explanation: Explain what you said in your statement.
Tell the reader why your statement is atmosphere true. Why did the setting reflect how the main character was feeling? In what way did the weather affect the outcome of the battle? This part should make up the bulk of the paragraph. X = eXample Give an example! A quote, an example, a fact. Something concrete that gives evidence to your statement. I = Importance Why is the point you’ve made in this paragraph important? What does it mean to the story, or the zeus dan hera, film, or the event? Tell the examples of swot, reader why it matters. This one might not always be applicable, but if you can then go for it.
3. Every essay needs an zeus dan hera essay plan. You wouldn’t go on a road trip without a map and essays are just the same. Before your teen starts writing an A Critique The Website essay they should make a quick plan of what they’re going to write about. An essay plan does not have to be a big thing. Zeus Dan Hera? Not at all. It only death quote, takes a few minutes but will save your teen SO much time overall. Essay plans instantly give an zeus essay structure, they prevent you from forgetting to include any important points, and they prevent you from losing your way as you write. An essay plan can be quickly scribbled in a margin, or the examples of swot, first page of an zeus dan hera exam book that isn’t marked.
Here is an example of the way I would do an essay plan before I started writing. (It#8217;s for the film The Matrix #8230;) Essay Plan Example. Each of the three #8216;fingers#8217; coming off each paragraph make up #8216;SEXI#8217;. I haven#8217;t done the perseverant, #8216;I#8217; part, but within each paragraph I would try and emphasize why this point was important to the setting of the zeus, film. Every time your teen writes an essay, whether it#8217;s just for practise or in an exam, they need to jot down the points that are going to fill their ‘SEXI’ for each paragraph. The detail that they list here means they don’t have to worry about Essay A Critique The Website forgetting anything important while they’re writing. This depends on what situation the zeus, essay is tesco being written in. Dan Hera? If it’s being written for ansoff matrix tesco, homework and your teen doesn’t have the time pressure of an exam, it can be a good idea to zeus dan hera, go and do something else for atmosphere literature, a while once they’ve finished writing.
You know when you come back to zeus dan hera, look at something you’ve written and Body Sketch: Trend you see all the little mistakes you didn’t notice before? This is zeus dan hera why. Examples? Your teen should check that the paragraphs are written in a logical order. Simply put – does the zeus, essay make sense? Does each paragraph follows SEXI? Get them to read their essay aloud (or in their head) so they can see how it flows (or doesn’t as it may be). If the essay is atmosphere literature being written in an exam your teen won#8217;t have the zeus, luxury of time.
So the number one rule here is: stay until the end! While it may seem like eternity to a high school student, exams aren’t actually that long. And a few minutes of proof reading can often make the difference between one grade and another. It’s worth staying right to the end. Writing essays can be practised!
Many students go through a whole year at Essay school and only do one or two practice essays (that they were forced to do). They may know the subject backwards, but if they don’t know how to write a good essay then they’re screwed. Make sure your teen includes practice essays as part of their exam preparation. Getting a hold of past exams and using them to practise is a great idea. Dan Hera? If you can then have a read of their work yourself that’s fantastic. They might need an adult eye to pick up something that’s not quite right. Even better, get your teen to ask their teacher to mark it. Most teachers would love an death interested student to zeus dan hera, ask them to mark a practice essay! If you think your teen would benefit from exam tips, including how to write fantastic exam essays, it might be worth checking out our Exam Survival Package. You can read what other parents have said about it here. Was this helpful?
Similar articles: This is a great article! I love it for speech, its succinctness and think it would make a great poster in a high school classroom! I forwarded it to all three of dan hera my kids! i looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this article. Literature? it really helped me making an essay in my 5th grade class and guess what I got a 4 by just remebering these tips! I am in fifth grade And I have to write an essay in an hour and a half tomorrow. This really helped me understand and I will post my grade when I am informed of zeus it.
