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Thomas Gordon, An Essay on Marie Antoinette Essay, Government  Thomas Gordon , An Essay on Government (London: J. Roberts, 1747). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1348. Gordon takes issue with some of the main natural law theorists, Pufendorf, Barbeyrac and Grotius, over the right of subjects to wrexham obey a tyrannical king or of Marie example, slaves to The Political Opinion Essay obey their master. Gordon goes to the root of the problem by Marie Essay example, discussing the origin of the state in one of more supposed “contracts” between the people and a sovereign king. He concludes that even if a contract does exist it does not therefore allow a tyrant king to act unchecked. The text is in the public domain.
This material is put online to further the Opinion of Adolescents and/or Essay, educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for Marie Antoinette educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit. Recepturumq; a Quadrigentis JURA POPULI ni ipsi redderent. Vendidit hic Auro Patriam, Dominumq; Potentem, Imposuit.
Fixit Leges Pretio atque refixit. PAge 1. l. Nursing? 5. for defficient read efficient. P. 10. l. 3. read vacating to other Affairs. P. 11. at the Bottom, Puffendorf droit de la Nature. P. 18. l. 28. for Antoinette Thing read King. P. 25. l. 10. for Things read Kings. P. 32. for Quereta read Querela. P. 35. for Pattern read Patron. P. 44. for plenojue read pleno-jure.
IT is Nursing Philosophy, very unusal to Marie Antoinette prefix Dedications to Nursing Philosophy Treatises of this Size, as even the Generality of Authors expect not Rewards for such trivial Oblations, and they are of too Swiss -like a Temper to Marie Antoinette example flatter without Pay. But as I have neither their Motives, nor intend to use their dedicatory Stile, I hope I may venture to go out of their Path, and by following the The Political Opinion of Adolescents and/or Essay, Dictates of an affectionate Vanity, publickly boast of your Friendship and Patronage. Edition: current; Page: [ (ii) ] As the present Sheets, will not be perused by Essay, you till in Print, excuse me if I trouble you with the first Motive that induced me to write them; you may remember at the Time of the The Political, Dissolution of the last Parliament, a Pamphlet was published, addressed to one of the two Parties now dividing these Kingdoms, exhorting them to join and unite to an amphibious Sect, in order to wrest our Constitution from its original Basis; and in its Room, raise a Scheme of Arbitrary Power. I own, I felt Indignation at Reading this Anti-Phillipie; which to me seemed to be a sounding the Trumpet of Despoticism, and I could not but be shocked, to hear a Man complain of the too great Liberty of the Press; while he himself, is the Marie Antoinette example, most flagitious Abuser of that Liberty he would restrain. This Freedom may very truly be said to be a characteristical Badge of the the saga of grettir, Freedom of the State, as by that alone Liberty of thinking is preserved; the Deprivation of which, is always attended with the Loss of Freedom of Speech, and the next Consequence is the Loss of free Agency. When we are unaccustomed to these three Privileges, I wonder what Remains can possibly be left of Essay example, publick Liberty, but a Shadow and a Name? If the kelloggs, Press by being unrestrained is sometimes the Minister of evil Men, as in the Case of the ever memorable Letter to the Tories; Edition: current; Page: [ (iii) ] it is always ready to assist the honest Man to Essay confute such Principles. A Doctrine that cannot be refuted, ought to the strong be propagated; and while an even Liberty is Essay, allowed to all Men to communicate their Thoughts to the Publick, there is no Danger, that any one will be able to impose any ridiculous Systems on the World. Besides, is it not a sufficient Check on Men, that they are punishable in an exemplary Manner, for publishing any thing contrary to vodafone origin the Laws of their Country; should their Foolhardiness lead them into any Attempts of that Sort!
The Author of the Pamphlet, I have been mentioning, hath not, it is true, afforded any thing to lay hold of, nor by Essay, laying down any direct Principles, enabled his Adversaries to the saga enter into a fair Dispute with him; but only in Marie Antoinette Essay example seeming Arguments, traduces the the saga of grettir, constant Friends of Liberty, and is shocked at the too great Freedom his fellow Subjects enjoy; whom he seems desirous to see reduced to the more salutary State of Persian Slavery, and Gallic Penury. But, one Way seemed to me to Marie Antoinette Essay example be left to refer this important Cause to the Decision of the Publick, and by Essay, fairly stating the Marie Antoinette Essay, Grounds and Principles of Whiggism, leave the the saga of grettir, Author the Liberty to examine and Essay example, attack them, and at The Political Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents and/or the same time declare the System of the Party, whose chief Edition: current; Page: [ (iv) ] he now assumes to Essay be, and leave to kelloggs wrexham the Judgment of the World, the Preferableness of their Tenets. If this Part, should fortune to Marie Antoinette meet with your Approbation, the Sequel which contains some Considerations on the different Branches of the civil Power, shall soon appear. This Work, I could have wished undertaken by an abler Hand; but I thought by flinging the first Dart, I might engage more formidable Champions, to espouse the glorious Cause. Had the Dictates of my own Heart been followed on this Occasion, and had not the Fear of offending your Modesty, restrained me from writing the Truth, I might have employed this Time in drawing your Character, in all its Beauties.
This Employment would have been so pleasant, and agreeable to me, that it would necessarily have protracted this Dedication beyond the shakespeares, usual Length. Besides, I am so selfish, as rather to let Mankind be ignorant of your good Qualities, than by publickly declaring them, run the Risk of loosing the most valuable Blessing I ever enjoyed, the Friendship of Antoinette Essay, a worthy generous discerning Man. You will easily see this Address, is kelloggs wrexham, not to the Senator, the Essay, Man of Quality, or the Man Edition: current; Page: [ (v) ] of Property; but to the warm and disinterested Friend: And comes not from the Motives of an Author, but entirely from the Heart, of, SIR, and most obedient. IF we would be thoroughly informed of the Nature and Properties of Nursing, any Object, we must necessarily first consider its Causes and Origin, for on them depend all the Antoinette, others; this close Connexion, which alway subsists between the defficient Cause, and the Object existing, ought totally to guide all the Actions of the latter, and shew us when, how, and where it should be employed. This therefore being the Case, we ought no longer to wonder at the different Causes, which different Authors assign, as the Inducements to the saga the strong Men, to form civil Societies, and constitute Governments, to the Authority of which they submitted the Cognizance of all their Actions: Nor need we wonder at their Edition: current; Page: [ (2) ] disputing so warmly about which of the different Forms of Government is to claim the first Rank of Antiquity. Some attribute the Marie Antoinette Essay example, Institution to a natural Appetite, some to kelloggs wrexham the Avarice, Force or Ambition of Particulars, and others to the Apprehensions Men lay under from the Dangers they were exposed to from their Fellow-Creatures. Some too regarding a Democracy, as the most ancient Form of Government; others preferring Aristocracy; and a third placing Monarchies before either of the former.
MOST Authors agree that the first Constitution of Governments, was originally oweing to Antoinette example the Depravity and Treachery of Mankind, Vices inherent in vodafone origin Nature, and co-eval with the Creation; but whether these were the direct Causes, or only the mediate ones, will be the most important Question on this Occasion, and indeed the only one; for few pretend to say, that there can be any Reason, to Marie example regard a natural Appetite of Mankind to shakespeares live in Essay example a civil State, as the Motive which caused them to found such Societies; because no one can pretend to discover such Appetite really existing, and the many Nations, (if they may be so called) which still live without any Idea or Desire to enter into such a State, are a Proof of the Essay, contrary. All therefore that can be allowed to Marie these Authors, is, that Man is importance of social media, very capable of entering into a civil Government, not that he is Marie Essay, desirous of it. Barbeyrac and Titius agree in attributing the Foundation of States, directly to shakespeares the Pravity of some Particulars, Edition: current; Page: [ (3) ] who, induced by Avarice and Ambition, and assisted by an external Force, compelled their Fellow Creatures first to submit the Cognizance of Marie Antoinette example, their Actions to the saga the strong a foreign Authority; and Barbeyrac, to Essay example confirm this Opinion, cites the Example of Nimrod or Ninus, whom he regards as the first Founder of a State. As for the last Part of the Argument which is the Example, we only have the bare Dictum of Barbeyrac, to shew that he was the first Governor of the Sons of Men; nor secondly are we informed of the Extent of the Power of this imaginary Monarch---so that he cannot by any Means be admitted to shakespeares life be the first Founder of Marie Antoinette example, States, especially when we consider the shakespeares, strong presumptive Proof there is of a prior State, nay, long prior to this pretended Proto-Monarch; for he, by all Accounts, liv#x2019;d after the Flood three Generations: Now before the Marie Essay example, Flood we meet with Men who are spoke of in Scripture, as the Leaders of Nursing Leadership Essay, some State. Gen. Marie Example? c. Opinion And Behavior Of Adolescents And/or Immigrants? 6.v.4. Antoinette Essay Example? mentions Men who became mighty Men, and were of shakespeares, old Men of Renown. #x201C;What else can be meant by this, than by the Name give to Nimrod of#x201D; a Hunter of Men appeareth not to me, for the former in all Probability were the Marie Antoinette example, Leaders of Cities and Armies as well as the latter. Two very great Inconveniencies will arise in assenting to life these Authors in this Point, and which possibly they considered not in all their Extent. Antoinette? I. They make that the wrexham, Cause, which can only Marie Essay example, be a Consequence, of the first Introduction of wrexham, States, namely Ambition, which is only the Thirst of Power or Pre-eminence, and which attributes these Constitutions first introduced in the World, but being before unknown, were consequently undesired. Edition: current; Page: [ (4) ] And if they attribute these stupendous Structures, which have been so often changed, repaired, beautified, and defaced, but never totally destroyed, to meer Force (without entering into the Improbability of such a Fact) they thereby open a Mine to Antoinette Essay example sap and overturn them all, and they in fact tell us, we are no longer obliged to obey our sovereign Magistrate, ---for by the Law of Nature, all Contracts we enter into, through an immediate Fear of an impending Danger, either with the of social in today's society, Party that causes such Fear, or any other through his Compulsion, are null, and of no Force; and we are at Liberty to break them, on Antoinette example, the first Opportunity we can with Safety to life oueselves; ---and this Rule of Reason is example, so absolute, that no written Law can repeal it, no Prescription render it obsolete, nor Oath, or Surrender of the Privilege of vodafone origin, making use of it, deprive us of the Benefits it gives us. If therefore we admit that our Fore-fathers were compell#x2019;d, by some one among them more formidable than the rest, to constitute Governments, and grant to any Being a supreme Power; we must also allow, that such Constitution was illegal, and such Being could not acquire any Thing, with Justice, by such Grant; consequently, we their Successors have a right to re-demand whatsoever he may have usurped by the Pretext of such Grant, and in Case of Antoinette example, Refusal, wrest it from Philosophy, his Hands by Force, and punish him for his Obstinacy, nay, call him to an Account for all his Actions, and compell him to restore what he may have thereby taken from us or our Parents; whither such a Principal tends, and what would be the example, ill Consequence of preaching such a Doctrine, to any Persons who think for themselves, and have the least Love for Liberty, I leave to The Political Opinion Immigrants any one to judge. Let us see therefore, if we can Edition: current; Page: [ (5) ] find no other Foundation for the Constitution of States.
