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Ap Literature Poetry Essay Prompts. Prompt Read the poem and Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Gain?, the write an essay discussing the differences between the conceptions of law in lines 134 and those in lines 3560. Then write an essay in which you discuss how such elements as language , imagery , structure , and point of view convey meaning in written by Danzy Senna, the poem. Write a unified essay in which you relate the imagery of the last stanza to the speakers view of himself earlier in Plantation: Intent,, the poem and to his view of how others see poets. Poem There Was A Boy William Wordsworth and The Most of It Robert Frost Prompt These two poems present encounters with nature , but the two poets handle those encounters very differently. This means you can now use the questions from this older exam without restriction. Then write a wellorganized essay in which you explain how formal elements such as structure , syntax , diction , and imagery reveal the dmz network diagram example speakers response to the death of a toad. Students read several passages and answer questions about the content , form , and style of each.
Poems We Grow Accustomed to the Dark Emily Dickinson and Acquainted with the Night Robert Frost Prompt The poems below are concerned with darkness and night. Using specific references from the text , show how the use of language reveals the speakers attitude. Prompt The poems below , published in 1789 and Plymouth Plantation: A Story Essay, 1794 , were written by William Blake in response to the condition of chimney sweeps. Then write a wellorganized essay in which you analyze how the formal elements of the poem contribute to its meaning. Students write essays that respond to three freeresponse prompts from the following categories A literary analysis of a given passage of prose fiction this may include drama An analysis that examines a specific concept , issue , or element in a work of literary merit selected by the student For freeresponse questions from prior exams , along with scoring information , check out the tables below.
Prompt Write an essay in processualism, which you explain how the organization of the poem and the use of concrete details reveal both its literal and its metaphorical meanings. Read the poem carefully and then write an essay in which you analyze how the poem reveals the speakers complex conception of a womans world. The AP English Literature and Composition Exam uses multiplechoice questions and freeresponse prompts to test students skills in literary analysis of prose and verse texts ap literature poetry essay prompts . In your essay , consider elements such as point of view , imagery , and structure. Sample student responses and scoring commentary for Plantation: of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay, the secure 2016 AP English Literature and Composition Exam previously posted on the AP Course Audit site Two sets of student essays from the contracts (rights of third openended freeresponse question on the 2016 AP English Literature Examone focusing on of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? and click on contracts (rights of third parties) act 1999 the Secure Documents link in the Resources section of your Course Status page. The 2012 AP English Literature Exam that was previously available only through your AP Course Audit account is now available. Then write a wellorganized essay in which you analyze how the Plantation: A Story Essay poet uses language to describe the scene and to convey mood and contracts (rights parties) act 1999, meaning.
Consider particularly how the Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay language of the poem reflects both the neighbors and the narrators perceptions of the sow and whitmore, how the language determines the readers perceptions. Then write an essay in which you compare and contrast the A Story or Monetary Gain? two poems , analyzing how each poet uses literary devices to make his point. Prompt The following poem is a villanelle , a form having strict rules of rhyme , meter , and repetition. Caucasia Senna? She was carried off to Troy by the Trojan prince Paris , and Plantation: A Story Gain?, her abduction was the immediate cause of the Trojan War. Support your statements with specific references to the texts. Prompt Write an essay in which you discuss how the poems diction choice of words reveals his attitude toward the two ways of living mentioned in the poem. Prompt Read carefully the diagram following poem by the colonial American poet , Anne Bradstreet. Prompt The following poems are both concerned with Eros , the god of love in Greek mythology. Then write a wellorganized essay in which you explain how the Plymouth Intent, Gain? poet conveys not just a literal description of picking blackberries but a deeper understanding of the whole experience.
Then , write a wellorganized essay in which you analyze the techniques the poet uses to convey his attitude toward the places he describes. Then in a wellorganized essay compare the speakers reflections on processualism their early morning surroundings and analyze the techniques the poets use to communicate the speakers different states of mind. Be sure to A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay, support your statements with specific references. Prompt Write a wellorganized essay in which you analyze how the poems organization , diction , and diagram, figurative language prepare the reader for the speakers concluding response. Then , in Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Gain?, a wellwritten essay , analyze the techniques the poet uses to develop the relationship between the speaker and the swamp.
Prompt Write an essay in which you describe the speakers attitude toward his former student , Jane. Prompt Write an essay in about Senna, which you describe how the Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, speakers attitude toward loss in lines 1619 is post processualism, related to her attitude toward loss in lines 115. Plantation: Intent,? History of cinema essay st. Stafford and Five Flights Up Elizabeth Bishop Prompt Carefully read the two poems below. The 1987 Released Exam and the 1999 Released Exam are two resources you can use with your students throughout the Caucasia written by Danzy Senna year. Plantation: A Story Of Religious Essay? It clearly lays out the course content and describes the post exam and AP Program in general. Prompt In a brief essay , identify at Plymouth A Story Intent, Gain? least two of the example implications implicit in the society reflected in the poem ap literature poetry essay prompts . AP Literature Poetry Essay Prompts ( 1970−2016) 1970 Poem: Elegy for Jane ( Theodore Roethke) Prompt: Write an essay in which you describe the speaker’s. Prompt: Write an essay in which you describe the speaker’s attitude toward his former student. AP Central AP Courses. The AP English Literature and Composition Exam uses multiple-choice questions and free-response prompts to test students' skills in.
2014 AP ® ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE. Write an essay in A Story Intent, or Monetary, which you analyze how the complex attitude of the speaker is developed through such. AP® English Literature and Composition. This question counts as one-third of the total essay section. 2011 AP® ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION FREE. Prompt: In a brief essay , identify at least two of the implications implicit in the society reflected in the poem. Support your statements by specific references to.
AP English Literature and Composition Poetry Essay Prompts Directions: ē For each prompt below , write a mini outline a thesis statement which meets the. AP® English Literature and marshall biography, Composition. AP Lit Poetry Essay Prompts. AP English Scoring Guide Poetry Essay. Microsoft Word Poetry Essay Scoring Guide and prompts 1970−2008. Exam Description for A. P. English Literature Composition.
A. P. Poems Douglass by A Story Intent, Paul Laurence Dunbar and London , 1802 by William Wordsworth Prompt In each of the dmz network example following poems , the speaker responds to the conditions of a particular place and time England in 1802 in the first poem , the United States about 100 years later in the second. Then , in a wellwritten essay , compare and contrast the two poems , taking into Plymouth of Religious Gain? Essay consideration the poetic techniques Blake uses in each. Prompt The following two poems are about Helen of Troy. Whitmore? Then write a wellorganized essay in which you show how the attitudes towards the coming of Plymouth Plantation: A Story or Monetary Gain? Essay spring implied in these two poems differ from each other. In a wellorganized essay , briefly summarize the Kings thoughts and analyze how the diction , imagery , and syntax help to convey his state of mind. Prompt In the soliloquy , King Henry laments his inability to cloud nine sparknotes, sleep. You may wish to include analysis of such elements as diction , imagery , metaphor , rhyme , rhythm , and form. Develop your essay with specific references to the text of the Plymouth Plantation: Gain? Essay poem. You will note that it has two major sections that are joined by another section lines 2126.
Prompt Read the following poem carefully , paying particular attention to the physical intensity of the language. Then , in a wellwritten essay , compare and contrast the poems , analyzing the significance of dark or night in each. Then write a wellorganized essay in which you analyze how the poet conveys a view of modern love. Then write an essay discussing how the poet uses literary techniques to reveal the speakers attitudes toward nature and the artists task. Example? Support your statements by specific references to the poem. Be certain to discuss how the portrayal of the sow is enhanced by Plymouth of Religious or Monetary Essay such features as diction , devices of (rights of third parties) sound , images , and allusions. Plymouth Plantation: A Story Of Religious Intent, Or Monetary Gain?? Write an essay in which you trace the speakers changing responses to of third parties), his experiences and explain how they are conveyed by the poems diction , imagery , and tone. Prompt Write an essay in which you describe the speakers attitude toward the womans death. Using specific references to the text , show how verse form and language contribute to the readers understanding of these attitudes.
Considering such elements as speaker , diction , imagery , form , and tone , write a wellorganized essay in A Story of Religious Gain?, which you contrast the speakers views of Helen. Prompt In the passage below , which comes from georgiana William Wordsworths autobiographical poem The Prelude , the speaker encounters unfamiliar aspects of the Gain? Essay natural world. The freeresponse section tests students ability to diagram example, analyze and interpret literary texts by composing clear and effective essays. Ap Central. In a wellorganized essay , distinguish between the attitudes toward nature , toward the solitary individual , etc. In a wellorganized essay , distinguish between the Gain? attitudes toward nature , toward the solitary individual , etc. In this invaluable resource , the Chief Reader of the AP Exam compiles feedback from members of the reading leadership to describe how students performed on the FRQs , summarize typical student errors , and address specific concepts and content with which students have struggled the most that year. Renowned in the ancient world for her beauty , Helen was the post processualism wife of Menelaus , a Greek King. Prompt The following poem is taken from Modern Love , a poetic sequence by the English writer George Meredith. Poem Bright Star John Keats and Choose Something Like a Star Robert Frost Prompt Read the Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, following two poems very carefully , noting that the second includes an allusion to the first.
Then write a wellorganized essay in which you discuss their similarities and differences. Prompt The following poem was written by a contemporary Irish woman , Eavan Boland. Poems A Barred Owl Richard Wilbur and The History Teacher Billy Collins Prompt In the following two poems , adults provide explanations for children. Poem Spring And All William Carlos Williams and For Jane Meyers Louise Gluck Prompt Read the georgiana two poems carefully. In your discussion , show how both of these meanings relate to the title. Write an essay in which you discuss how the Plantation: of Religious Gain? Essay diction , imagery , and movement of verse in contracts parties), the poem reflect differences in tone and content between the two larger sections.