Thank you so much for the tips and I will be sure yo use them on my essay. Dear Clare and Chris: I#8217;m a Mexican teacher of English as a foreign language and I#8217;m constantly searching for guidance to improve my teaching. I teach a preparation course for the FCE by Cambridge. Examples? I truly appreciate your generosity to share these great guidelines.. Zeus? I live in Merida, Yucatan. That is the Yucatan peninsula, just 3 hour drive from Cancun. Sketch: Essay? I#8217;d love to be of any help if you ever plan on zeus dan hera travelling down here. This article has helped me a lot because I#8217;ve been trying to write a 1000 word essay due at school and hadn#8217;t started but I did an essay plan and that has helped me a lot. Of Swot? Thanks. tell em about sexi. The Study Gurus says.
Thanks so much for your feedback Lisa! The whole idea of this article is to get students to realize there#8217;s a formula to essay writing they can apply every time. In a classroom is a great idea! We#8217;ll definitely be getting in touch with teachers we know about that one. I have to zeus dan hera, agree with Lisa this is a great summary of how to write an essay. And a great guide for parents wanting to help without getting caught up in cricising spelling or the whole thing.
In an exam, I also jotted down the relevant points I could think of, added a relevant example/quote/fact then sorted into order for the essay. Literature? It really was effective in clarifying what to write when you can#8217;t cut and paste your work! And saved a lot of time as I had lots of time for writing rather than getting the ideas tumbling over zeus, each other. sania benazza says. hello!could you please display some model essays as revision purpose for atmosphere, #8216;A#8217; level. Hi im taking a state test tomorrow and im having trouble with writing essays i hope this article will help. cool i also agree lisa. Really useful and zeus clearly explained, thank you. I will forward to my thirteen year old. Thanks Smidge I hope they find it useful! That#8217;s Clare for your valuable comments. i am a teen therteen year old teen and we do essys alot in school and your stuff helped me alot.
Thank you Salma! That#8217;s fantastic, but it#8217;s you doing the work and studying hard, so good for you! Best of luck with your study this year #128578; jimbob cutia says. Examples? same im working do hard on mid term report i have to write a 5 page essay this helps alot. I am a 13yr old in yr8 and were doing essays in dan hera, English at the moment on the book #8216;Tomorrow When The War Began#8217;. Body Sketch: The Newest Essay? this helped a lot with my essay writing #128578; I am going to recommend this website to dan hera, people I know who are having trouble with writing essays. Thank you KC that#8217;s fantastic you#8217;re finding our tips useful, but you#8217;re the one who is putting them to use so well done you!! I loved the Tomorrow When the War Began series, I hope you#8217;re enjoying the examples, books too!
Keep up the good work awesome stuff! #128578; Love the zeus dan hera, SEXI structure #128521; Wow! really this one is very useful. Tmr going to be my n level English examm#8230;gonna use this steps to matrix example, use for my argumentative essay. .hope it help:) A brilliant and informative article. I really appreciate your effort in writing this. Good article #8230; SEXI. I loooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this it really helped me realize what an essay is all about and dan hera i got a 4 on atmosphere writing my essay so thanks! Well done Rachel that#8217;s fantastic!! Go you!! Israel Ryan says. This really helped. this is really helpful im gonna take the ela state test tomorrow my english teacher tells us tip but never really help us in zeus, writing. Paty Valdez says.
You have saved me with this info! I was looking for something attractive and fun enough to help me introduce essay writing and this works well! Thank you! Thank you for this article. Its very useful to Body Sketch: Trend Essay, me. Dan Hera? omg tysm for hamlet death, this! jasmeen sidhu says. SEXI really helped my essay in grade 7. Zeus Dan Hera? This article is really helpful! Thank you.
Now i understand what SEXI means in essay writing. Thanks fr the wonderful information. This is fantastic. Body Sketch: Essay? My children, 12 and zeus 9, found this very useful as booster for their previous knowledge. Thanks for this good work. Please continue. Hamlet Death Quote? But you do not get enough time to make a structure plan in the exam#8230;. Is there any alternative for that#8230;?? I would be waiting for zeus, an example. Hi there, we hope that this article has given a few simple tips on how your son should do about writing a good essay. Hamlet Quote? You can check out all of our posts on essay writing here. Our Exam Survival Package also has a great video on zeus writing essays in exams.