NO Cause can be better assigned, than the Fear which Men lay under, of the Ills they might suffer, from their Neighbour#x2019;s* Power and Wickedness; and which Fear was grounded, even on the Experience of those Inconveniencies they were inevitably subject to in the Antoinette Essay, State of Nature#x2020;. As there is no Improbability, in supposing this to have been the first Motive, which Mankind had to form Governments, so neither is the establishing it as such, liable to any great Objection, or ill Consequence: For tho#x2019; Contracts entered into through Fear, are void, yet three essential Requisites are wanting in the present Case, which intirely take it out the saga of grettir the strong of the Antoinette, Reason and Force of that Maxim. Life? And 1. The Fear which may be objected against Marie Essay example, the Validity of Philosophy, a Contract, must be immediate. 2. The Danger must be actually impending, and of a Nature to shock the most resolute Man. Marie Antoinette Example? And 3. The Contract, as we said before, must be entered into, (from an Apprehension of the ill Consequence of disobeying the menacing Party) either with the Menacer or with his Privity.
But as it is evident, that all these are here wanting, we may easily conclude that the Contractors are not depriv#x2019;d of free Agency, consequently are bound by the Conventions, Edition: current; Page: [ (6) ] they may enter into. Suppose a Power was apprehensive of an Attack from any other, and to defend itself made a Treaty with a Third, in which mutual Services were stipulated; the latter Power performs his Part of the Engagement; will any Lawyer, or indeed any Man in his Senses, pretend to say, the Fear the first Power was under, can be a Pretence sufficient, to justify him in the Non-performance of the vodafone origin, most minute Article, on his Side, provided only they were consistent with the Laws of Nature. Undoubtedly if we could imagine a Society, wherein Men had no other Law to Marie Antoinette example guide their Actions, than those of natural Reason, nor no other Check on their Passions, than the Fear of vodafone origin, receiving Punishments, from the Marie, divine Promulgator of those Laws, we should easily confess it the happiest that could possibly exist, and Leadership Essay, prefer it far beyond those wherein Men are kept to their Duty, (with more Difficulty than Hounds or Horses are broke) by example, the Fear of Scourges, Axes and Halters. But it is impossible for us, even to have the Idea of Philosophy, such a State, as we know too well the Nature of Man, how apt to be misled by his Appetites and Passions, how easy to be deceived in his Notions of Good and Evil, how prone to Marie Antoinette example Vengeance, how slow to forgive, how little affected with the remote and uncertain Punishments, which attend the Transgressors of the shakespeares, natural Law in a future State, and how ready (if even sometimes the Reward of Crimes happens to be bestowed in Antoinette Essay example this World,) to attribute them to Leadership some other Cause. If such be the Nature of our Dispositions, no Wonder if soon in Antoinette example the State of Nature, when one Man attack#x2019;d another, either in his Property, or Family, (both which Rights were prior and antecedent Edition: current; Page: [ (7) ] to the Constitution of States,) the shakespeares life, Attacked defended himself by Antoinette example, Violence, retorted the Injury, and importance of social in today's, carried this Violence farther than he ought by the Laws of Nature, and by Essay, that Means introduced perpetual Warfare and Disputes; nay, this Opinion we have confirmed in the saga of grettir some Measure by Holy Writ, so early as under our Fore-father Adam, whose Child Cain did not abstain even from Fratricide, to put his Brother Abel out of the Way, who stood between him and the Favour of the Almighty, and by that Means, as heimagined, decreased the Prosperity of his temporal Affairs. If two or three could not live in the World, without having Variances, and entertaining hostile Dispositions, we may easily imagine that these decreased not, as the World became more populous, but augmented gradually as the Number of the Sons of Earth increased, till they came to Marie Antoinette Essay that Height, as not to permit a Man to rest assured of any Thing he possessed, and compell#x2019;d every one to importance in today's society have perpetually Recourse to Violence, to protect and preserve his Possessions and Family: As every one felt the Grievance of this State, no Wonder if they all soon turned their Thoughts to remedy it, and Marie example, consented to those Measures which were most probable to have such an Effect, and agreed to refer their Disputes and Variances, to the amicable Decision of an Arbitrator: As the World was not then encreased beyond the Connexions of one Family, tho#x2019; that was pretty numerous, who then could be found more proper than the common Parent of all the vodafone origin, Disputants, whose Attachment to all Parties being equal, his Judgments might the more justly be presumed to be impartial, and to whom, by Reason of the natural Affection they must naturally have for Antoinette Essay example him, they Edition: current; Page: [ (8) ] would more willingly confer this Mark of Superiority#x2014;when he came to die, then his Authority was again divided among the life, different Fathers of Families, each deciding the Marie Essay example, Differences of his several Children. And this Grant of a Power to judge Causes seems to have laid the first Foundation of Governments, and on it they all may be said to be built, not only without hurting their main Structures, but even without depriving them of any of their distinct Parts; how probable such an Account may be, I must leave to the Judgment of the Reader.
This Power originally was only a Right of giving an Nursing Essay Opinion on Marie Essay example, the Matter of Dispute, unattended with any coercive one, of putting in Execution the Sentence pronounced, because it was not imagined that the Party who was condemned, would persist in his Attempts after such Sentence; but Experience soon convinced Mankind of their Error, and shew#x2019;d them that this Remedy was a very weak one, and by no Means sufficient for the Evil: This therefore induced them to go one Step further, and part with a Degree of their natural Liberty, by granting to their Arbitrators the Power of importance of social media society, putting their Sentences in Execution, and compelling the Refractory to obey their Orders. THis Remedy thus amended, served, while the World was in its Infancy, and the Produce of the Earth yielded the Inhabitants wherewith to live, within their several Family Districts; but when some Families began to be too populous to subsist on their Portions, without travelling farther, Disputes Edition: current; Page: [ (9) ] began to break out Antoinette Essay example between the particular Members of different Families, which could not be decided in the common Manner, because the Parties acknowledged not a common Superior. These could be appeased by no other Means, than the appointing an universal Arbitrator, who might decide all Disputes between any Parties whatsoever. But as this Power carried with it a Degree of Superiority over the rest, which Men are naturally very averse to submit to, in any one, especially when no Ties of natural Affection, or Gratitude, intervene, to balance their strong Love for those valuable Rights of universal Equality, and natural Independency, it is hardly to be imagined, that they would consent, to vest any one Man, naturally their Equal, with this Power; nor can it be thought, they would more readily lodge it in the universal Assembly of the Fathers of Families, exclusive of themselves, because they were under no natural Obligation to the major Part of the of social media in today's society, Members of Antoinette example, such Assembly. To sooth their Humour, and at the same Time both preserve Liberty, and prevent Licentiousness, an artificial Being was to be found out, who might answer all the Opinion and/or Immigrants, Ends of Marie Essay, a natural Superior, without being liable to the Objection of one Man#x2019;s assuming an Authority over Leadership Essay another; and where else could this possibly be found out, than in Marie the universal Assembly of all the Members of the different Families? to which Assembly, the Right of deciding all Disputes was translated from the several Fathers with whom it was before intrusted. The Difficulty of life, convening so numerous an Assembly, or rather the Inconvenience the Majority of the Members found, in absenting themselves, from thair private Affairs to Antoinette example decide every Dispute that might arise, by Degrees tacitly restored Edition: current; Page: [ (10) ] this Power to the Elders, who could best spare Time to shakespeares attend the Meeting, as their Age prevented them from example, vacating other Affairs: But yet tho#x2019; they exercised this Power solely, it was far from being exclusive of the other Members, who could not, by Disuse, lose a Right, which by and Behavior of Adolescents Immigrants Essay, Nature was inherent in Essay example them: And an Incident which happened in a much later Period of Time, will be a very corroborating Proof of this Notion; we find both by the Roman Laws, Antiquities and History, that the paternal Power was carried to a much greater Height there than in any other State,#x2014;but yet we at the same Time find, that the unemancipated Sons had not only Voices in the Comiti#xE6;, or General Assembly of the People, but Seats in the Senate, and were capable of bearing the highest Magistracy, tho#x2019; for vodafone origin a long while, even the last of these Prerogatives, did not by any Means impair or lessen the Power a Father had over his Children*. These were the Motives which first induced Men to submit their Actions to the Cognizance of a superior Being, and by this Method were they prevailed upon to constitute a Superior, because thereby they preserved their natural Rights of Marie Antoinette Essay, Equality, and had, or might have an actual Share, in all the Actions of the supreme Power: And thus we see, that of all Forms of Government the Democratic is the most antient, and that the supreme Power is vested in the Breast of the People#x2014;But let us trace this Matter a little further. In Process of Time many new Colonies went out and formed Societies, resembling that from vodafone origin, whence they came: After which, incited by Antoinette, Avarice, whole Colonies began to Nursing Leadership Essay attack each other. Marie? The Power of Arbitration, the Execution of which Edition: current; Page: [ (11) ] was devolved to the Elders, could not be of any Service to preserve a Community from Nursing Leadership Philosophy Essay, these Attacks; it was necessary therefore for the particular Members of each Colony or State, to surrender up another Degree of their natural Liberty to the universal Assembly, and agree on Measures to defend themselves, and Essay, constitute an executive Power to put those Measures in life Execution, and permit this Power to do certain Things for the Good of the Community, and at the Order of the universal Assembly, as the Exigency of the Case demanded, which were restrictive of the natural Liberty of Antoinette example, Particulars. Of this Nature was the military Power#x2014;But when once the Danger was removed, and the executive Magistrate had obey#x2019;d the Orders of the People, this extraordinary Power ceased, and wrexham, could not be executed unless they received new Orders; so that whether this Power was lodged with one, whether with a select few, it can no ways prove that the supreme Power is not vested in the People. BEfore we proceed any further, let us consider the Arguments of Titius and Barbeyrac, by which they endeavour to confute Puffendorf *, who attributes the forming of States, to the above-mentioned Apprehensions which Mankind had of the Dangers they were liable to, from each other.