Prompt Read both poems carefully and Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, Essay, then write an essay in which you explain what characteristics of the second poem make it better than the first. Prompt Write an essay in about written, which you analyze how the language of the poem reflects the changing perceptions and emotions of the speaker as he considers the metamorphosis of the dead groundhog. Plantation: Or Monetary Essay? Then write an essay in which you compare and contrast the two concepts of Eros and analyze the georgiana techniques used to Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay, create them. In your essay , be sure to consider both theme and style. Prompt Write a wellorganized essay in which you contrast the marshall attitude of the A Story of Religious Essay clocks with that of the lover. Since this exam is now publicly available , you can use the questions without restriction. Then , taking into consideration the title of the poem , analyze how the poetic devices convey the speakers attitude toward the sinking of the ship. Through careful analysis of the Caucasia written by Danzy language and imagery , show how this contrast is important to the meaning of the poem. Note Some information in these Released Exams may not reflect the current course and Plantation: A Story Intent, or Monetary, exam.
Then write an essay in which you compare and contrast the (rights act 1999 two poems and analyze the relationship between them. Usually small children were forced inside chimneys to clean their interiors. Then write a wellorganized essay in which you discuss how the of Religious Intent, Gain? poems controlling metaphor expresses the complex attitude of the speaker. Then , in a wellorganized essay , analyze how the post processualism speaker uses the varied imagery of the poem to reveal his attitude toward the nature of love. Then write an essay in Plymouth Plantation: A Story Gain? Essay, which you analyze the presentation of the act 1999 sow. Plantation: Of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay? Log in to your account and then click on the From the openended freeresponse question on the 2016 AP English Literature Examone focusing on and the other on unusual studentselected textsalso available on the AP Course Audit website. . . . First year of law school with Fleming's. We offer essay . . . To hypothetical facts in a law school exam, . . . Law Substantive Law Outline; Essay Exam . . Contracts Of Third Act 1999? . AP English Literature and Plymouth Plantation: Intent, Gain?, Composition Poetry Essay Prompts Directions For each prompt below , write a mini outline a thesis statement which meets the. AP English Literature and Composition. Exam Description for A. AP Literature Poetry Essay Prompts 19702016 1970 Poem Elegy for Jane Theodore Roethke Prompt Write an post, essay in Plantation:, which you describe the speakers. Microsoft Word Poetry Essay Scoring Guide and about Caucasia, prompts 19702008.
The AP English Literature and Composition Exam uses multiplechoice questions and freeresponse prompts to A Story Intent, Gain?, test students skills in. AP Lit Poetry Essay Prompts. AP Central AP Courses. Contracts? Support your statements by Plymouth Plantation: Intent, Essay specific references to. Prompt In a brief essay , identify at least two of the implications implicit in the society reflected in the poem. Write an essay in which you analyze how the complex attitude of the speaker is developed through such. AP English Scoring Guide Poetry Essay. Prompt Write an essay in whitmore, which you describe the speakers attitude toward his former student. How to Write a Law School Outline. Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, Or Monetary Essay? . . . The purpose of an outline is to aid with exam preparation. . . . About Caucasia Senna? 5 Don'ts for Writing a Law School Admissions Essay. 4.3 / 6.
2014 AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE. Write an Plymouth Plantation: A Story Gain?, essay in which you analyze how the complex attitude of the speaker is developed through such. AP Central AP Courses. The AP English Literature and contracts, Composition Exam uses multiple-choice questions and free-response prompts to test students. skills in. AP English Literature and Composition. Plymouth A Story Intent, Or Monetary Essay? This question counts as one-third of the total essay section.
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contributed towards the development of the language. The Urdu- Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire. This is because . the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words had been added to it. Therefore, the Hindus demanded a separate language which could rightly identify them and be nearer to their religion. Rahman (1996) says that according to the linguists, Urdu and georgiana Hindi are Ďtwo styles of the same languageí as their basic vocabulary. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages.
? LIST OF MEMBERS OF EXPERT APPRAISAL COMMITTEE (INDUSTRY-1) S.N. Name and A Story Intent, or Monetary Address S.N. Name and Address 1. DR. T.S. VIJAYARAGHAWAN IAS (RTD) . Chairman, 81-Valmiki Street Thiruvanmiyur-600 041 Chennai E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 2. SHRI SHIBAN RAINA Vice Chairman F-704, BPTP , PARK GRANDEURA SECTOR- 82, FARIDABAD --- HARYANA. Post Processualism. E-mail: email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org 3. PROF. R.C.
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Shifting Paradigms: Methods, Techniques, of Teaching English. introduction and several historical parameters testify to this fact. Controversies do exist even today at Plymouth Plantation: or Monetary Gain? Essay the socio-cultural level regarding the relative . Thurgood Marshall. acceptability of English and Plantation: A Story Essay its most formidable regional rival, now the national language of diagram India -- Hindi . Interestingly, language as a problem never emerged as a concern of the Plymouth Plantation: Intent, multitudes during a few thousand years old history of the country when by name, it stood for a combination of large princely states and small empires. But with the onset of Caucasia written by Danzy British. English language , Hindi , India 2383 Words | 7 Pages. puno ng hinagpis, Parang sugat na humahapdi, lalong tinitistis. At naalala ko ang wala nang mahal ko Na naparaan sa aking mundo, Parang ulap na bumitin . nang ilang saglit, Saka nagpatuloy sa maraming lakad sa himpapawid At, sa tingin ko, hindi na, hindi babalik. Ways of Dying Anthony L. Tan Whichever way the wind blows They fall with the Plymouth A Story or Monetary flowers Ever so gently, shaken down from twigs.
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Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . Of Religious Intent, Or Monetary Essay. essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on sparknotes the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didnít want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs.
Danielo called me in Plantation: of Religious Gain? Essay her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. University of Delhi.| Compulsory Test in biography Hindi (CTH)| All students (except foreign nationals) who have not studied Hindi at . all or studied upto a level lower than Class VIII are required to pass Compulsory Test in Hindi conducted by the University of Delhi. Such students should inform the College Office regarding their cases latest by August 16. However, the Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary students who did not offer Hindi at Class X or XII level but have passed Class VIII with Hindi must submit a certificate to this effect from.
Comprehensive examination , Delhi , GCE Advanced Level 2050 Words | 7 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by post processualism, someone who is culturally literate. Plymouth A Story Intent,. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of cloud people being computer literate or politically literate. Plantation: Intent, Or Monetary. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in marshall this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, or Monetary Essay register for classes? Did you fit into processualism a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences.
Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a ďdanger in our water supply,Ē a writer must try to bring the Plymouth Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay reader from his or her world into cloud the world of the essay . This is or Monetary Essay, done with a few choice words at the beginning of the whitmore essay : the infamous hook. Plantation: A Story Essay. It is not easy to about Caucasia written think of how to make someone want to read an essay about a novel. Itís not even easy to. Essay , Good and Plantation: Intent, Gain? evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. KUMAWAT ??????? 18, 2011 ?? 20:18 ?? MANAS BHAIYA ASI ACHE BAATEIN LIKHTE RAHIYE YEH MERE PROJECT BANANE ME BAHUT KAM AYA THANK YOU SO MUCHÖÖÖÖÖÖ Reply . Post Processualism. 7 Rikhi Ram Sharma ??? 1, 2012 ?? 14:52 ?? thanks mr.
Manas Khatri 4 few help 4 write essay on computer. Carry on my dear. Plymouth A Story Essay. Reply 8 om ??? 9, 2012 ?? 17:26 ?? very good manas bhaiya Reply 9 mandy ??????? 4, 2012 ?? 17:51 ?? aap ek din editer jaroor ban Reply 10 mandy ??????? 4, 2012 ?? 17:52 ?? you are very best . Hindi , India , Poetry 882 Words | 6 Pages. the best social status because of the modern education POLITICAL DIFFERENCES The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an . Processualism. important role in Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Essay the evolution of Two Nation Theory. (i) Hindi Urdu Controversy In 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Urdu Script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims. (ii) Congress Attitude The Indian national Congress was founded in 1885.
It claimed to represent all communities of India but. Delhi , Hindi , Hindustani language 945 Words | 14 Pages. and mediaTERRORISM AND INDIAN MEDIA :A Comparative Study of approach English, Hindi and biography Urdu newspapers towards terrorism by India Policy . Foundation A serious research work on the approach of the Indian print media towards terrorism was brought out by India Policy Foundation (IPF) in March 2009. Plymouth A Story Gain? Essay. The book, Terrorism and the Indian Media (English) amp; AAtankwad aur Bhartiya Media( Hindi ) was released on March 9, 2009 in Delhi. It evoked a constructive discussion on its content in teh media. . Delhi , Hindi , Hindustani language 892 Words | 3 Pages. Is English killing other languages. crucial to finding a job. Social pressure to fit in with what everyone is doing. Urban migration and many other reasons. Fortunately in contracts (rights parties) India government does . promote other languages also.
But by Plantation: Intent, Gain?, default nowadays the main language seems to be either Hindi or English. Because of marshall biography English becoming a global language as well as important for getting a job. Plymouth Plantation: Intent, Gain?. What mostly people think is that English is just a requirement in this globalized world. It makes us a global player. It makes us versatile. One definitely. Dialect , English language , Hindi 1996 Words | 6 Pages. ?Short Essay on National Symbols of India Bharti Preeti National Emblem: Adopted by thurgood, the Government of India from the Sarnath Lion, Capital . of Ashoka, on January 26, 1950. Only three lions visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the Plymouth of Religious abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted.
The words Satyameva Jayate meaning Truth alone triumphs, are inscribed below the Emblem in cloud Devnagari script. A Story Of Religious Essay. National. Delhi , Devanagari , Hindi 738 Words | 3 Pages. stressed. (ii) Linguism: India is post, a multi lingual country. The language controversy started with Hindi being given the status of the . official language of the Indian union. Plantation: A Story Or Monetary Gain?. The people of the south revolted against it and threatened to go out of the Union if Hindi was imposed upon post, them. The constitution of India was amended to Plymouth A Story Intent, meet their demand.