Plus there are hundreds of other tips all centered around getting fantastic exam results in speech, the videos too! Check it out here. Dan Hera? This is a great resource very informative and accessible! A small grammar gripe you misuse practice (noun)/practise (verb) throughout and the title doesn#8217;t need an apostrophe. Of Swot? Writing essays should be practised! Actually, the apostrophe is okay. Thank you for this outline. Hi Erin, thanks for your comments! Yes thank you for pointing out the practice/practise error. Dan Hera? This article is a few years old now and I#8217;ve since been schooled on the difference between the two, but I don#8217;t believe they distinguish between the two in the US, so someone is examples of swot always going to think that I am wrong #128578; [#8230;] While a school essay is not the same as writing for a business or website, I wanted to recommend this great blog post I just read about writing school essays. [#8230;] [#8230;] You can help your teen make their writing simpler and more like a straight-A student’s by helping them plan their essays. Zeus? [#8230;] [#8230;] may not understand how to apply what they have learnt in class to the essay format, or how to structure an essay, or how to structure paragraphs or sentences, or how to convey what they understand about the topic to example, the reader in zeus, a clear and Essay on of OPEC, concise [#8230;] Also get our free 2-week email course and study articles sent to your inbox.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is zeus dan hera, intended to provide you with information about the skills of perseverant speech, essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and zeus, how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to tesco, remember in dan hera, working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in literature, writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of zeus dan hera, arguments and conclusions, and hamlet quote, the effective use of evidence to dan hera, support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of atmosphere literature, evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. Zeus Dan Hera! In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of Essay A Critique The Website, writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects.
Essays provide you with an zeus opportunity to death quote, explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an zeus argument, or contention, based upon ansoff example tesco, the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument.
There are no simple instructions for zeus dan hera, good essay writing. Perseverant! As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only dan hera, allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in atmosphere, other situations as well. Zeus Dan Hera! The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on of swot, substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of dan hera, bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into literature essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and dan hera, the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of ansoff matrix, essays in dan hera, first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the The Newest Essay, past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors.
For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to dan hera, argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on matrix tesco, an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to zeus, know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing.
3. Choosing and comprehending the Essay on A Critique of OPEC,, question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is zeus dan hera, easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. The Newest Essay! Writing is not the dan hera, outcome or the perseverant, finished product of learning: it is a vital part of dan hera, learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue. Think about the Body Essay, question or topic in these ways: what is the dan hera, problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to Essay on The Website, do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to zeus dan hera, your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in lectures and perseverant, tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue.
Historians often disagree on the importance or the zeus dan hera, meaning of events of literature, evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in dan hera, medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the ansoff example tesco, Soviet Union or the zeus, impact of colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is that all of hamlet, these writers state a position. Zeus! They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions.
As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in hamlet quote, relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Dan Hera! Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and examples, from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by dan hera your tutor.
You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the ansoff tesco, question, and zeus, you’ve got a pretty good idea about The Website how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. Zeus! You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and tesco, thought about how you might address them in zeus, this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of matrix, Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment.
No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is zeus dan hera, difficult to atmosphere, draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the zeus dan hera, evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over of swot time, and zeus, no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the perseverant speech, reader how, and zeus, why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to hamlet quote, develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Zeus! Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an matrix example emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the dan hera, stages of atmosphere, your argument before you begin drafting.
Perhaps the zeus dan hera, single best way of ensuring a successful essay is hamlet death quote, having a good plan . Dan Hera! The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in Essay on, point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and zeus, supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is speech, always based on zeus, historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from atmosphere literature, Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and dan hera, usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in perseverant speech, Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about zeus dan hera previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of ansoff matrix, natural environments. In the short essays common in zeus, first year, your plan is ansoff matrix example tesco, likely to be less complex, and dan hera, may only have four or five main points. Matrix Example Tesco! As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points.
If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an zeus dan hera argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by ansoff using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Zeus! Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is Essay on A Critique of OPEC,, introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown.
Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over zeus them, as in hamlet death, Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on zeus, how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to examples, be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape.
Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Zeus! Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to of OPEC, The Website, feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of zeus dan hera, another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of Essay A Critique of OPEC, The Website, your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to zeus, develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the Essay A Critique, reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence.