They first say that #x201C;the Dangers Men had to fear, were not so immediate or great as to compell them to form themselves into Societies; or if they were, why could they not secure themselves by defensive Treaties and Confederacies, to protect themselves from all Aggressors.#x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ (12) ] Barbeyrac dwells long on the first Objection, saying #x201C;those who make the Apprehensions of Men the Cause of forming Governments, consider not the Simplicity of the Times in which they first took Birth, but attend too much to the present Situation of Things. The World at that Time was not very populous, and Sensuality and Luxury not having yet increased the Necessities or rather Passions of Mankind, every one might easily obtain wherewithal to satisfy himself, and could have no other Motive than unbridled Malice to induce him to invade the Property of Essay, others.#x201D; Tho#x2019; the in today's, Demands of Men were not so very extensive, nor their Desires so numerous as they are since become, yet the Objects wherewith those Demands were to be satisfied were fewer, and the Matter to answer those Demands more confined, so that the Essay, Proportions were pretty much the same. Besides, it is saying a great deal, to assert that Sensuality and vodafone origin, Luxury existed not at Marie Antoinette Essay the Time of importance of social media in today's society, forming Communities, especially if they be considered as of so late a Date as the Days of Marie Antoinette Essay example, Nimrod, who lived three Generations after the Leadership Philosophy, Flood, which was a Work of the Almighty, merely to punish our antedeluvian Ancestors for Marie example their Luxury and Lust: But we find these Vices crept into the World with the Serpent. But if Lust, Sensuality and Luxury were not known, it is highly probable that Idleness and Indolence might exist#x2014;for we find that almost immediately after the Creation, Man was obliged to use some Industry to procure himself Subsistance.#x2014;Those therefore, whose Indolence had been such as to neglect these necessary Pains, finding the ill Effects thereof, and seeing the comfortable Provisions of the industrious Man, soon began to covet Edition: current; Page: [ (13) ] them, and That Covetousness was naturally followed by Endeavours to possess himself of them. But let us suppose the Sufficiency of the Nursing, Produce of the Earth to answer the Desires of Man; let us admit that Luxury and Sensuality were Vices unknown, and that the Earth produc#x2019;d spontaneously, or at least that all Men were equally industrious, yet we shall find that there was that unbridled Malice in the Nature of Man, sufficient to induce him to attack his Fellow-creatures #x2014; If we impute the Murder of Abel only to a Jealousy of his Brother, what shall we call that Jealousy but Malice? #x2014; What Reason have we to imagine ourselves so much more wicked than our Fore-fathers? In Cases where the Motives and Objects are the same, why are we to presume they would pursue more righteous Measures to obtain their Ends? Are they to be supposed to have been assisted with the divine Conversations and Advice in every Particular?
No, it would have been an Affront to the Almighty to Essay imagine that Persons blest with an immediate Intercourse with the supreme Being, could be guilty of the Crimes, either of a Cain or of a Ham #x2014;besides we have the Advantage over them of having a Law revealed to us by the Son of God, which may serve as a Guide and Director to every Particular in the most minute Actions of his Life; tho#x2019; #x2019;tis true, if we do err, we are more inexcusable on Leadership Essay, this Account, as we ought to be less prone to Error. It is the Essay example, most common Saying with Divines and Philosophers, that the World grows daily worse and worse; why they say so, is only that they may indulge their own Spleen and rail at the Vices of Mankind, which while they increase in minute Circumstances, decrease in the more material. If Luxury and Oftentation have greater Sway than heretofore, which if Edition: current; Page: [ (14) ] we give any Credit to the most ancient Writers they have not, yet Villainy is obliged at least to put on wrexham, a Mask, Rapine is unknown, and Murders and Assassinations are less frequent; nay, we meet with the Names of Crimes in Authors which we now are puzzled to find out the Meaning of. Indeed Barbeyrac hath before proved the very Point we are here contending for, by attributing these Constitutions to Marie the Designs of some ambitious Man, aided and assisted by the saga of grettir, Force: Now whether Ambition be deem#x2019;d a Species of Sensuality or Luxury, or of unbridled Malice, it plainly proves that our Ancestors had Occasion enough to Antoinette example guard themselves from the Vices and Malice of each other; for can there be a higher Pitch of Malice and Wickedness than to endeavour forcibly to Leadership reduce those under our Power, over Marie example whom we can have no Pretence to usurp an Authority, and vodafone origin, who are by Nature and Antoinette Essay example, Right our Equals; so we may readily conclude that at the Time of the saga of grettir, forming Societies, there were Dangers both great enough and immediately to be apprehended, to make Men think of some Means to avoid them. But say the Objectors, #x201C;admitting the Dangers to be such, yet there were other Remedies whereby they might secure themselves, such as defensive Alliances and Confederacies.#x201D;#x2014;The Mischiefs that Men first felt from living in a natural State, arose probably from the very Thing which these Confederacies are entered into for, namely, the transgressing the Limits which the Law of Nature hath set to the Privilege it gives us of defending ourselves when attacked, and Antoinette Essay, repelling Force by Force; Societies were entered into to preserve Mens Possessions by peaceable Means; these Confederacies seem only intended to enable Men to transgress further than they would without them#x2014;Besides, Edition: current; Page: [ (15) ] the Essay, first Violence and Wrongs which were felt, were from Particular to Particular; and indeed, these Treaties would be then superfluous, for the Force and Abilities of Men are pretty much upon a Par, and especially at a Time when they all lived under one Climate, breathed the same Air, eat the Productions of the same Soil, and their Education, if any, was similar in all; so that if Preservation of their Rights had been their only Aim, they had, as Barbeyrac observes, no Occasion to Marie Antoinette Essay be apprehensive; but a peaceable and quiet Preservation, was the Object they had in View, and their End could only be answered, by media, submitting their Dispute to peaceful and amicable Decisions. But admitting, for Argument#x2019;s Sake, that there were such Treaties and Conventions, the Antoinette Essay, very entering into those Contracts, was forming a Species of Government; for we cannot imagine the Contractors to be so few as two or three, nay, let there be never so few, there must be a Meeting to contract such Treaty.#x2014;In Case of an Attack they must act jointly, and with some Correspondence, or their Treaty would be of vodafone origin, no Force; and Marie Essay, whether this Correspondence was carried on by special Meetings, or by general Rules agreed on at the first Establishment, it must resemble a Government in all its Parts; besides there must be some Being, either natural or political, to execute the Orders of the Contractors; and what are all these Essentials, but the Requisites of kelloggs, Government? what are the Characteristicks of the latter we shall see hereafter, and we shall find that a Convention, Members, an Assembly, and an executive Power are the chief Ingredients to compose it.#x2014;Thus far in Answer to the Objection; whether it be answered satisfactorily or no I pretend not to say. TO return to the main subject.--We have endeavoured to shew that the Rise of Governments was owing originally, partly to an Experience of the Confusion which naturally arose from Antoinette Essay example, Mens being Judges in their own Cause, and their own Avengers; partly to the Apprehension of the ill Consequence of such a Practice continuing.#x2014;2.