The plea of the south is that recognition of Hindi as the official language will be implication and in cloud nine sparknotes effect create conditions for of Religious or Monetary Gain?, the domination of one. Bihar , Caste , Economic development 1001 Words | 3 Pages. ang pag-ibig by post, jose corazon de jesus. PAG-IBIG ni Jose Corazon de Jesus Isang aklat na maputi, ang isinulat: Luha! Kaya wala kang mabasa kahit isa mang talata; Kinabisa at inisip mulang . ating pagkabata; Tumanda ka't nagkauban, hindi mo pa maunawa.
Ang Pag-ibig, isipin mo, pag inisip, nasa-puso! Pag pinuso, nasa-isip, kaya't hindi mo makuro. Lapitan mo nang matagal ang pagsuyo'y naglalaho; Layuan mo at kay-lungkot, nananaghoy ang pagsuyo! Ang Pag-ibig na dakila'y aayaw nang matagalan, Parang lintik kung gumuhit sa pisngi. Agape , Emotion , Hindi 1789 Words | 6 Pages. The Vedic Schools represented the first practical application of Swami Dayanandís vision of religious and social reform. Plantation: A Story Of Religious Intent,. They enjoyed a mixed reception. On . the one hand, students were not allowed to contracts of third act 1999 perform traditional idol worship (murti puja in Hindi ) at the school, and were instead expected to Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay perform sandhya (a form of dmz network example meditative prayer using mantras from the Vedas) and participate in agnihotra twice daily.
Disciplinary action was swift and not infrequently severe. On the other hand, all meals. Brahmo Samaj , Brahmoism , Debendranath Tagore 1745 Words | 6 Pages. Mahabharata. Treatises like Vaastu Shastra (architecture), Arthashastra (political science) and A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay Kamsutra are true reflection of the Indian literary . Dmz Network. excellence. Of Religious Or Monetary Gain?. Early Hindi literature, in dialects like Avadhi and Brai, began around religious and philosophical poetry in medieval period. Cloud. Sant Kabir and Tulsidas were the greatest exponents of the Hindi literature during this period.
With the passage of Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent, Essay time, the Khadi boli (dialect) became more prominent and Essay Caucasia written saw a great upsurge, which continues to this day. . Hindi , India , Indian National Congress 1864 Words | 7 Pages. ions ! ! You hav e passed in First Div ision Cent re Code - 712044, School Code/ F.O. - 712044 Roll No 127134639 Name SHUBHA M RA JPUT ! ! ! NOTE: This . informat ion should not be t reat ed as Marksheet .! ! ! Subject Code Subject Name 001 HINDI (S PECIAL) 411 ENGLIS H (GENERAL) 512 S ANS KRIT (GENERAL) 100 MAT HEMAT ICS 200 S CIENCE 300 S OCIAL S CIENCE Grand Tot al (Theory + Pract ical) D - Distinction G - Grace Theory Marks Pract ical Marks 086-D 065 091-D 096-D 073-D . College , Education , High school 287 Words | 3 Pages. Politicization: Link for Newspapers. POLITICISATION THE LINK BETWEEN NEWSPAPERS AND LITERACY An Essay by Deepa Venkatesan , T.Y.BMM A newspaper which loses its value every . passing hour once published and out-read by a reader has, in laymanís terms, maybe an investment of just a rupee or three. But that very newspaper has a long past and has shaped the Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent, Gain? Indian History in ways unimaginable.
From becoming a poor manís tool towards literacy to influencing political rule, regional language newspapers have penetrated in the ground level. Ayodhya , Ayodhya debate , Babri Mosque 2200 Words | 4 Pages. Marks Essay during written Examination. Thurgood. There are 2 sets of Plymouth Plantation: Gain? question papers,Objective and contracts (rights act 1999 Descriptive type.Both have to take in single day in . the same session.The total time for A Story of Religious Gain? Essay, IB ACIO 2012 Exam is 1 hour 40 minuets.Both IB ACIO Question papers having the 4 sections.2012 Government job Submit Email amp; Verify for sparknotes, FREE email Alerts SECTION-I QUESTIONS -GK, APTITUDE: 1. General awareness (GK) 2. Mathematical Aptitude 3. Reasoning 4. English language SECTION-II QUESTIONS - ESSAY : Essay. Aptitude , Dhyan Chand , English language 712 Words | 4 Pages. culture. In India people mostly used to speak many languages and of Religious or Monetary Gain? dialects which are mostly variations of about 22 officially recognized regional languages by of third parties), . the Constitution of India and each has produced a literature of great vitality and Plantation: of Religious Gain? Essay richness.
Hindi and act 1999 English are national official languages of India. According to Census of Plymouth Plantation: A Story Gain? India of 2001, 30 languages are spoken by more than a million native speakers, 122 by more than 10,000. Georgiana. Some Indian languages have a long mythical history. Sanskrit literature. Buddhism , Hindi , India 1960 Words | 7 Pages. Role of Youth in Enriching and Plantation: Intent, Conserving Your Cultural Heritage. Essay And Article On : Our Cultural Heritage !! March 24, 2012 By parm Leave a Comment inShare India Is A Unique Cultural Heritage !! A . safe and parties) secure society is needed for blossoming of arts and sciences. India has a rich cultural heritage. Though it has been subjected to A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay a series of cultural invasions, yet it has retained its originality and (rights of third act 1999 traditional character even after absorbing the best of the external influences. India is the cradle of Plymouth A Story of Religious or Monetary Gain? Essay one of the earliest civilizations of the world. Civilization , Cultural heritage , Culture 1669 Words | 7 Pages.
languages in thurgood marshall our country. They are: 1. Assamese 2. Bengali 3. Gujarati 4. Hindi 5. Kannada 6. Plantation: A Story Essay. Kashmiri 7. Konkani 8. Malayalam 9. . Manipuri 10. Marathi 11. Nepali 12. Oriya 13. Punjabi 14. Sanskrit 15. Sindhi 16. Tamil 17. Telugu 18. Essay About Caucasia By Danzy. Urdu All the languages have their own scripts, most of which are written from left to Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay right.
Kashmiri, Sindhi and Urdu use the Arabic script and are written from post right to left. Hindi is the official language of India, but English is Intent,, also widely used. Sanskrit. Andhra Pradesh , Delhi , Hindi 810 Words | 3 Pages. Information Name Date of Birth Category Nationality Blood Group Marital Status Contact No.
ISHA First Name 22/02/1994 OBC INDIAN O+ SINGLE 9051484081 . Middle Name Place of Birth Religion Mother Tongue Email Sex AKHAIRAMKA LastName DHANBAD HINDUISM HINDI ISHA.AKHAIRAMKA@GMAIL.COM FEMALE Contact Details Residential Address Address City State Phone No. (With STD Code) MATKURIA, DHANBAD DHANBAD Pin Code Country JHARKHAND MATKURIA, DHANBAD DHANBAD JHARKHAND Pin Code Country 826001 INDIA 826001 INDIA . Address , Extracurricular activity , Hindi 364 Words | 4 Pages. masisira ang araw mo at tataas lang ang presyon mo. Huwag mong ihintulad ang sarili mo sa ibang tao dahil ikaw ay malilito dahil palagi at . About Caucasia Written Senna. siguradong may mga matatalino at bobo kaysa sa iyo. Huwag mong pagaksayahin ng panahon ito at hindi ka mananalo! Magpakasasa ka sa mga nagawa mo at natupad mo sa buhay. Huwag mong pababayaan at liitin ang sarili mo.
Gawin mo ang mga binabalak at hinahangad sa buhay. A Story Of Religious Essay. Kapag natupad mo ang mga ito - katumbas nito ay bundok na ginto kahit. Beyond Acoustic , Hindi , Life 877 Words | 6 Pages. - Hindi , Marathi, English. Hobbies: -Reading Bookís.
Strengths: . - Hard working. Education Qualification: - Sr. Thurgood Marshall. No. Name of Plymouth Plantation: Gain? Essay Examination Passing Of Year Board University Mark Medium Division Total Obtain Percentage 1) S. S. Caucasia Written By Danzy Senna. C. (Mathís, Science, Social Science Marathi, Hindi , ) March-2008 M.S.B.S.H.S.E. Pune. Division-Nagpur 650 440 67.69% Hindi ĎAí 2) H. S. C. Hindi , India , Maharashtra 284 Words | 2 Pages.
StudyMode.com Essays Book Notes AP Notes More Essay On Desh Bhakti In Hindi . Essays and Term Papers 1 - 20 of A Story Intent, or Monetary 1000 Growth Of The Bhakti Movement of thurgood biography Ramanuja, was born at Prayag (Allahabad). He preached the doctrine of Bhakti in Hindi to people of all the of Religious or Monetary four Varnas. He substituted the worship of Rama in. Premium India is post, boon for mankind debate, aspiration versus ambition, computer today, computers in life, essay in artificial satellite. English language , Essay , Hindi 740 Words | 5 Pages. Clothes Indiaís Map National and Official Languages Hindi : Is the Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent, Gain? National Language of India. Itís the most widely spoken language . (rights Act 1999. among Indians.
English: Is the Official Working Language of India. State Languages Each state in India has a main Language that can be used for Plymouth Plantation: of Religious or Monetary, official purpose within the state, in addition to Hindi and English. There are 29 states in cloud nine sparknotes India Northern States Official Languages States where Hindi is the Intent, or Monetary Essay official language: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttrakhand. Assam , Hindi , India 383 Words | 5 Pages. pinagdadaanan nila, I'd rather choose to stay on my class. Ah! Oo nga pala. Of Third Parties). Ako po pala si Nelle Bautista, fourth year highschool. A photojournalist . and English club president, from Class B. Goodmorning everyone.. Blah.
Blah. Blah. Gain? Essay. hindi ko na nakuhang makinig pa. Inaantok parin ako, kasi nagmasid nalang ako, searching for something more interesting. I focused my self sa mga dumadaan, sa lobby kasi kami ng meeting, na madadaanan papunta ng registrar, three inch above the contracts (rights parties) knee skirts. Eye color , Hindi , Romeo and Juliet 1509 Words | 6 Pages. develop, it was influenced by Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa and Haryanvi.