In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the zeus dan hera, kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of Sketch: The Newest Essay, them by zeus dan hera a political scientist or historian is literature, a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is zeus, a primary source; an of swot article in dan hera, the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of Body The Newest Essay, your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and zeus dan hera, interpreted the problem or issue at hand. The distinction is not hard and fast, and examples of swot, there will always be exceptions.
For instance, if you are writing an essay about dan hera historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for on A Critique, their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising.
It is best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the zeus dan hera, evidence you are using. Essay On The Website! If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the zeus, evidence and developing your case. If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the hamlet quote, text, and zeus dan hera, indent it: This is an death example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the dan hera, essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to ansoff tesco, use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to dan hera, say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise.
Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on perseverant, the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to dan hera, develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in literature, your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. Dan Hera! You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the atmosphere literature, universe or the zeus dan hera, human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to death quote, write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions.
7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and zeus, avoid complex sentence constructions . Death Quote! Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to zeus dan hera, use very complex language and syntax. A better idea is to on of OPEC, The Website, establish a simple and dan hera, clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and of swot, grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important.
It is zeus dan hera, also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for Essay of OPEC,, using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the zeus dan hera, statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at of swot, that time. It is zeus dan hera, a reasonable and ansoff, accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at dan hera, least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and death quote, ask them for zeus dan hera, more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of of swot, different writers. Zeus! What makes them more or less effective?
What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the atmosphere literature, rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to zeus, them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to literature, edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback.
Swap essays with fellow students. Zeus! Get the people you live with to of swot, read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about zeus dan hera when to cite sources can be difficult. On! Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in dan hera, gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and of swot, ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of zeus, sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to death quote, know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is dan hera, a skill you will develop with practice and ansoff matrix tesco, experience.
If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of zeus dan hera, your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. Ansoff Matrix! There is zeus, no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to matrix, the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and dan hera, other material you have used directly. On A Critique! Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. Zeus! You can also use citations to literature, clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of zeus, second argument, nor to speech, provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. Zeus! If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers.
When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the atmosphere, line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in zeus, the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Literature! Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures.
If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in zeus dan hera, Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Body Trend, Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.
The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and zeus dan hera, is not a good tactic when you are attempting to perseverant speech, convince those readers of the accuracy of zeus dan hera, your interpretations and hamlet, arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in that it adds the dan hera, publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56.
It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Perseverant! Doctor is Dr, but Professor is dan hera, Prof.. Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for perseverant, instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to zeus, refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in ansoff matrix example tesco, the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the dan hera, Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer.
Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of Body The Newest Essay, publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Dan Hera! Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in perseverant speech, your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M.
McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. Zeus Dan Hera! 1241, in Walter L. On! Wakefield and dan hera, Austin P. Perseverant! Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. Zeus! 185-7. If you are going to Essay The Website, be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date:
The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to zeus dan hera, refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for example, articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on zeus dan hera, one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and examples of swot, the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail.
If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details.
For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of zeus, chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in atmosphere, editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of zeus, book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. Hamlet! F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp.
187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the zeus, name of the atmosphere, publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the zeus, Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and hamlet death quote, Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. Zeus! 153). (Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to perseverant speech, the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the zeus dan hera, specific page reference.)
Articles in hamlet quote, journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of zeus dan hera, Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and example, Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Zeus! Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. Atmosphere! 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal.
If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Dan Hera! Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Essay The Website, Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of zeus, release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963.
Name of the speech, program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of dan hera, a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the examples of swot, document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the zeus, page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003.
Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by Essay the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in zeus, any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to ansoff, any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the zeus dan hera, page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed.
In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and ansoff, short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the zeus, authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the quote, Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156.
4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and zeus, Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to matrix example, repeat the page number. Again, keep in zeus, mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of speech, information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays.
Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of zeus dan hera, styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of of swot, them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and zeus dan hera, reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and examples, task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and dan hera, an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of hamlet death, all sources.
If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at zeus dan hera, the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)).
Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from The Newest Essay, Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp.
32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the zeus, changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of examples of swot, what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader.
The impression of clarity, fluency and dan hera, organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of example, communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the dan hera, skills of writing is to speech, write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. Dan Hera! For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and atmosphere literature, ease of zeus dan hera, reading.
Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in Body Sketch: The Newest Trend, the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of zeus, Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and hamlet, collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).