That such Government was first lodged with the Fathers of Families, as to the particular Point of the judiciary Power, and that afterwards, when this Power required to be extended, each Man agreed to of social media submit his Actions to the Cognizance of the universal Assembly of the People where he lived.--3. That finding the universal Assembly could not conveniently meet on every Occasion, they tacitly deputed an executive Magistrate to perform their Orders, and to Marie example whom by Degrees they imparted some other Parts of their Power; what these Parts were, and what they reserved to themselves, will be considered more properly in another Place; at present let us examine the Nature of the life, Convention Men enter into, in forming Governments, and Essay example, how many there are. Puffendorf first places a Contract whereby each Particular agrees with all the rest, to join in kelloggs wrexham one Body to provide for their mutual Security. After this a Form of Government is agreed on; and, Lastly, An Engagement entered into between the Marie Antoinette Essay, supreme Power established by that Form, and the particular Members; the one to rule according to Law, the others to vodafone origin obey. This Author makes the first Contract of much too restrained a Nature; which perceiving, he endeavours Edition: current; Page: [ (17) ] to amend the Essay, Breach, by supposing this second Convention; for which there would have been no Occasion, had he made the Contract of a sufficient Extent.#x2014;Besides, hereby, he makes the Federative Powers the ancientest Part of Opinion and Behavior and/or, a regular Government, whereas in Truth and all Probability, the judiciary one is to be preferred. Let us therefore establish as the Basis of all Governments, that Contract, whereby each Particular agrees with all the rest, to submit his Actions to the Guide and Direction of the universal Assembly, provided they do so likewise, and that the Ordinances of Antoinette Essay, such an Assembly, be not contrary to the Dictates of the natural Law: Which being the Case, we shall find little or no Occasion to suppose any second Convention: For from this Source alone may we deduce all the and Behavior and/or Immigrants, Obligations incumbent on the Members of any State.#x2014;And we need not search out either for an Ordinance to regulate the Form of Government, or for example any second Convention to compell the supreme Power or Magistrate to protect the Particulars, or the and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Essay, Particulars to be faithful to Marie Essay the Magistrate: For by this original Convention, to submit to the Authority of the universal Assembly, that Assembly is vested with supreme Power, and if that Assembly thinks fit to wrexham chuse out one or more Particulars to execute their Orders, those Particulars, are obliged to accept the Office, and execute it according to the Limits prescribed to them, and the others being bound to obey them, so long as they keep within those Limits; they being to be regarded as the Representatives of the supreme Power.#x2014;And by laying down this Convention as the Antoinette, Foundation of Governments, we avoid the Inconvenience, (which it is imagined may arise from the supposing only one Contract:) That in such Case the Edition: current; Page: [ (18) ] executive Power, would lie under no Obligation to wrexham the Particulars with whom he hath entered into no Contract.#x2014;For here by the very Acceptance of the Charge he promises to execute it according to the Laws and Limits prescribed by his Constituents, whose Laws, when meerly a Particular, he had engaged to example observe, and no Change of wrexham, Condition can cancel that fundamental Obligation, which every one who pretends to Marie Essay example the Title of a just or honest Man, must always fulfil, as it depends on of Adolescents Immigrants Essay, a Principle of the natural Law, viz. the inviolably keeping ones promises. Marie Essay? If therefore he exceeds the Limits which these Constituents have prescribed to him, his Actions are no longer to be regarded, as flowing from their Orders, or authorized by the saga the strong, the Sanction of their Power, but proceeding from the arbitrary Will of example, a Particular, whom his Fellow-Subjects are under no Obligation to the saga of grettir yield Obedience to, whether active or passive. The second Argument by which the Notion of this latter Contract is Marie Antoinette Essay example, supported, is the kelloggs, Administration of the Oath of Coronation to a Prince, and Allegiance to a Subject.#x2014;But these can only Antoinette example, be regarded as express Renewals of the Obligations, which were before tacitly incumbent on the Parties; for scarce any Man will venture to assert, that the not taking the Coronation Oath, either prevents a Thing from being regarded as such, or enables him to break the Laws and act like a Tyrant; or that a Subject may not be found guilty of High Treason, though he never knew that there was an Oath of Allegiance, at least never took it:#x2014;For should this Doctrine prevail, that the shakespeares life, Coronation is the Acceptance of the Trust in the former Case, the Time between an Inauguration and Coronation, would resemble the Antoinette Essay, Persian Interregna.
Where, after Edition: current; Page: [ (19) ] the of grettir, Death of the King, the People live five Days in a State of Anarchy, that they might afterwards better relish the Sweets of a civil Government, and should the Oath of Allegiance be regarded as the sole Cement of the Convention between the Prince and the People, there is Antoinette, no Nonjuror, or even common Man who hath not taken the Oaths, but might live as licentiously as he should please, committing all manner of Enormities, and plotting the Destruction of the State with Impunity. Puffendorf, to prove the absolute Necessity of a latter Convention, puts the Case of vodafone origin, a Stranger who comes to settle in any State, and #x201C;He, says the Baron, is only bound to take the Oath of Antoinette example, Allegiance (or in and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Essay his Words) to obey the Prince; but enters into no Engagements with Particulars, to be faithful towards the Sovereign.#x201D;#x2014;If by Marie Antoinette Essay example, the Sovereign he means here either the supreme Power or the executive Magistrate, it will make very little Alteration. For the Convention a Stranger enters into vodafone origin, with the Prince as an executive Magistrate, is Marie Essay example, as much a Convention with the People, as if he had entered into it with them nominally.#x2014;For a King must be always regarded as the Representative of the People, for in his Hands is the executive Part, federative Power, lodged; and there would be just as much Reason to say, that Principals acquire no Right by the Conventions, which their Deputies enter into in their Name, as to imagine a Submission, and Engagement entered into with the Magistrate, implies not a Submission and vodafone origin, Engagement to Marie Antoinette Essay the supreme Power, i. e. the People. So if the kelloggs, Author by the Prince, means the supreme Power, and not the executive Magistrate, yet the former Convention is by such Oath entered into; for as Edition: current; Page: [ (20) ] the executive Magistrate is the Representative of the Essay example, supreme Power, so is the latter in public Matters, the Representative of each Particular, who is importance of social society, equally burthened or eased and benefited by his Contracts. Why is it that the Stranger enters into such an Marie Antoinette Engagement? because those are the of grettir, Terms on which only he can be received as a Member of the State, by Antoinette example, the supreme Power, whose Will the Particulars have agreed to obey. Besides, what is this Engagement? Why to be faithful to the supreme Power: ( i. e. Submit his Actions to the Cognizance thereof, which is the very Purport of the media in today's society, first Contract.) And consequently obey the executive Magistrate, so long as the latter guides his Actions by the Laws and Regulations, which the former have prescribed to him; for if he exceeds them, the tacit or perhaps express Obligation he lieth under to the supreme Power (the People) binds him not only not to obey, but even resist him in such flagitious Attempts.#x2014;If he contracts expressly with the supreme Power, he consequently enters into the original Contract, with all the particular Members.#x2014;For without the Authority of the supreme Power, or without the original Convention, neither executive Magistrate or supreme Power can exist.#x2014;Indeed if this Submission of Essay example, a Foreigner be only in Fact as well as Form to vodafone origin the executive Magistrates; the Inconveniencies which would arise, are numberless; for Marie Antoinette Essay example hereby, he would be under no Obligations to Particulars, and might commit enormous Crimes against them with Impunity; sheltering himself under the media, pretended Orders of the acting Power. That such pretended Orders would be no Protection for him, (which they would be, if he was not under some Obligation to other than such Magistrate) needs no Proof; so that taking this Obligation Edition: current; Page: [ (21) ] to be entered into with the* Prince or with the acting Magistrate, yet we must necessarily admit it to contain an Obligation both to the Particulars, and supream Power. See Puff. Lib.
7. C. 2. #xA7;. 7. But still this Author goes on further, (says he) #x201C;if we found the whole Obligation on one Convention between the Marie Essay example, particular Members, we shall be at a Loss to find any Foundation for the Duty we owe our Sovereign, the Convention will run thus: Transfer my Right to the supreme Power in wrexham your Favour, provided you will transfer yours to him in mine; and by this Means each Particular makes his Performance depend on the Performance of all the rest; so that if one disobeys him, the others are immediately freed from this Obedience.#x201D;--The conforming our Wills and Actions to the Will of the supreme Power, or Majority of the Members of the universal Assembly, is, as I before said, the Object of the first Convention, which is what I suppose the Author means, by Marie, yielding up a Right.#x2014;But this Convention is not entered into between one and one, or one and all singularly; but between one and all collectively.#x2014;So that though the Disobedience of one Man might free me, had the Contract been only of Adolescents and/or Immigrants, with him; yet in this Case, cannot the Obligation be dissolved, till all, at least the Majority, resist and disobey, which then cannot be called Disobedience;#x2014;as the Acts of the Majority#x2020;, are Acts of the supreme Power, and the Minority, are ever obliged to submit themselves, by Essay example, their own Contracts.#x2014;Now Edition: current; Page: [ (22) ] if the Majority chuse a third subordinate Power to execute their Orders, the Particulars ought to aid and assist such Power, in society all the Antoinette, legal Steps he shall think necessary to Leadership Philosophy Essay the Performance of his Duty. If on the other Hand, this latter Convention is Antoinette example, considered as one entered into between the supream Power or the People collectively, and the executing Magistrate, it will be liable to many more Inconveniencies than the other, nor can it indeed subsist. For, First, the vodafone origin, Magistrate cannot by this Contract, enter into a stronger Obligation to Marie Essay perform his Office faithfully, than that which the former one laid him under; nor is it probable, that the People would wantonly, and importance media in today's society, without Consideration, submit themselves to their Subject as a Superior, to whom before they were all equal as Particulars, superior as a collective Body, and quit an Independency, which the Generality before enjoyed in Reality, and the Particulars nominally; and which we are all by Nature so fond of. Nor indeed, can they promise Fidelity to such Magistrate, though they be never so much inclined so to Antoinette do; for their Trust is shakespeares life, of a Nature, not to be generally delegated, and as the Submission to them, is made with an Intent that they shall protect Particulars, so cannot they put this Protection out of Antoinette Essay example, their Power; but this they do by constituting a superior, over wrexham whose Actions they can have no Cognizance.---And the yielding of Fealty, is incompatible with the Characteristick of a superior, consequently, this general Promise of Fealty to the civil Magistrate by Antoinette example, the People collectively taken, is incompatible with their Trust, and that Protection, which they owe to their Constituents.#x2014;And it is remarkable, that the Parliament of the saga of grettir, England, never perform Fealty, or take Oaths collectively Edition: current; Page: [ (23) ] as a Body, though each Member doth it particularly. This, I think, may be sufficient to prove, that one Convention or Agreement between the particular Members, is sufficient to form a regular State; and wherein all the Parts of Power may be found, and whereby we may lay a sure Foundation for all the Duties Men owe to each other, as Members of a civil Society: As for Antoinette the Ordinances which first regulated the Form of distributing Justice, that can by no Means be regarded as a Convention, for indeed it was a long Time tacit, till the Encroachments of vodafone origin, wicked and impious Magistrates made it necessary, to settle the express Limits of the executive Power.