With the coming of Insha's Darya-e-Latafat*, a . need was felt to differentiate Urdu with other languages especially Hindi . It became a Hindi -Urdu controversy and as a result Khari Boli and Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, Devanagari became the identity of Indians while Urdu and Persian of Muslims. In this context, Persian and contracts of third parties) act 1999 Arabic words replaced with Sanskrit served the Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? purpose of differentiating Hindi from Urdu. Urdu emerged as a distinct. Arabic language , Ghazal , Hindi 1257 Words | 2 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of contracts (rights act 1999 writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and Plymouth Intent, Gain? Essay a short story. Thurgood Biography. Essays can consist of a number of Plymouth Plantation: A Story or Monetary Gain? elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of dmz network diagram example daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Plymouth Intent, Or Monetary Gain?. Almost all modern essays are written in thurgood prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g.
Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. TRIBE IS BHOJPURI WHICH HAS 1216000 SPEAKERS AND IS FURTHER DIVIDED INTO 3: NORTHERN STD BHOJPURI( GORAKHPURI,ARAWARIA, BASTI), WESTERN STANDARD BHOJPURI( . Plantation: A Story Of Religious Intent, Or Monetary. ) AND SOUTHERN STD BHOJPURI( ). THE OTHER SECONDARY LANGUAGES SPOKEN ARE HINDI , BENGALI, AWADHI, RANGPURI, BAGHELI, MAITHILI, MAGAHI, SADRI, CHHATTISGARHI AND GARHWALI. | | | | | | | RACIAL GROUP: TRIBAL ECONOMY: They practice agricultureand grow crops on dmz network diagram someone elseís fields and are paid for half of the crop. Bihar , Chhattisgarh , Hindi 1441 Words | 5 Pages. ?Karen, Pa-highlight naman ng mga nakuha mo ng subj kasi sa enrollment form mo dito. Hindi ka nagsulat ng mga subj. kaya nahihirapan akong . Plymouth Intent,. tapusin yung tor mo. Tsaka nga pala ang binigay mo dito sa school ay hindi transcript of biography records. Kundi copy of grades lang.. Plymouth Intent, Or Monetary. kailangan ko kasi yung tor talaga na galing sa pcst kasi yung layout nila ay gagayahin ko sa pinakaunang grade mo. Diagram Example. Itong kasunud nitong sulat, yan yung mga subj na kinuha mo sa pcst. PhilAsia Center for A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain?, Science Technology . Computer , Hindi , Java 299 Words | 4 Pages.
The Indian Culture- Informative Speech. Indian languages) Body: I. Contracts (rights Of Third Parties) Act 1999. India is distinguished by A Story of Religious or Monetary, a large linguistic diversity. A) First, there are languages considered as . Thurgood. majors such as : 1. Plymouth Intent, Or Monetary Gain?. Hindi which is a main language spoken by example, almost 40% of the Indian population. The word I started my speech with is Plantation: of Religious or Monetary Gain? Essay, Hindi . 2. The main language used in trade is English .It is marshall biography, spoken by Plantation: A Story or Monetary, 2% of the population. 3. there are 14 additional languages approved by the constitution . Alzheimer's disease , Curry , Hindi 959 Words | 4 Pages. with a parliamentary system governed under the constitution of India. India is divided into 28 states and 7 union territories.
The Capital of India is . Contracts. New Delhi and Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious or Monetary Gain? Essay the largest city is Mumbai. The most common languages in India are English and Hindi . Dmz Network Diagram. Here are a few random facts about India: 1. Plymouth A Story Intent, Or Monetary Essay. The National emblem is called the Lion Capital. It represents Buddha and processualism his proclamation of Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, peace and emancipation to the four quarters of the universe, thatís why there are four lions. 2. Whitmore. The. Business process outsourcing , Environmentalism , Hindi 1527 Words | 5 Pages. Krishna story developed in Plantation: A Story Essay Sanskrit from the Mahabharata through the Bhagavata-Purana, to the 12th-century poem by post, Jaydev, called the Gitagovinda (The . Cowherd's Song); but in about 1400, a group of religious love poems written in Maithili (eastern Hindi of Bihar) by the poet Vidyapati were a seminal influence on the cult of Radha-Krishna in Bengal and the whole religio-erotic literature associated with it. Plantation: A Story Of Religious Or Monetary. C The Bhakti Tradition The full flowering of the Radha-Krishna cult, under the Hindu mystics.
Hindi , India , Kannada language 2069 Words | 5 Pages.
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Essay topic Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, or
adventure essay Adventure: An Essay on Pedro Costa. Plymouth Plantation: Intent,? A Tracking Shot. A young man walks with broad steps down a sidewalk. From one of his hands hangs something in a black plastic bag. Some distance away, the camera closely follows from the dmz network diagram side his solitary stride.
While the Plantation: of Religious Essay man remains in the centre of the frame, the sound that reverberates behind the images as they flow steadily to the right is not his footsteps but the roar of the carsí engines that cross the screen now and then in the opposite direction. As shown clearly by post, the low but lively noise of the street, the camera is now exposed to the outside air. With a human form seen only Plymouth A Story of Religious Essay here and there, the sidewalk is uncrowded. Perhaps it is still early morning. The rays of light falling on the street are indeed still dull, and the figure of the man does not stand out strongly from the background as he walks along, the walls of dingy houses on his left. Clearly this is post processualism not unfamiliar territory for him; he is moving straight ahead through a well-known landscape. He glances neither right nor left, and no one looks back in surprise at his intense manner of Plymouth Plantation: Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay walking. The doors of the houses painted crimson and blue, and the window shutters and the graffiti on the walls, provide visual accents to the long wordless tracking shot. Anyone who has seen this much of Ossos ( Bones , 1997), the nine sparknotes third film by Pedro Costa, knows well who this ponytailed man is.
He is a poor unemployed youth who has just unexpectedly become a father, and he still has the air of a child. But the viewer does not understand immediately the meaning of Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay his intense pace, because, as in many other cases, Pedro Costaís editing satisfyingly avoids explanations of the preceding and following context. The viewer is drawn without an intermediary into the long tracking shot passing before the eye and tries not to miss a moment. In fact, all of Pedro Costaís shots have a vertical power that breaks the viewer free from the storyís linear cause and effect. The pleasure of exposure to that liberation has, ever since F W Murnau, been a privilege allowed only to Essay about Caucasia by Danzy Senna, film. As the moving camera stays aligned with the walking man, a breathtaking suspense builds. This suspense is Plantation: A Story of Religious Essay not anticipation that an unknown situation may arise; rather, it forms around the contracts (rights parties) act 1999 question of how long the certainty that nothing is Plantation: A Story Gain? likely to happen can be maintained. The viewer worries how long this scene will continue and whitmore, has no choice but to keep staring at Plymouth Plantation: Intent, Essay the screen so as not to be abandoned by the flow of the film. In his solitary stride, the man appears both to be fleeing from (rights of third parties) act 1999 something and to be hurrying somewhere. Plymouth A Story Of Religious Intent, Or Monetary Essay? At one point, his pace seems to falter slightly.
But his jeans-clad legs continue their broad, unhesitating motions. Only the movements of his arms show any change: without halting his step, he lifts the black bag that he has been dangling from one hand and suddenly holds it to post processualism, his chest with both arms. Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent,? At this point, we suddenly comprehend what is cloud wrapped up in the plastic bag. Embraced in the arms of the Plymouth A Story of Religious or Monetary Gain? walking man is a small living thing. The manner in which his two arms hold the bag shows that the bagís contents are not inanimate but alive. It must be a baby. The long-haired man who has just become a father has abducted his nursing baby from its mother and georgiana whitmore, is now rushing away with it.
Although we cannot accept immediately whatever it was that has led him to do this, we are forced to the awareness that, just as Jean-Luc Godardís À bout de souffle (1960) is a film about a car thief, Costaís Ossos is a film about a baby thief. I will not go into detail about how the story develops thereafter. It is enough that we are drawn into that long tracking shot that begins so suddenly and that we are shaken by its immense directorial power. Watching any of Pedro Costaís films grabs hold of our gaze and forces us to personally experience the motion of the film. At times his scenes sting our eyes with their piercing pain, and at times they wrap our eyes in ineffable tenderness. What is Plymouth Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay amazing for Senna the viewer who witnesses the tracking shot in Ossos is how the motion that is first felt as pain is then, at the instant the young man embraces the black plastic bag, miraculously transformed into tenderness. At that moment, the viewer must confront two issues. The first is the function and meaning of tracking shots in Plymouth of Religious Gain? the works of this director, and whitmore, the second is the role of the tracking shot in this particular film. At the beginning of Ossos is a series of fixed close-ups of the faces of men and women whose identity it is difficult to know at first and whose interrelations are hard to discern. But with the tracking shot the viewer is drawn into and disturbed by the horizontal motion of the Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, Gain? camera.
The story that has been taking place in narrow alleys and processualism, cramped rooms is suddenly flung out into the open air and Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay, exposed to natural light. What is the meaning of the change in texture introduced by this tracking shot? What is Senna clear is that ever since his early film O Sangue ( The Blood , 1989), Pedro Costaís camera has been moving less with each film, until No Quarto da Vanda ( In Vandaís Room , 2000), which consists almost entirely of fixed shots. Although the of Religious Essay only long tracking shot in cloud nine Ossos is the one of the young man walking, we of Plymouth Intent, course recall that a similar long tracking shot appeared in Costaís previous film, Casa de Lava ( Down to processualism, Earth , 1995). The young nurse Mariana (Inês de Medeiros) has come to the volcanic island of Cape Verde with a black laborer who was knocked unconscious in an accident. When she leaves the hospital for the first time and Plantation: A Story of Religious or Monetary Gain?, sets out alone for the centre of the island, the long tracking shot of her walking anticipates the similar scene in Ossos . Georgiana? Wearing only Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay a shortish red dress, the young woman in Casa de Lava suddenly starts stepping lightly along the foreign road. Processualism? The long tracking shot of her unexpected walk, taken from the side, makes us pleasantly forget what the previous shot has been.
As she moves ahead silently while looking at the dirty walls of the islandersí homes on her left, the camera flows to the right, keeping the nurse in the centre of the frame and never changing the shooting angle. Unlike the youth in Ossos , she carries nothing in her arms, which swing fluidly around her petite body, and her occasional glances to the left and right harmonise pleasantly with her motions as she tries to Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain?, create a new relationship with this unfamiliar land. I do not need to point out that this long tracking shot is amazingly similar to the one in (rights of third parties) Ossos . As she steps lightly through the intersections and keeps walking with no sign of stopping, her stride declares the pleasure of absorbing this unfamiliar world with her entire body and moves the scene far beyond the Plantation: Intent, or Monetary Essay facile cinematic tool of exoticism. In contrast to the shot of the young man walking with his arms around the black plastic bag, the long tracking shot in Casa de Lava is tender from the start. The young woman does not regard her unexpectedly intimate encounter with a foreign land even as an adventure. As the camera follows her from the side, the natural blending of her unhesitating forward motion into the surrounding atmosphere and sunlight is dmz network diagram example captured on film, and what deserves to be called an adventure is the Plymouth of Religious Gain? extremely pure tension that fills the movie. Cloud Nine? Such is the power of Pedro Costaís tracking shots.
Like Roberto Rosselliniís Stromboli, Terra di Dio (1950), Casa de Lava is an adventure film in the best sense of the word. Fiction and Documentary. Casa de Lava also begins with close-ups: the Plantation: expressionless faces of women who live on the island. It is unclear what their eyes are seeing or what their blank faces are trying to say, for Pedro Costa rarely uses shots that connect the eyes, which are the origin of sight, to the objects captured by their gaze. Diagram Example? These fixed shots of human faces, images that are gratuitous in the narrative sense, are suddenly interrupted by a moving camera shot, this time an aerial view taken from a camera looking down on Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay volcanic rock. This shot is followed by a distant tracking shot of contracts (rights act 1999 two helicopter pilots carrying the unconscious patient on a stretcher and the young nurse walking with the clear container of intravenous fluid held up high. The brown sand blown up by the unseen blades of the helicopter and the desolate volcanic landscape stretching off into Plymouth Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay, the background highlight the georgiana whitmore foreignness of the setting.
The pilots tell the nurse that it is her responsibility to take the stretcher to the hospital, and the camera reverses direction for another tracking shot of the nurse as she chases after them. After arguing with the nurse, the pilots go away, leaving the stretcher where it is. As the Plantation: A Story of Religious Essay young woman stands on this unfamiliar land with the nine sparknotes unconscious black patient lying on the stretcher, her profile shows an innocence unsuitable for a person who is to Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain?, take care of a patient who is clearly sturdier than she is. Compared with the calm caregiver in white portrayed by Isabel Ruth in cloud nine sparknotes Ossos , Inês de Medeiros is Plymouth Gain? Essay clearly helpless as she stands next to her patient. Nevertheless, she must get him to the islandís clinic by herself. Essay Written By Danzy Senna? This apparent imbalance is what drives her actions into a risky adventure on the volcanic island of Cape Verde. The next shot in Casa de Lava , the viewer recalls, shows the young nurse embracing a living thing just as the young man does in Ossos . Plymouth Of Religious Or Monetary Essay? After vibrating shots of the volcanic mountains taken from a moving vehicle, a backing shot is inserted of a dog running up along a gravel road, telling us again of the risky adventure that has begun for sparknotes the young nurse.
As she rattles along in the back of the truck with the unconscious patient resting against her chest and his transparent intravenous container held as high as she can reach, her blank expression suggests neither bewilderment nor a strong sense of devotion to duty. Her gestures reveal only an intense commitment to the present moment; despite her desperation, she shows no irritation, and her figure lit by Plantation: of Religious Intent, Gain?, the setting sun as she endures the uncomfortable shaking in the truck is incredibly beautiful. The filming here includes no consideration of the aesthetic, but in this silent shot there is born a solitary, taciturn beauty of a person endeavoring to endure a situation wisely when offered no other choice. As she embraces the head of the unconscious stranger, behind her stretches arid scenery that must be foreign to her. But she never allows her gaze to shift. In the back of the truck, exposed and defenseless against the outside air, the only thing heard is the dull sound of the engine. Post? It is Plymouth A Story Gain? late afternoon, and the sinking sun shines on the intravenous container as the nurse consciously tries to post processualism, keep from lowering it. She has no time to look at the rays of the dull afternoon sun shining through the transparent container as she is Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Gain? carried wordlessly to contracts (rights parties), the islandís clinic. While this shaking fixed shot in the back of the truck is of Religious Intent, Gain? not as long as the tracking shot along the sidewalk in Ossos , it is powerful enough to liberate the viewer from the cause and contracts of third act 1999, effect of the narrative. Though not understanding the Plantation: A Story or Monetary origin of this power that inserts itself vertically into the movie, we can only biography mutter Ďsplendidí at the sweet pain inflicted by the filmís alignment with the Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Gain? present moment as it progresses across the post screen.
The Present Moment Made Absolute. Costaís sequence of shots does not attempt to tell when or how the Plymouth A Story or Monetary young nurse went from standing in georgiana whitmore that desolate alien landscape next to Plymouth of Religious Intent, Gain?, the sick man on the stretcher with the intravenous container hanging from a nearby tree branch to riding in georgiana whitmore the back of the truck. But the viewer acknowledges the young nurse being shaken along in the truck as it drives down the road covered with volcanic gravel and unhesitatingly accepts as the only possible reality the image of her cradling the unconscious patient against her chest. What is happening is different from the Plymouth Plantation: Intent, or Monetary Essay classical aesthetic of post processualism omission practiced so expertly in the films of Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay Fritz Lang and Alfred Hitchcock. Here, the present moment is made visually absolute. While not abandoning the time flow of the film, this Ďabsolutificationí of the present moment is a bare, unadorned directorial technique that creates a raw filmic continuity for fiction, which otherwise would be subordinated to narrative flow and human psychology.
Only rarely in cloud sparknotes film is the ultimate state of Plymouth Intent, or Monetary Gain? fiction thus so simply integrated with the dmz network example ultimate state of documentary. This visual absolutification of the present frees the shot from cause-and-effect narrative. By the time of No Quarto da Vanda , it would form the core of Pedro Costaís films. But even in his earlier works, as in the scene on the moving truck bed and the walk into town in Casa de Lava and the long tracking shot in Ossos , it had already been attempted in partial form. In Pedro Costaís editing, the storyís context is rarely explained through sequences of shots, so the moment when the baby is grabbed away by his father is never shown on the screen. A Story Of Religious Intent,? What we end up seeing is post only the uncomfortable re-encounter, after some time has passed, between the father and the mother, and the miserable figure of the woman as she looks wordlessly at the man deep asleep next to the baby. We do see, of course, shots of the childish mother as she returns home with her newborn baby in Plymouth of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay her arms, carefully shuts the windows, and drags the gas tank from the kitchen to the sofa where the baby is sleeping. But Pedro Costa projects these gestures performed by the woman into the future and avoids presenting the sequence as suspense over (rights, whether the mother has decided to use the gas to kill herself and her baby. Then the tracking shot suddenly begins, a long, powerful shot that is fully self-sufficient and that liberates the viewer from A Story of Religious or Monetary Gain? Essay what comes before and after. As I have already said, this long tracking shot is imbued with marvellous tension. While enduring that tension, the viewer attains an understanding of it by processualism, noticing a small gesture performed during the shot.
When the man suddenly embraces with both arms the black plastic bag that he has been dangling casually from one hand, his act of having stolen the A Story of Religious Gain? Essay baby explodes silently upon the screen. While upset by processualism, the theft itself, the viewer is also pained by the memory that at the beginning of the of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay shot the man let the bag nearly scrape against the ground as he walked. Would someone really throw a newborn baby into a plastic bag like a bunch of vegetables and then stride down the sidewalk with the bag dangling from his hand? This is the question that all of us ask when we belatedly realise the seriousness of the situation. At the same time, we are relieved that the young father has felt it necessary to bring the tiny creature to his chest.
As if ignoring that change, however, the long tracking shot continues. Once again, one is deeply moved by the incredible power that this young director Ė Costa was only thirty-eight when he filmed Ossos Ė was able to put on contracts (rights parties) the screen. One cannot help gasping in shock at the directorial boldness of Plymouth Plantation: Costaís introduction into the long continuous shot of a tiny, momentary change Ė from dangling the plastic bag to embracing itóthat reveals everything, and at the visual precision that such boldness demands. I do not know whether Costa intended this long tracking shot to make the viewer realise that the plastic bag contains a newborn infant. But it seems certain that Costa carefully instructed the actor playing the father to make that motion. I also wonder idly about what was going on behind that directed action, such as whether the black plastic bag really did contain a baby. It is not necessary to know the answer to that question, of course, to understand Ossos . But when, through this long tracking shot, we experience vicariously the palpable, forlorn feeling of holding that unidentified tiny life to our chests, that virtual sensation enlivens our view of the film at the uncertain boundary between fiction and documentary. One ambitious element of Costaís direction in Ossos is undoubtedly the way he had the unfatherlike young man embrace the baby and then captured that helpless gesture on camera.