AS the judiciary Power was the Marie Essay, sole, which Government had Occasion for originally, and the Exercise of it, as we before said, had by the Negligence of the Young, been totally devolved on vodafone origin, the Elders of the State.#x2014;So when they found they wanted other Powers, and new Authorities to preserve the Community, no Wonder if they entrusted the Marie Antoinette Essay, leading the Forces voted by the Authority of the People, and which were in Truth, no others than the People themselves taking Arms, to wrexham the same Elders, who finding this Power of a Nature more easily and speedily to be executed by Marie Essay example, one, they chose such a one out of wrexham, their own Body, who was accountable to them in like Manner as they were responsible to their supreme Constituents the People. To this Election of a General, do many attribute the Rise not only of Monarchies, but of Governments; Edition: current; Page: [ (24) ] but was the Power of absolute Monarchs to be reduced to the same Plan, as that of these their pretended Predecessors; it will not be unreasonable to Marie Antoinette Essay guess, that the Advocates of these Tyrants, would soon yield up their Pretensions to any Connexion with them; and chuse to lay the Foundation of this Tyranny, for it deserves not to be called Government: In some later, but more absolute Ruler, that this Power of a General, could not be considered as a Government will be without Difficulty allow#x2019;d of, if we do but reflect that in all Governments, the legislative federative and executive Power, are absolutely essential to vodafone origin its Being.#x2014;Now that these Generals were not intrusted with these Characteristicks of Supremacy, Barbeyrac himself allows, by what he observes of the first Generals, who were dignified with the Title of Kings, whom he imagines to Antoinette Essay have been Founders of Government; whose Province, he says, #x201C;was only to decide Causes, and command Armies.#x201D;#x2014;But where then is the wrexham, Legislative, where the example, other more important Part of the federative Power, the making of vodafone origin, War and Antoinette Essay, of Peace; for as soon as Wars were introduced into the saga the strong, the World, we may without any bold Guess, imagine, that the Making of Peace and Treaties between the belligerant Powers, began to be usual, at least we find this to Antoinette example be the Case so early as the Trojan War. But this Power was not lodged in the Breast of the King, as it is no Ways an incident to the Right of of social, deciding Causes, or commanding Armies (which are only subordinate Branches of the legislative and executive Power.) As these Powers therefore must have been lodged somewhere, it must be with the People, or the Constituents of Antoinette, such General, consequently such Appointment of a General, cannot be regarded as the media in today's, forming a Society, Edition: current; Page: [ (25) ] nor can the Advocates for absolute Monarchy, cite it as a Precedent for shelter to that illegal and inconsistent Tyranny. But Isocrates in his Panathenaicks, is called in as arguing strongly for Antoinette the Antiquity of Monarchy, the Passage is this P. 443.#x2014; #x201C;We will go back, says the Orator, to that Time, when Democracies, and Aristocracies were not mentioned, but Monarchs governed both the People of Barbary, and all the Cities of the strong, Greece: #x201D; But this Passage can never prove these Things to have had any other Authority, than That we have just been mentioning: That is, the Marie Essay example, Power of executing the Nursing Leadership Philosophy Essay, judiciary Laws, i. e. of deciding Causes, and the executive one of leading the Armies of the State: a Quotation from Dionysius Harlicarnasseus, placed by Essay example, Barbeyrac immediately before the precedent one, not only shews their Authority to vodafone origin have been of no greater Extent than this; but likewise proves that there must have been a Time more ancient than that of which Isocrates here speaks. #x201C;Originally, says he, all the Cities of Greece were governed by Marie Antoinette, Kings, with this Difference, that these exercised not an absolute despotic Power like the Barbarians, but according to the Customs and Laws of their Country; so that he passed for the best King, who most religiously observed the Laws and departed least from the Customs of the wrexham, Country, (which Homer tells us, by Marie Antoinette, calling them distributors of Justice;) these Kingdoms subsisted long, being administered under fundamental Law, and certain Condition, as at Sparta. #x2014;But some Kings having abused their Trust, and quitted the Path of the Law, governed themselves arbitrarily and despotically, so that most of the Grecian States grew weary of the strong, them and revoked their Power.#x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ (26) ] This Paragraph in more than one or two Places mentions the Laws, by which these Kings ought to have governed#x2014;Now surely these Laws which were to guide and direct the Marie Antoinette example, Actions of the Kings, must be made by some antecedent and superior Power to any King; for society if They were intirely possessed of the legislative Power, what one King enacted could by no sort of Reason bind the other who had the same Power as his Successor, and Marie Essay example, Obligations of all Sorts may be dissolved by the same Power and Authority as contracts them; and the saga, if the supreme Power was lodged in the Hands of these Kings, they could not act arbitrarily nor despotically, for every one of their Acts would be an Act of the Legislature, tho#x2019; it tended to the Breach of a Law of some former Legislator--Or supposing that these Laws were made by the Particulars at the Institution of a King, they must have either reserved their Authority in Antoinette example those Points or transferr#x2019;d it; had they transferr#x2019;d it to him, they could not tacitly or expresly prohibit him from the breaking those Laws, when once he had the kelloggs wrexham, same Power as the Makers who oblige him to observe them, and consequently they could not be justified in Marie Essay avenging the Breaches of them, unless accompanied with the Violation of the natural Law:#x2014;Had they on the strong, the other Hand preserved their Power, that Power must be superior to the regal one at that time, and still must have continued so, tho#x2019; not perpetually in Use#x2014;And the particular Word which the Antoinette, Author makes use of, plainly demonstrates this to have been the shakespeares, Case; #x201C;the Greeks say he revoked their Power#x201D;#x2014;a Word which rather implies a judicial and conserted Repeal than a tumultuous and violent Expulsion, and at Essay example the same Time conveys an Idea of such Revocation being made, not only by Constituents but Superiors. THus much, I fear too much, to defeat the false Pretensions of Monarchy to Antiquity: Let us now consider what further Progress was made in forming Governments, and kelloggs, finding Means for regulating and preserving them. For a long Time as Armies were solely composed of the Members of the State, and as they served without Fee or Reward they required not an extraordinary Expence to be kept on Foot, till at length it was found necessary, not only to recompense those who lost their Time by following their military Employments, but to Marie Antoinette Essay example raise Mercenaries in Order thereby to prevent the Grounds at vodafone origin home becoming barren, and the Depopulation of the State by the long Absence of Marie, Husbands from The Political and Behavior Essay, their Wives.#x2014;This additional Charge required some Means to Essay support it, the supreme Power therefore found it necessary to levy Taxes on Opinion of Adolescents Immigrants, the Particulars, and entrust the civil Magistrate with the Raising and Management of them, subject to accounting for such Management#x2014;That the People originally imposed all Taxes appears not only from Probability, but from the Nature of those antient Taxes we hear of in the Roman History, which were all very reasonable and proportionable to the Conditions of example, every one, and most of them perpetual, being neither arbitrary nor changeable*. The superior Assembly (for to the executing Elders I give that Name,) having thus got Possession of the of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Essay, Nerves and Sinews of the State, had it more easily in their Power to betray their Trust and arrogate to themselves an Authority to Essay which they had no Pretensions of Right, and usurp daily on The Political of Adolescents and/or, the supreme Edition: current; Page: [ (28) ] Prerogatives of the People, by Marie Antoinette example, performing those Functions, which belonged solely to their Constituents, which they more easily could do, because the Increase of the Number of shakespeares, Citizens rendered the Meetings, of the supreme Council, more populous, more inconvenient; in some States the People were prevailed on to leave the convening of Marie Antoinette example, them, (on any Occasion that might require their Authority,) to the Senate whose Behaviour soon convinced them that their Credulity had been their Ruin, and their Magistrates by gradually increasing their own Power and decreasing the frequent Convening of the People, soon usurped all the Power and thus introduced Aristocracies into the World.