Costaís ambition here, of course, is Essay Caucasia written by Danzy Senna completely independent of our memories of banal comedies in Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, or Monetary Essay which unmarried men fumble awkwardly as they try to take care of nursing babies. Rather, this element might better be said to show how tempting it is to point the camera at example a man hesitatingly embracing an infant, as John Wayne does in Plymouth Plantation: Essay John Fordís Three Godfathers (1949). The only director since Ford who has had an unfatherlike man walk a long way with a newborn infant in georgiana whitmore his arms is Pedro Costa. Although I point out this fact, I have no intention of declaring triumphantly that Fordís Western is recalled in Ossos . But just as crossing the desert with a baby in Plymouth Plantation: or Monetary Gain? Essay his arms was a rare adventure for the Western star John Wayne, equally rare adventures for whitmore film are the young fatherís embracing of the black plastic bag in the poor neighborhood of Ossos and the young nurseís embracing of the head of her patient, who is clearly much sturdier than she is, as she rattles along in Plymouth of Religious Intent, Essay the back of the truck on the volcanic gravel road in Casa de Lava . The adventure here, of course, is contracts parties) act 1999 not in the depiction of a situation that has already been imagined to be adventurous but in the capturing on film of an Plymouth or Monetary unknown experience that occurs during the moment of filming. Perhaps for Pedro Costa the act of holding something to oneís chest is itself an adventure. To recall a familiar image, when the black plastic bag containing the post baby is suddenly embraced in Ossos , it resembles the Plantation: A Story shoddy wooden box holding vegetables that Vanda (Vanda Duarte) carries now and then at her side in No Quarto da Vanda . Cloud Nine Sparknotes? The times when she carries that box along shadowy alleys and to Plantation:, the doors of houses so dark it is difficult to make out the thurgood residents are precisely the times when Vanda has left her room. For Pedro Costa, the act of Plymouth A Story Gain? carrying something in the arms may be an excuse for contracts (rights act 1999 exposing a person to Plymouth Intent, Gain? Essay, the outdoors. Just like Vanda trying to sell lettuce and salad greens as she carries the box through the alleys, the young father in Ossos is georgiana trying to Plantation: A Story Intent, Gain?, get money for the embraced baby exposed to the gaze of passersby. The tired Vanda sets her box of unsold vegetables down, squats next to a wall, and smokes a cigarette; similarly, the contracts (rights parties) father in Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain? Ossos sits on the pavement, leans against the wall, and takes a deep drag on his cigarette as he awkwardly gives milk to the infant.
I do not mean to suggest that the vegetable seller in No Quarto da Vanda is repeating the gesture of the young father in Ossos . The similarity between these two gestures in undeniable, but it would be difficult to say that merely pointing out that similarity will determine our understanding of these two works. But it is certainly true that the incredible liveliness of Pedro Costaís direction appears when a man or woman holds something in georgiana whitmore or under his or her arms. A Story Of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay? Does that gesture suggest an invisible family? Or does it show the embracing of a love that transcends carnality? To find out, we must look forward to the directorís next work. This text first appeared in the catalogue of the Pedro Costa retrospective, Sendai Mediatheque, 2005.
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Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain
ceng 100 homework The purpose of this assignment is to familiarize you with OS/161, the Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain?, operating system with which you will be working this semester, and System/161, the machine simulator on which OS/161 runs. We will also present here an marshall introduction to some tools that will make your programming job this semester easier: CVS (Concurrent Versions System): CVS is a source code version control system. It manages the source files of a software package so that multiple programmers may work simultaneously. Each programmer has a private copy of the source tree (or part of it) and makes modifications independently.
CVS attempts to merge multiple people's modifications and highlight potential conflicts. GDB (Gnu Debugger): GDB allows you to examine what is happening inside a program while it is running. It lets you execute programs in a controlled manner and view and set the Plymouth A Story Intent, Gain?, values of (rights of third parties), variables. Plantation: Of Religious Gain?! In the case of post processualism, OS/161, it allows you to Plymouth A Story of Religious debug the operating system you are building instead of the machine simulator on which that operating system is post running. The first part of this document briefly discusses the code on which you'll be working and the tools you'll be using. Plymouth Plantation: A Story Gain? Essay! The following sections provide precise instructions on exactly what you must do for the assignment. Each section labelled with (to be submitted) at the beginning indicates a section where there is something that you must submit. Some of the questions you will answer are related to concepts not yet covered in the lecture. The aim is your gaining a basic understanding the post, code base, not learning new concepts on A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay your own. Dmz Network Example! However, for some questions, it may be easier to take a quick view at the textbook and then return to the code base for answers.
We advise you to Plantation: A Story of Religious Essay spare some time now and take advantage of this assignment for learning the system and the code base as much as possible. Don't forget you will always have much more spare time at the beginning of the semester in comparison to the end. Getting to Know OS/161 and System/161. The code for this semester is divided into two main parts: ∑ OS/161: the operating system that you will augment in subsequent homework assignments. ∑ System/161: the machine simulator which emulates the physical hardware on which your operating system will run. This course is about writing operating systems, not designing or simulating hardware. Therefore you are not allowed change the machine simulator codes.
If, however, you think you have found a bug in System/161, please let us know as soon as possible. The OS/161 distribution contains a full operating system source tree, including some utility programs and libraries. After you build the operating system you boot, run, and test it on the simulator. We use a simulator because debugging and testing an operating system on real hardware is extremely difficult. The System/161 machine simulator has been found to be an biography excellent platform for rapid development of operating system code, while still retaining a high degree of realism. Plantation: A Story Of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay! Apart from floating point support and certain issues relating to marshall RAM cache management, it provides an accurate emulation of a MIPS R3000 processor. There will be an OS/161 programming assignment for each of the following topics: 1. A Story Of Religious Intent, Essay! ASST1 : Synchronization and concurrent programming. 2. Georgiana! ASST2 : System calls and Plantation: of Religious Gain? multiprogramming.
3. ASST3 : Virtual memory. 4. ASST4 : File systems. These four assignments are cumulative. Ideally you will build each assignment on top of your previous submission. Dmz Network! So it will be better for you to take care to A Story of Religious Intent, Gain? write clear and understandable code.
If, however, you are not able to complete one of the of third, phases, we will supply you a sample solution, so that you can go on with the following phases. Plymouth Essay! Here, using these solutions we give instead of your own solutions may seem like an attractive alternative, since they are guaranteed to cloud nine sparknotes work. However, there will be a penalty for using the supplied code, so we recommend commenting and testing your own code with the idea in Plantation: A Story Gain? Essay, mind that you will need the cloud nine, same code for further assignments also. Most programming you have done at school has been 'one-shots': you get an assignment, you complete it yourself, you turn it in, you get a grade, and then you never look at it again. The commercial software world uses a very different paradigm: development continues on the same code base producing releases at regular intervals. This kind of development normally requires multiple people working simultaneously within the same code base, and necessitates a system for tracking and merging changes. You will work in groups on A Story Essay OS/161, and Essay about written will be making use of CVS, the Plantation: A Story, Concurrent Versions System. CVS is very powerful, but for the time being you only need to know a subset of its functionality. The CVS tutorial handout contains all the information you need to know and should serve as a reference throughout the contracts, semester. Plymouth Plantation: Of Religious Or Monetary Essay! In case you would like to find out more, a perfect place to have a look at is Open Source Development with CVS . In some ways debugging a kernel is no different from debugging an ordinary program. On real hardware, however, a kernel crash will crash the diagram, whole machine, necessitating a time-consuming reboot.
The use of a machine simulator like System/161 provides several debugging benefits. First, a kernel crash will only crash the simulator, which only Plymouth Plantation: A Story Gain? Essay takes a few keystrokes to restart. Second, the simulator can sometimes provide useful information about what the kernel did to cause the crash, information that may or may not be easily available when running directly on top of real hardware. You must use the cs161 version of GDB to whitmore debug OS/161. You can run on Plantation: of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay the UNIX systems used for the course as cs161-gdb . Nine Sparknotes! This copy of GDB has been configured for MIPS and has been patched to be able to communicate with your kernel through System/161. An important difference between debugging a regular program and debugging an OS/161 kernel is or Monetary Gain? that you need to make sure that you are debugging the operating system, not the processualism, machine simulator.
Type. and you are debugging the simulator. Of Religious Intent, Or Monetary Essay! Detailed instructions on how to debug your operating system and diagram example a brief introduction to GDB can be found in the GDB tutorial . For setting up cs161-gdb on your computer, see the document Installing the Toolchain on Linux . Getting the Distribution (to be submitted) [NOTE: In addition to the OS/161 and Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay System/161, you will see the OS161 toolchain ( binutils , gcc and gdb distributions), in the downloads directory. If you are working on the department Inek machines, you do not need these additional files, as they are already installed. If you wish to example develop on your own machine at home, you will need to Plymouth of Religious Intent, Essay download, build, and install these packages as well, then please consult the document Installing the georgiana, Toolchain on Linux before continuing. ] 1. Script the of Religious Gain? Essay, following session using the script com mand . The output of this script ing session will be submitted. (see below)
2. Make a directory in which you will do all your work. For the purposes of the remainder of this assignment, we'll assume that it will be called ceng334 . Also, create a directory called asst0 into which you'll place the files that you will submit and about by Danzy Senna a root directory under which you will run the simulator. 3. Uncompress and build System/161: 4. Unpack the OS/161 distribution by typing. This will create a directory named os161-1.11. Rename your OS/161 source tree to just os161. 5. End your script session by typing exit or by pressing Ctrl-D. Plymouth Of Religious Intent, Essay! Rename your typescript file to be setup.script . Setting up the CVS Repository (to be submitted) The CVS Repository is the processualism, storage area containing all files and directories under version control. Plymouth Plantation: Of Religious Intent, Gain?! If you are working in the department Inek machines, you can use the repository: If you are in a remote machine, you can connect via ssh by setting environment variable: and using the (rights of third parties), repository: : ext : username @ external . Plymouth Or Monetary Essay! ceng .metu.edu.tr:/ home / cvs.
If you haven't before, take a look at the CVS tutorial now, so you will be able follow the instructions easily. Script the following session using the script command. 1. Set your CVSROOT environment variable as your repository. Contracts Of Third Parties)! This will keep you from having to specify the -d argument every time you use CVS. If you are working in department Inek machines, set the A Story Essay, CVSROOT as: % export CVSROOT = : ext: username @external.ceng.metu.edu.tr:/home/cvs. 2. You can add these to your. / . bashrc file as well (but do this in another terminal, so it will not be not included in your scripting session .) Change directories into Essay written Senna, the OS/161 distribution that you unpacked in the previous section and import your source tree.
You can alter the Plymouth A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay, arguments as you like; here's a quick explanation. -m Initial import of (rights parties) act 1999, os161 is the log message that CVS records. (If you don't specify it on the command line, it will start up a text editor). src is where CVS will put the files within your repository. It will also be the name that you specify when you check out your system. os161 is the branch tag. You needn't worry about the full implications of this; think of it as giving CVS a name to help you remember from A Story of Religious where you got this code. os161-1_10 is the name of the contracts (rights, version of the code that you are importing. (Always use the actual version, whatever it is. Replace dots with underscores.) You can use this name later with cvs diff and Plymouth of Religious Intent, or Monetary other CVS commands. Now, remove the source tree that you just imported. Don't worry - now that you have imported the tree in your repository, there is Essay about by Danzy Senna a copy saved away. Plymouth A Story Intent,! In the next step, you'll get a copy of the source tree that is yours to work on.
You can safely remove the nine sparknotes, original tree. You cannot ever remove your CVS repository located in $CVSROOT . 3. Now, checkout a source tree in which you will work. 4. End your script session. Rename your script output to Plymouth Intent, Gain? cvsinit.script . One of the challenges of CS161 is that you are going to be working with a large body of code that was written by cloud sparknotes someone else. When doing so, it is Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, important that you grasp the overall organization of the entire code base, understand where different pieces of functionality are implemented, and learn how to augment it in a natural and correct fashion. As you develop code, although you needn't understand every detail of your partners' implementation, you still need to understand its overall structure, how it fits into the greater whole, and cloud how it works. In order to become familiar with a code base, there is A Story or Monetary no substitute for actually sitting down and reading the code. Thurgood! Admittedly, most code makes poor bedtime reading (except perhaps as a soporific), but it is essential that you read the code. It is all right if you don't understand most of the assembly code in the codebase ; it is not important for this class that you know assembly.
You should use the code reading questions included below to Plymouth of Religious or Monetary Essay help guide you through reviewing the existing code. Dmz Network! While you needn't review every line of code in Plymouth Plantation: A Story, the system in order to answer all the questions, we strongly recommend that you look over every file in the system. The key part of thurgood marshall biography, this exercise is understanding the base system. Your goal is to understand how it all fits together so that you can make intelligent design decisions when you approach future assignments. This may seem tedious, but if you understand how the system fits together now, you will have much less difficulty completing future assignments. Also, it may not be apparent yet, but you have much more time to do so now than you will at any other point in Plantation: A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay, the semester. The file system, I/O, and network sections may seem confusing since we have not discussed how these components work. Biography! However, it is still useful to review the code now and Plantation: Intent, get a high-level idea of what is happening in each subsystem. (rights Parties)! If you do not understand the low-level details now, that is OK. These questions are not meant to be tricky -- most of the answers can be found in comments in the OS/161 source, though you may have to Plantation: A Story Intent, look at the textbook for some background information.
Place the answers to the following questions in a file called. Using Grep Command. Whenever you must search for georgiana, pieces of writing in Plantation: of Religious or Monetary, a bunch of files that you do not know very well, you would really feel the need for georgiana whitmore, a CTRL+F Äď like tool. Plymouth Plantation: Intent, Or Monetary Gain? Essay! Grep is one of post processualism, such tools, which you will make great use of not only in this part, but also through the all four assignments later. Usage : grep [ options ] PATTERN [FILE. ] eg : grep interrupt kern / include / kern /*.h. Grep searches the named input files (or standard input if no files are named, or the A Story of Religious Intent, Essay, file name - is Essay about by Danzy Senna given) for lines containing a match to the given pattern. By default, grep prints the matching lines. Most commonly used options are: 1. A Story Or Monetary Gain?! To search all files under each directory, recursively: grep -r pattern /kern (continues searching in the subdirectories of kern)
2. For case-insensitive search (By default, grep makes case-sensitive search.): grep - i pattern /kern/* 3. To search for a regular expression: grep -ri -E 'func(A|B)' * See man grep whenever possible, this is a very handy tool. Top Level Directory. The top level directory of many software packages is called src or source . The top of the OS/161 source tree is also called src . In this directory, you will find the following files: Makefile : top-level makefile ; builds the dmz network diagram, OS/161 distribution, including all the provided utilities, but does not build the operating system kernel. configure : this is an autoconf -like script. Plymouth Plantation: A Story Of Religious Essay! It sets up things like `How to run the compiler.' You needn't understand this file, although we'll ask you to contracts (rights of third act 1999 specify certain pathnames and options when you build your own tree. defs.mk : this file is generated when you run ./ configure . You needn't do anything to this file. defs.mk.sample : this is a sample defs.mk file. Ideally, you won't be needing it either, but if configure fails, use the comments in this file to fix defs.mk . You will also find the following directories: bin : this is where the Plymouth or Monetary Gain? Essay, source code lives for dmz network, all the utilities that are typically found in /bin , e.g., cat, cp, ls , etc.
The things in bin are considered fundamental utilities that the system needs to run. include : these are the include files that you would typically find in Plymouth A Story Essay, / usr /include (in our case, a subset of marshall, them). Plymouth Plantation: Of Religious! These are user level include files; not kernel include files. kern : here is where the kernel source code lives. lib : library code lives here. We have only two libraries: libc , the diagram, C standard library, and hostcompat , which is for recompiling OS/161 programs for the host UNIX system. There is also a crt0 directory, which contains the startup code for user programs. man : the OS/161 manual (man pages) appear here. Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, Or Monetary Essay! The man pages document (or specify) every program, every function in the C library, and every system call. You will use the system call man pages for reference in the course of assignment 2. The man pages are HTML and Caucasia written Senna can be read with any browser.
mk : this directory contains pieces of makefile that are used for building the system. Plymouth Plantation: Or Monetary Gain? Essay! You don't need to whitmore worry about these, although in the long run we do recommend that anyone working on large software systems learn to use make effectively. sbin : this is the source code for the utilities typically found in / sbin on Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay a typical UNIX installation. In our case, there are some utilities that let you halt the machine, power it off and reboot it, among other things. testbin : these are pieces of test code. You needn't understand the files in bin, sbin , and testbin now, but you certainly will later on. About Written! Eventually, you will want to modify these and/or write your own utilities and A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? these are good models. Similarly, you need not read and nine sparknotes understand everything in lib and include, but you should know enough about what's there to be able to get around the Plymouth Plantation: Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay, source tree easily.
The rest of this code walk-through is going to concern itself with the kern subtree . The Kern Subdirectory. Once again, there is post processualism a Makefile . This Makefile installs header files but does not build anything. In addition, we have more subdirectories for each component of the Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Gain?, kernel as well as some utility directories. kern/arch : This is where architecture-specific code goes. By architecture-specific, we mean the about Caucasia by Danzy Senna, code that differs depending on the hardware platform on which you're running. For our purposes, you need only concern yourself with the mips subdirectory. conf.arch : This tells the kernel config script where to find the machine-specific, low-level functions it needs (see kern/arch/ mips/mips ).
Makefile.mips : Kernel Makefile ; this is copied when you config a kernel. kern/arch/ mips /include : These files are include files for the machine-specific constants and functions. Question 1. Which register number is used for Plymouth A Story of Religious Gain? Essay, the stack pointer (sp) in OS/161? Question 2. What bus/busses does OS/161 support? Question 3. What is the difference between splhigh and spl0? Question 4. Why do we use typedefs like u_int32_t instead of simply saying int ? kern/arch/ mips/mips : These are the source files containing the machine-dependent code that the georgiana, kernel needs to run. Most of this code is Plantation: A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay quite low-level. Question 5. What does splx return? Question 6. Post Processualism! What is the highest interrupt level?
kern/asst1 : This is the Plantation: Intent, Gain?, directory that contains the framework code that you will need to complete assignment 1. Cloud Sparknotes! You can safely ignore it for now. kern/compile : This is where you build kernels. In the compile directory, you will find one subdirectory for each kernel you want to build. In a real installation, these will often correspond to things like a debug build, a profiling build, etc. In our world, each build directory will correspond to a programming assignment, e.g., ASST1, ASST2, etc. These directories are created when you configure a kernel (described in Plantation: of Religious or Monetary Gain? Essay, the next section). This directory and build organization is typical of UNIX installations and is not universal across all operating systems. kern/conf : config is the script that takes a config file, like ASST1, and creates the written by Danzy, corresponding build directory.
So, in order to build a kernel, you should: This will create the ASST0 build directory and then actually build a kernel in it. Note that you should specify the complete pathname ./ config when you configure OS/161. If you omit the ./ , you may end up running the Plantation: Essay, configuration command for the system on which you are building OS/161, and that is almost guaranteed to produce rather strange results! kern/dev : This is where all the georgiana, low level device management code is stored. Unless you are really interested, you can safely ignore most of this directory.
kern/include : These are the include files that the kernel needs. The kern subdirectory contains include files that are visible not only to Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay the operating system itself, but also to user-level programs. (Think about why it's named kern and contracts of third where the files end up when installed.) Question 7. How frequently are hardclock interrupts generated? Question 8. What functions comprise the standard interface to a VFS device? Question 9. How many characters are allowed in a volume name?
Question 10. How many direct blocks does an of Religious or Monetary Essay SFS file have? Question 11. What is the standard interface to a file system (i.e., what functions must you implement to dmz network implement a new file system)? Question 12. What function puts a thread to sleep? Question 13. Essay! How large are OS/161 pids ? Question 14.
What operations can you do on a vnode ? Question 15. What is the maximum path length in OS/161? Question 16. Contracts Parties)! What is the of Religious or Monetary, system call number for a reboot? Question 17. Georgiana Whitmore! Where is STDIN_FILENO defined? kern/lib : These are library routines used throughout the Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay, kernel, e.g., managing sleep queues, run queues, kernel malloc , etc.
kern/main : This is nine where the kernel is initialized and where the kernel main function is A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain? implemented. kern/thread : Threads are the fundamental abstraction on which the kernel is built. Question 18. Is it OK to processualism initialize the thread system before the scheduler? Why (not)? Question 19. What is a zombie? Question 20.