To the great Number of Citizens who had a Right to assist at the Comiti#xE6; do all Authors impute the Loss of the Roman Liberty, for by that Means the The Political of Adolescents and/or Immigrants, Senate got into their Hands those Branches of Power, I may say Tyranny, which the People had in the Infancy of the Antoinette, Republick made such glorious and successful Struggles to take from them. By the kelloggs, long intrusting the supreme Magistrate with the Marie Antoinette, Power of assembling and dissolving Parliaments at kelloggs wrexham his Will, has this Nation been more than once in Danger of losing its Liberty. Other People, indeed, had the Prudence to preserve themselves, by removing this Difficulty and Inconvenience of Marie Antoinette, assembling the supreme Power, which they did by dividing themselves into Tribes*, and chusing Deputies from Time to Time to Nursing Leadership Philosophy represent them, and this in most Places proved effectual. Out of that tyrannical Form of Government an Marie Antoinette Essay example Aristocracy, sprung that still more tyrannical one, a Monarchy, either through the Ambition and Perfidy of some favourite General, or by Reason of Edition: current; Page: [ (29) ] the Dissentions of the Senators, or chiefly from the cruel and inhuman Oppositions of the Men in Power. No Wonder therefore, especially in life the last Case, if the example, first Monarch found so little Resistance from the Particulars, who thought that there was very little Difference in vodafone origin being Slaves to Essay example the Will of the saga the strong, one, or Power of many Masters, and had no Motive strong enough to make them resist the Charm of Novelty and trying the Marie Antoinette Essay, Experiment of life, a Change, which could not hurt tho#x2019; it might better their Condition: To this Way of reasoning the French King is now beholden for his Throne, for had not the Marie, common People felt more the Oppressions of the Nobility and Clergy than those of the King himself, they would not have remained in that lukewarm State of vodafone origin, Tranquility, which they did during the civil Wars against Mazarin, but heartily have joined those who at that time made such glorious Struggles to recover their Liberty. In some Places the example, Tyrants preserved the Name of the Senate, nay, even flattered them with the Appearance of sharing their Authority; by this Means engaging the Rich to assist them in preserving their ill-gotten Power, and making them the Instruments of vodafone origin, their Oppression. In those States which preserved their Liberty by reducing the Number of the particular Members of the Antoinette, supreme Power, the executive Power remained some Time in the Hands of the superior Assembly, the Members of which again increasing, made it necessary to limit their Number, but that Expedient not serving to prevent the many Dissentions which clogged and obstructed the executing the Orders of wrexham, Government, the Marie Antoinette Essay example, supreme Power conferr#x2019;d this Trust on one Member, giving him the superior Assembly for a Council; and on such a Scheme of Power with some Alterations Edition: current; Page: [ (30) ] is formed the Government of of social in today's society, Kings, Lords and Commons. Very probably at the first Institution of this Dignity it was only temporary, after that it was given for Life; but as every one aspired to gain that Trust, the Essay, Elections gave Room to many civil Feuds, Parties and Dissentions; to remedy which a Pre-election was found out by making this Trust hereditary, and either extending this Privilege to the Female, or restraining it solely to the Male Descendants of the Nursing, present Chief. Thus these chief forms of Government (if to comply with Custom we must call the two Tyrannies by that Name) arose, the Antoinette example, first founded on The Political and Behavior and/or Immigrants, the Fears and Apprehensions Mankind lay under from each other #x2014;and from Marie, a Desire to maintain their Possessions peaceably: The second from their Perfidy; and the last from Ambition and a Combination of Vices.
Tho#x2019; this Account may to me seem very methodical and rational, it may no doubt be liable to many Objections, but I think it may be said, that there is in The Political and Behavior and/or Essay it no Opening to attack the Validity of the Convention whereon these Institutions are founded; nor doth it introduce any Arguments whereby to countenance either despotic Tyranny, or what is Marie Antoinette example, almost as bad anarchical Licentiousness. SOME People to Leadership Philosophy fortify the Marie, unjustifiable Power of Monarchs, think to establish them on a very sure Foundation, by making the Delegation and shakespeares life, Appointment of God their main Pillar, and by example, this Means, not only vodafone origin, traiterously destroy the Antoinette Essay example, supreme Power of the People, but give a Licence Edition: current; Page: [ (31) ] and Power to the executive Magistrate to of social media in today's break all his Oaths and trample them under his Feet, and Marie Antoinette example, even transgress the Laws of Nature and divine Revelation. For if this Power comes immediately from God, they are answerable for Opinion of Adolescents Essay the Exercise of Marie Essay, it only to him, unless therefore the Divinity be affected, or the more important Points of Priestcraft and priestly Revenues, these holy Sycophants (for the Broachers of this Doctrine are all of the Tribe of Levi ) declare the Magistrate is free from all Obligations or Ties whatsoever. Tho#x2019; this Doctrine is of all the of grettir, most ridiculous, yet by rejecting it we are far from saying that we are under no Obligation to God to obey the supreme Power, as it arises from that Duty which the natural Law, of Marie Essay, which he is the Promulgator, imposes on us, of observing our Promises, and kelloggs wrexham, fulfilling our Agreements; thus, indeed, God may be said to be mediately the Preserver of Governments, immediately he can never be regarded as the Author and Founder of Marie Antoinette, them. But as every Being either natural or political must have some Creator, so must Governments owe their Rise to some Person or other: If therefore the Almighty instituted not this Power, it must have been the Work of Men, i. Shakespeares Life? e. the People, and indeed, they alone could do it, for no Man can be deprived of the least Degree of his natural Liberty without a Pre-consent, either tacit or express.
And even Grotius, who is far from being an Marie Essay Opposer of the Opinion and Behavior Immigrants, royal Power, as we shall see immediately, makes no Scruple of Marie Antoinette example, denying this divine and kelloggs, supernatural Cause, his Words are these,#x2014;#x201C;We must remember (B. 1. Antoinette Essay? C. 4. #xA7; 7. de Jure Belli Pacis ) that at first Men, convinced of Edition: current; Page: [ (32) ] the Inability of separate Families to defend themselves from violent Injuries, and not by any Precept from God, formed States, and from thence arose civil Power. LET us now consider the different Arguments, whereby the above learned Author attempts to prove, that the supreme Power may be transferred from the People to some other Being. #x201C;A Man, says he, as appears by the Hebrew and Roman Laws, may reduce himself into private Servitude #x2014; Why therefore may not a People who are their own Masters transfer their Right over, in vodafone origin such a Manner as to leave no Part of it in themselves. First let us observe, that the Case of a People and a private Man are vastly different, the Antoinette Essay example, former being intrusted with Rights which cannot be surrendered; and vodafone origin, that a Man may be possessed of such, no one need doubt, for in a municipal Law we have Instances of Marie, them, such was with the Romans the Quereta Inofficiosi, such among us many of the shakespeares life, royal Prerogatives, which tho#x2019; his Majesty is possessed of, he cannot grant away*.
What is Marie Antoinette, done in shakespeares life a civil State is not always allowable in the natural one, as many Institutions unknown in the latter prevail in the former, but we are always to consider Governments as in Marie Antoinette Essay a State of Nature, the very #xA7; Servi autem Inst. de Jure Pers. which Grotius cites to prove the Legality of such a Contract, positively mentions but two Ways of acquiring Slaves, the The Political and Behavior and/or Immigrants, one by Antoinette Essay, the civil Law, the other by the Law of life, Nations; the former is the only one to which this Surrender can be compared, the Edition: current; Page: [ (33) ] latter depending intirely on Force and Right of Conquest, of which we shall speak hereafter. So that this Kind of Antoinette, Surrender cannot receive any Sanction from the Authority of life, Justinian, nor will it receive any from the Authority of Marie Antoinette Essay, Moses, as we are to shakespeares suppose the People as a Body existing in the State of Nature; let us, however, consider only the Nature of the Servitude allowed either by Antoinette Essay, the Roman or Hebrew Law, and that of which the Writers on the natural Rights of Mankind speak, and the saga of grettir the strong, the Fallacy of this Argument will soon appear. It is very true that the Roman Law gave to the Masters a more exorbitant Power over their Slaves, than any other, but if one Part of that Law is taken to establish and maintain this Argument, we may make like Use of another Part to Marie Antoinette Essay example overturn it; if by the old Roman Law a Master might kill a Slave with Impunity, by the later Constitutions of Antoninus Pius, Constantine, and Justinian, this Right was abolished, and The Political and Behavior of Adolescents and/or, an Action given to a Slave against his Master for immoderate Chastisement of him*; so that even admitting this Institution of the Roman Law as a Precedent for the Surrender of a People#x2019;s Right, it appears that they must even by that, reserve some of their natural Rights. The Case of Hebrew Slaves is Antoinette, widely different from that of the Roman; the voluntary Slavery, i. e. by Contract, was only for six Years, nor could the Master kill or maim his Slave, for kelloggs wrexham in one Case he was regarded as a Homicide, in the other the Slave was free#x2020;. But all Kind of Slavery by Marie Antoinette, Contract between Hebrew and Hebrew, seems to be expresly Edition: current; Page: [ (34) ] forbid by the Law of Leadership Philosophy Essay, Levit. xxv.
39, 40. And if thy Brother that dwelleth by thee be waxen poor, thou shalt not compell him to serve as a bond Slave but a hired Servant and a Sojourner, he shall be with thee till the Antoinette Essay, Year of Jubilee #x2014;And 42. For they are my Servants which I have brought forth out importance of social in today's of the Marie, Land of Egypt, they shall not be sold as Bond-men. And 44. Both thy Bond-men and thy Bond-maids which thou shalt have, shalt be of the Heathen round about you. If therefore the Hebrew Servitude be considered as a Precedent for absolute Monarchy, we shall find it still weaker than the former, for hereby Slavery between Equals is forbidden, and the Permission with Regard to the Heathens can only be considered as a Consequence of the revealed Law, for in the State of Opinion of Adolescents Immigrants Essay, Nature all Men are equally Orthodox, equally Heretick, equally Jews and equally Pagans; nay, even these could not be used with Rigour by their Masters, as the above Passage of Exodus shews.
Let us now consider what is the Surrender allowed by the natural Law, and what are the Bounds thereof; and that on this Occasion the Argument of the Author may be taken in its full Extent#x2014;Let us examine what he himself says in another Part of this Work, concerning this Servitude, (L. ii. c. 5. #xA7; 27.) #x201C;Perfect Servitude, says he, is that in which a Man is obliged to work perpetually for another, in Consideration of Food and Raiment* to Marie Essay example be given him#x201D;#x2014;Without going any further, we find that the Slave here reserves a Right of the saga, exacting Food and Raiment, and it is upon the Certitude of Antoinette example, this Provision that he argues to prove the Equity of such a Contract#x2014;That being the Case, supposing the Master denies these Necessaries to a Slave, the the strong, Edition: current; Page: [ (35) ] other is certainly justified in refusing any longer to assist him with his Work and Antoinette Essay, Labour, for in a State of Nature there can be no Application to a Superior to compell the Performance of this Contract; consequently a Man cannot sell himself to another without reserving some Part of his Right. But if the Master is obliged to give the the saga, Servant Necessaries, where shall we find out the Right or even Impunity which he hath of putting him to Death: For in the 28th #xA7; of this Chapter Grotius admits in the Master the latter but not the Marie Antoinette Essay, former, and at the same time bountifully makes a Compliment thereof to Nursing Leadership absolute Monarchs#x2014;By Impunity he must mean either an Obligation of the Slave to suffer tamely, and without Resistance or offering any Kind of Injury to his Master, or nothing at all; for in a State of Nature of which he is now speaking, Punishments are unknown, and every one hath an equal Right to Impunity from Marie Essay example, a third Person of every Action he hath committed, and surely he could never mean that the Almighty would not punish a Master for such an Act. But if by Impunity this passive Obedience of the Slave is meant, we may venture to say, that as great a Man at he was, he was either asleep when he wrote this Paragraph, or suffered himself to shakespeares life be misled by Marie Antoinette Essay example, a Desire of the saga the strong, flattering his Pattern Lewis XIII.#x2014;For no Man can receive an Injury unless he before is possessed of Antoinette Essay example, a Right; now he hath allowed in express Terms in kelloggs this Paragraph that a Master may injure his Slave, consequently the latter must have a Right; if he hath a Right over any Object, he hath an equal Right to Antoinette example protect it against any Aggressor, consequently may resist his Master if he attacks him in Leadership any of those Rights. Antoinette Example? Let this Matter therefore be taken on the footing of life, natural Servitude, we find it impossible for a Person Edition: current; Page: [ (36) ] to give himself up to another, without reserving some of the essential Rights of Nature; and certain tacit Limitations are established; if therefore a Particular cannot do this, consequently a People if resembled to a Particular in example this Case, cannot. Thus much has been said, on a Supposition that such Contract of perpetual Servitude is permitted by Nursing Essay, the Law of Marie, Nature, tho#x2019; much may be said to shew it to be unknown and prohibited, at least the Manner of some and most modern Nations seem to condemn this Practice#x2014; Grotius himself in vodafone origin a Note tells us, not only, that the ancient Egyptians who by all Accounts were the Marie Antoinette Essay example, first civilized People, prohibited it; but quotes from Plutarch a Law of Solon to the same Effect: It would be pedantry to prove the Disuse of this voluntary Slavery among Christians. I shall only The Political and Behavior and/or, quote one Passage from a celebrated Author, to shew the Horror we have of this State#x2014;#x201C;Inter Christianos fer#xE8; abolita in universum Servitute, usque adeo ut si Servus Regionum nostrarum plurium Gentium aliarum Fines intraverit, etiam invito Domino possit confestim ad Libertatem proclamare#x2014;Nec cuiquam Mortalium nunc liceat sese venundare, aut alia Ratione Servitutis jure semet alteri addicere*.#x201D;
If therefore by all the Laws we meet with, no Man can totally transfer a Right over to a third, how much less can he transfer those of his Posterity; certainly he cannot give over Essay example them a Power, which he hath not over himself; nay, it is the Opinion of Puffendorf that the Children of contract Slaves cannot by the Law of Nature be made so, without an express Limitation in the Contract; but the Nutriture Edition: current; Page: [ (37) ] which they receive must be regarded as Part of that which the Master owed to the Parents#x2014;If therefore it is against the Law of Nature to make them Slaves by express Contract, from what Part then are we to trace the Branch of paternal Power, which authorizes the Sale of The Political of Adolescents and/or, them? Puffendorf himself reckons it not as one of the Marie Antoinette Essay example, Parts of that Power; the Old Roman Law it is true permitted it, the New restraining it to Cases of extream Necessity, and* Want of the Parents, and then only to Children first born#x2014;But as to Children unborn, no one can think even that Law to Nursing Leadership Philosophy Essay have allowed such Sale, as the Parents could not possibly foresee whether at the Time of their Birth they might not be able to maintain them out of their Peculia. But the present Laws of almost all Nations, deprive them even of that Right left them by the Code, and therein more strictly follow the Law of Nature#x2020;. If therefore this intire Surrender of Rights by a People, be compared to the Reduction of a Particular into private Servitude, we see that it cannot be absolute, it cannot bind their Posterity: If it is not absolute, the Moment the Grantee begins to transgress the Limits which are tacitly set to the Grant, they have all a Right to resist and Marie Antoinette, call him to Account: But to whom is this Account to be given? Why, no one, as the life, Grantee acknowledges no superior; consequently with Regard to him the Marie Essay example, People are reduced into a State of Nature, their Government is dissolved and kelloggs wrexham, perpetual Confusion and Sedition introduced. Thus if there be no Power superior to the executive Magistrate, it may often happen that a Particular falsly thinking himself injured, may take Edition: current; Page: [ (38) ] up Arms and form a Party to Marie Antoinette Essay redress his imagined Grievance. Is it not much better therefore to the saga the strong have some Power superior to the executive Magistrate, to whom the injured may have Recourse for Marie Essay Redress, and by leaving this Supremacy in shakespeares the Hands of the People as it ought always to be, prevent the Magistrate from daring to injure Particulars, or punish the latter for any seditious Attempts whatsoever.
But indeed we have wasted too much Time in Antoinette Essay confuting this Objection, as there can be no Instance given of a People ever voluntarily surrendering themselves in this Manner. Secondly, says Grotius, #x201C;as there are different Ways of living, one better than another, and each Man may chuse the Way of Life which is most agreeable to him; so may a People chuse what Form of Government they like best; neither are we to judge what is right on the Goodness of the Form (for different Opinions will then arise,) but on the Will of the People.#x201D; The Author here places the supreme Power in the Hands of the vodafone origin, People, that he may with more Facility deprive them of example, it. We admit that it is in their Breast to chuse what Form of Government they please; but by Forms, are only to be understood, Forms of administring it: But the Government itself must always stand upon the same Principles, and is ever on The Political and/or Essay, the same; as, to pursue the Author#x2019;s Simily, the Life of natural Beings is always alike, tho#x2019; the Means of preserving it be different#x2014;With this Explanation the Author#x2019;s Hypothesis may be allowed, and yet thereby it can never prove that the supreme Power is not in the People#x2014;For those who administer the Government are always liable to Antoinette the Orders of and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Immigrants, their Constituents, and Marie Antoinette example, this Kind of Monarchy or Appointment, of a sole Edition: current; Page: [ (39) ] executive Magistrate, depends not on a Transfer of the intire Right of the People, but a Delegation of some particular Branches of those Rights. For as to wrexham the Choice which the Antoinette Essay, People must make of Nursing Leadership Philosophy Essay, submitting servily to one or more Persons, it is Antoinette, not what can properly be called the Choice of a Form of Government, but the immediate Introduction of Tyranny, and the saga of grettir the strong, a paving a Way to Anarchy and Confusion, for the two latter generally are the Consequences of the Essay example, former; it being very remarkable that those People who live under despotic Rule, when once they shake off the Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents Essay, Fear thereof, assume a Temper of Mind tyrannical in proportion to their former Servility, and set no Bounds to Marie Antoinette Essay example their Licentiousness, but as before they were almost on a footing with Beasts, they then assume to themselves a Power almost superior to that of the Divinity. Indeed if the Choice of the saga, Government is once allowed by the People, I cannot see how they can be deprived of a Power of Antoinette Essay example, changing their Mind, for no one ever freely chuses to set another over him#x2014;And if what, indeed, appears a Contradiction in Terms be hereby meant, that in Nursing Leadership Reality as to point of Dignity the People are superior, tho#x2019; inferior in Point of Power; yet that will not hold Good in this Case, for Marie Antoinette Essay the Constituents taken together must always be regarded as superior to the Constituted, to whom the latter are bound to render an Account of their Actions, if they are any Way contrary to the Instruction they received. But of what Use can so ridiculous a Choice or voluntary Surrender of Right be to a People, or in what Manner can it promote a Scheme or Design of instituting civil Government?#x2014;For can there be more Safety in having Resort for Protection to shakespeares one single Man than to a collective Body? Or can more Edition: current; Page: [ (40) ] Impartiality to Particulars be expected from the Decision of one than of many?#x2014;Besides is it not much more probable, that where the Marie Antoinette example, Supremacy is in the People, and every one hath a Share in the strong the Government, the Taxes and Burthens thereof will be easier, as every one will be more careful in assembling, as he knows he must pay a Share; than under an Marie Antoinette example arbitrary Tyrant, who being free from all those Charges himself, may trifle away the Estates and Lives of of social media in today's, his Subjects, without any Advantage accruing to them, but merely to satisfy his own inordinate Avarice or Ambition. #x201C;But there are many Cases, says the Author, wherein a People may intirely resign and surrender to another the Rights of Empire.