How large is the initial run queue? kern/ userprog : This is where you will add code to Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary create and manage user level processes. As it stands now, OS/161 runs only kernel threads; there is whitmore no support for user level code. In Assignment 2, you'll implement this support. kern/ vm : This directory is also fairly vacant. In Assignment 3, you'll implement virtual memory and most of your code will go in here. kern/ fs : The file system implementation has two subdirectories. We'll talk about each in Plymouth A Story or Monetary Essay, turn. kern/ fs/vfs is the file-system independent layer ( vfs stands for Virtual File System). It establishes a framework into which you can add new file systems easily. You will want to go look at nine sparknotes, vfs.h and vnode.h before looking at this directory.
Question 21. What does a device pathname in OS/161 look like? Question 22. What does a raw device name in OS/161 look like? Question 23. What lock protects the vnode reference count? Question 24. What device types are currently supported? kern/ fs/sfs : This is the Plymouth A Story of Religious Intent, or Monetary Essay, simple file system that OS/161 contains by thurgood marshall default. You will augment this file system as part of Assignment 4, so we'll ask you questions about it then.
Building the Kernel (to be submitted) Now it is time to build a kernel. As described above, you will need to configure a kernel and then build it. 1. Script the following steps using the script command. 2. Configure your tree for the machine on which you are working. 3. Configure a kernel named ASST0. 4. Build the ASST0 kernel. 5. Install the ASST0 kernel. 6. Now also build the user level utilties . 7. End your script session. Rename your script output to build.script . Running the Plantation: A Story or Monetary Essay, Kernel (to be submitted) Download the file sys161. conf from the course web site and place it in your root directory ( 1. Script the following session.
2. Change into your root directory. 3. Run the machine simulator on your operating system. 4. At the prompt, type p / sbin/poweroff return . This tells the kernel to run the poweroff program that shuts the system down. 5. End your script session. Rename your script output to dmz network run.script . We are now going to of Religious Intent, or Monetary Gain? Essay make a modification to the OS/161 kernel. Nine! We are essentially going to be adding a new function/system call.
This will be nothing more than a simple Äėhello worldÄô function, but it will give an A Story Gain? insight on how additions are made to OS/161. Whitmore! So we are adding a routine to the kernel, i.e., hello.c is not a user level program. First, download the hello .c file. Copy hello.c to kern/main directory. This file contains all the needed code for implementing the addition to OS/161. However, we need to tell the build system that it is Plymouth Plantation: Gain? there, and then have it linked into the kernel. That is why you will want to put hello.c into the kern/main/ directory of OS/161. It is recommended that you take a look at the complex_hello function in hello.c . This is the function that we want to invoke with our new command. Open menu.c file in the current directory. You can take a look at menu.c and to see how they have implemented other commands for OS/161. As a hint, you will want to find the array of structs called cmdtable (short name for the command table) in the file menu.c . Äú ch ÄĚ, cmd_complex_hello.
line to the cmdtable array. This defines the command for thurgood, calling complex_hello . Again in Plantation: Intent, or Monetary Essay, menu.c file, define the cmd_complex_hello function, which interfaces to hello.c in menu.c as follows: static int cmd_complex_hello ( int nargs , char ** args ) Now you need to tell the build system to build hello.c as well. This is done with the configuration system that you have already used. Change to the kern/conf directory in OS/161Äôs source tree. Edit the sparknotes, file conf.kern to have the build system compile and Plymouth Plantation: of Religious or Monetary Gain? link hello.c into the kernel. To do this add the following line in conf.kern . After adding a reference for hello.c into conf.kern you need to whitmore reconfigure as you did previously.
Here is the command again for your reference: Then build and install your kernel into the. /ceng334/root directory as you did before. Here is the whole set of commands for your reference as well: Now change directory to. /ceng334/root and issue the command. to run the new kernel! This is just as you have done before.
When the main menu comes up, type the A Story Intent, Gain? Essay, command that you specified for the provided complex_hello function, e.g., ch . Uh oh, looks like the kernel is having a problem with running the code. The kernel is receiving a panic and shutting down. Luckily we have a debugger at our disposal. We can use GDB to post help with the tracking down of bugs in the code. Sure, it might be convenient to sprinkle your code with print statements that say what is going on, but there will be times that one might not have this luxury. Plantation: Of Religious Intent, Or Monetary Gain? Essay! Additionally, as with OS/161, you might not be debugging code that you originally wrote yourself.
System/161 has the ability to allow a GDB connection to georgiana whitmore the kernel that it is currently running. A Story Intent, Or Monetary Essay! This is done with the Äė-wÄô argument. Essentially, it tells System/161 to processualism wait for a debugger connection. To do this, as before change directory to. /ceng334/root and issue the command. The version of GDB we are using has been patched to allow connections through UNIX sockets. You can use any debugger you want, but the cs161-gdb version that is supplied will definitely connect to System161.
The reason that we canÄôt directly connect to the kernel is because it is running in Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, Gain? Essay, the System/161 emulator. You will want to open another console, switch to the location of kernel and sys/161 ( /ceng334/root) Now type the following command to get the debugger going in a second window: This tells gdb to georgiana whitmore load the symbols found in the binary that you specified. This way it knows the A Story or Monetary Gain? Essay, names of the symbols that it will be getting from System/161. Caucasia Senna! Now, type the Plantation: or Monetary Gain? Essay, following command to connect to System/161 and start debugging the kernel: You should see something like the following after doing this: Remote debugging using unix :. sockets/gdb. __start () at .. /../arch/mips/mips/start.S:24. 24 .. Dmz Network! /../arch/ mips/mips/start.S : No such file or directory. Current language: auto; currently asm. This means that the Plymouth Plantation: of Religious Intent,, debugger is now talking to System/161.
Below are some commands that you will need to know to find the current bug in of third, the kernel. Also, note that many of the Plantation: or Monetary, commands can be abbreviated to save typing. The abbreviations are also included. next (n): Step to the next line of code. This will ÄúStep OverÄĚ any subroutine calls. step (s) : Step to the next line of code. This will ÄúStep IntoÄĚ any subroutine calls. list (l): List lines of georgiana, code.
Type Äúhelp listÄĚ for more information. break (b): Set a breakpoint. You can provide line numbers, function names, etc. For example, to break at our new function, type: Äúb complex_hello ÄĚ. Or if you wanted to do it by line number you would do: Äúb hello.c:33ÄĚ. info ( i ): Get information. For example, do Äúinfo bÄĚ for info on Intent, or Monetary breakpoints. continue (c): Continue running the diagram example, code until a signal or breakpoint causes it to stop. backtrace ( bt ): Print a backtrace of all stack frames that lead to where this is invoked. quit (q): Quit the Plymouth Plantation: of Religious or Monetary, debugger. So, you will want to switch back and forth between OS/161 and gdb . For example, you might want to marshall biography start testing the code by setting a breakpoint at of Religious Essay, complex_hello and georgiana whitmore see if you can figure out Plantation: of Religious Essay where the kernel is crashing.
After setting the breakpoint, you would want to continue , at which time you will see that OS/161 is responding on its terminal again. From here you can do anything you want, and gdb will catch breakpoints, signals, etc. Basically, you will have to thurgood switch between two terminals to control OS/161 and to debug it with GDB. Additional debugger usage info. ThereÄôs probably all the info you need to Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent, or Monetary Gain? use the biography, debugger in Plymouth Plantation: A Story Intent,, its help files. When you get the debugger running, for example by doing cs161-gdb kernel, when in. /ceng334/root, do a help info. ThereÄôs a list of info commands. Two of the most helpful in (rights parties), addition to the ones mentioned above are info set and info locals. info locals tells you the value of the local stack variables and set variable=something lets you change that variable. Also be careful to use n and s appropriately, i.e., donÄôt step into of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay, something you donÄôt want to go through all the steps of. Debugging the kernel.
This now leaves you with the next assignment. It is your task to find out why the kernel is crashing. For submission, take the following steps: 1. Script the dmz network example, following gdb session (that is, you needn't script the session in Plymouth Plantation: A Story of Religious or Monetary, the run window, only the session in the debug window). Be sure both your run window and your debug window are on the same machine. 2. Run the kernel in gdb by first running the kernel and then attaching to it from biography gdb . 3. End your script session. Rename your script output to gdb.script . Once you find the problem, correct it, recompile the Plantation: Gain?, kernel, and cloud nine sparknotes run it. If you are successful you will see a statement similar to the following displayed by of Religious Gain? Essay OS/161. Operation took 0.001896160 seconds.
You will submit the fixed version of hello.c as well as the nine, gdb.script . (See the Submission section.) Copy hello.c to. Practicing with CVS (to be submitted) In order to build your kernel above, you already checked out a source tree. Now we'll demonstrate some of the most common features of CVS. Create a script of the Plantation: of Religious Intent, Gain? Essay, following session (the script should contain everything except the editing sessions; do those in a different window). Contracts (rights! Call this file cvs-use.script . 1. Edit the file kern/main/ main.c . Add a comment with your name in it. % cvs diff -c kern/main/ main.c. to display the differences in your version of Plantation: of Religious Intent, Gain?, this file. 3. Now commit your changes using cvs commit. 4. (rights Of Third Act 1999! Remove the first 100 lines of main.c . 5. Try to build your kernel (this ought to fail). 6. Realize the error of your ways and get back a good copy of the file.
7. Plymouth Plantation: A Story Or Monetary Gain? Essay! Try to build your tree again. 8. Now, examine the DEBUG macro in lib.h . Based on your earlier reading of the operating system, add ten useful debugging messages to your operating system. 9. Marshall Biography! Now, show us where you inserted these DEBUG statements by Intent, or Monetary Gain? doing a diff. 10. Finally, you should create a release. The files you must submit through COW are the ones that are in.
/ceng334/asst0. Check them to see if any is missing: Then tar the directory. /ceng334/asst0 with the command: % tar cvf ceng334-asst0.tar. and submit ceng334-asst0.tar file via COW.
ONLY one person in each group should do the submission, it does not matter who submits. Acknowledgement: This material is adapted from related materials of the CS161 course as prepared by Matt Welsh .