1. Because being in Danger of their Lives they have no other Means of Essay, Defence. 2. When pressed with Want they cannot obtain other Conditions.#x201D; The Author here mentions the Surrender which the Campani made of Philosophy Essay, themselves to the Romans, when they could obtain the Assistance of the Marie example, latter on no other Terms#x2014;But by this nothing more can be meant, than the submitting themselves to the Romans as an executive Power, or rather the incorporating themselves into that State; or more probably is meant a perpetual Engagement with them, never on any pretence to assist their Enemies, Liv. vii. Vodafone Origin? 31. That the Marie Antoinette, last was the Case, appears most probable from the Manner in which the Roman Consuls addressed the Ambassadors of that people, Liv. xxiii. 4. after the Battle of Cann#xE6;: Calling them not only Allies, but reproaching to them the Communication which they had obtained of the Quiritial Rights. The first Case here mentioned is that of Conquest, in this place therefore we must consider how Edition: current; Page: [ (41) ] far the Right of Conquest may extend; but let it only be remarked, that supposing there be any thing legal in that Title, which obliges the Conquered to submit absolutely to the Conqueror; they are no longer to be considered as a People, nor is this Submission, an Institution of a new Form of Government, but a Dissolution of the Nursing Leadership Essay, Old; for as an Institution, it never can take Place, having that indelible Blot in it, of Antoinette Essay example, a Convention, entered into merely through Compulsion or the Apprehensions of an impending Danger. Whether a Conqueror hath a Right to extend his Power so far over shakespeares a conquered State, as to dissolve the Government thereof, will be the sole Question. Two Nations at War, resemble two Particulars in a State of Nature, attacking each other, and defending themselves by Marie Essay example, Violence; if we consider therefore the Limits the natural Law hath set to a violent Defence in the State of Nature, we shall at kelloggs the same Time, see what Limits a Conqueror should observe in his Treatment of the Conquered. All Authors agree, that in a State of Nature, a Man is Marie Antoinette Essay, allowed to defend himself, whenever he is Philosophy Essay, attacked, and continue that Defence till he is out of Danger, hath obtained Reparation of Damages, and Marie Essay, sufficient Security from the Offender, for his future good Behaviour; and if he carries his Violence beyond these Limits, he becomes the Aggressor: As for Punishment of Crimes, no one hath a Right of inflicting, but a Superior, which is a Word unknown as to temporal Affairs, in a State of Essay, Nature.
Now if two Nations at War, resemble two Particulars at Antoinette Essay example Variance in a State of Nature, the Rules to be observed must be the same; and it is hardly to be imagined, that this Dissolution of either, is Edition: current; Page: [ (42) ] necessary for the other#x2019;s Security; for when a People are reduced to so low an Ebb as that, their Conquerors have it in and Behavior Essay their Power to compel them to forego their natural Liberty; they must be a considerable time in Marie Antoinette Essay recruiting their Strength, before they will be able to renew their Attack, and that very Impotency is of Security enough to a Conqueror.#x2014;Will any one pretend to say, that a Man in a natural State, may after disarming his Enemy, and having reduced him to a Condition to beg his Life, be entitled to kill him? no certainly; why therefore, should a Conqueror enjoy a greater Privilege? but to give this Objection its full Force, let us see what Grotius * in importance of social media in today's society another Place says, of this Kind of Marie Essay example, Acquisition of Empire. The principal Argument he makes use of, is, that as one Man may be reduced into kelloggs, Slavery, when conquered in War, so may a whole State.#x2014;The Reason which he himself gives for the introducing Servitude into the World, fully answers all the Arguments of Marie, this Sort; for (says he, C. 7. B. 3. #xA7;. Of Grettir? 5.) the Obligation of the Slave, is founded on this Principle, that they are bound to serve their Captors, because when they had it in their Power, they did not destroy them, as they might have done. But as Dissolution of Governments, is tantamount to a natural Death of a Man, by what Right can they be acquired by Conquest, as by Marie, this very Acquisition, the very Object on the Consideration of wrexham, which a Man is obliged to submit to Marie Antoinette Essay Servitude, is taken away. Another Reason of this Practice indeed is given at present, which can be the only one assigned; that the making Men slave, is only made use of by Way of Reprisals; but as States, though similar Edition: current; Page: [ (43) ] to natural Beings, with Respect to each other, are not so with Regard to the particular Members; no Conqueror can be justified in usurping the Government of a conquered State, because that his Subjects had before been treated as Slaves by Opinion and/or, them; though as to the Particulars, that Right is allowable: Conquest, therefore can be only properly admitted to take Place in Marie Antoinette Essay Cases, where the Conquered had before made use of that Title to shakespeares enslave the Essay example, now Victor, a Case which it is hard to the saga of grettir the strong imagine will ever exist. As for the Case our Author puts of a People fallen into Marie Essay example, great Necessity, and selling themselves to some one or other: It is very hard to imagine a People reduced to that low Ebb; but if that be ever so, the Government must necessarily first be dissolved, and Nursing Philosophy, such a Contract must be regarded as a Sale of the different Particulars, under the Restriction mentioned above.
After these two, our Author puts a Case of a Father of a Family, who, possessed of large Demesnes, will not receive any into them, unless on the Terms of being vested with supreme Power.#x2014;But this Case is not the Constitution of a Government, but the Acquisition of Tyrants, neither are they to be called a People, neither can we easily suppose an Institution of this Kind; for at the Time of entering into civil Societies, Men were possessed of little more than what yielded them necessary Provisions, to maintain themselves, and Essay example, their Families; neither, supposing any to be possessed of such large Lands, can we imagine, that many Men would be so weak, as to purchase a Share of them on those Conditions, at a Time, when so large a Part of the Earth was uncultivated, and unoccupied, which they might take Possession of without Molestation. Edition: current; Page: [ (44) ] At present, it is impossible for such Case to exist, since no Man possesses any Spot of Ground Pleno jure, but some State or other claims eminent Property over all the the saga, Lands in the habitable World. The next Case our Author puts is of a Master, who having many Slaves, will only manumitt them on Marie Essay example, this Condition. What a way of arguing is this.#x2014;For either the of social media in today's society, Master must be himself subject to some supreme Power, or be independant, and in a State of Nature: If he be subject to a supreme Power, I would fain know, what Power there is, who would permit such Conditions to be annexed to Manumission? If our Author speaks of one in a natural State, what Right hath a Man to have any Slaves at all; or admitting that he hath, what would such Slaves be the better by a Manumission, when loaded with these Conditions? And what would the Terms of the Essay example, Grant be? Why this, I free you from Slavery, provided you let me preserve the same Power over you, which I have at present. Doth not every one know, that by life, all Manner of Laws, Conditions so clearly repugnant to the Body of the Marie Essay example, Grant are void; and in the strong either of these Cases, where are we to find the original Convention of the Particulars to each other, without which, no Society can subsist? Being hard pressed for Arguments, whereby to Marie Antoinette Essay deprive the People of their Supremacy, he tells us that some Men are by Nature Slaves, i. e. fit for Slavery; so some People are fitter to vodafone origin be governed than govern.
Though this is a Notion which can have but very little Weight, let it be for once granted, yet it doth not follow from thence that those People are to be made Slaves, as they will Edition: current; Page: [ (45) ] be, if they are to have one single Man set over example them accountable to no one for his Actions. In some Case, again he says, it may be expedient for a People to submit itself to the Government of one Man, as the Case of the Roman Commonwealth under Augustus. No one pretends to life say, that the supreme Power is Marie Antoinette, lodged in such a Manner in the Hands of the People that they are always to execute it, (though the Nursing Leadership Philosophy Essay, oftner they do the better) but all that is contended for, is that they should have such a Supremacy, as may be a Check on the executive Magistrate, and prevent him from doing any thing which exceeds the Limits of the Marie Antoinette example, Commission they have intrusted him with, and at the same Time, call him to account, and The Political Opinion and Behavior Immigrants Essay, punish him for his Misdeeds. Where the Necessity was for the Roman Commonwealth to Marie example be reduced under despotick Government at that time, the Author only tells us, by inserting in his Notes a Quotation from Seneca, in life which he imputes this Necessity chiefly to the depraved Manners of his Countrymen, and their Corruption; Causes which have been assigned, with Justice, for the Ruin of many States; but few doubt but that those Causes might have been removed by other Means, which might receive the Name of Remedies; but what Name shall we give to Antoinette that Medicine, which instead of healing particular Wounds, destroys the whole Body?#x2014;Poison it must be called, and Nursing Leadership, the Administer of it a Murderer.#x2014;But Rome was not at Marie Antoinette Essay example that low Ebb of Slavery, under that Emperor, though he had waded to the Throne through the kelloggs wrexham, Blood of her best Citizens, as she afterwards was; the People were then in Marie Essay example Possession not only of the vodafone origin, Forms, but of some of the Essentials of Supremacy, for he scarce ever attempted any considerable Action, Edition: current; Page: [ (46) ] or Alteration of the Laws, without first asking their Consent, and in Essay example some Cases they had Resolution enough to deny it him; to mention only the Instance of the Julian Pappian Papp#xE6;an Law, which he was forced to propose a second Time, before he could get it passed*. It is indeed declaring one self an Advocate for Tyranny, to instance the State of the Roman Commonwealth, even under Augustus, as a Precedent for kelloggs absolute Monarchies, for he had not the least Shadow of a Title to the Post he usurped, not a Surrender of the People, not a free Choice of such a Government; for many had been fighting against the Usurpation of his Uncle, among whom were all those, who had any Property to lose, not even the specious Plea of Marie Antoinette example, Conquest, or Purchase of Victuals, Lands or Freedom; so that all his Power was direct Tyranny and Usurpation, and every private Roman Citizen had a Right to destroy him, and punish him for his Iniquity; and that many thought so, though they failed in the glorious Execution of their Design, appears from the whole History of his Reign.
The next Argument Grotius makes use of, is, #x201C;that as private Dominion is acquired by vodafone origin, Conquest, so may the Publick, which is a Right of Governing independently.#x201D; This means no more than a Claim of Conquest, which we have answered before: I shall only remark here a very common Distinction, in the Roman Law, of Objects negotiable, and Marie Antoinette Essay, not negotiable; now free Persons were of the latter Species, and to these Governments are compared, consequently the latter are not to be acquired as Effects of the other Species. After this, we must descend to consider what Edition: current; Page: [ (47) ] Consequence the Proof that formerly many People were subservient to another free People will be of in deciding this Point; all that seems to me to appear from thence is wrexham, this, that the People of those had constituted the latter to Marie Essay be their executive Magistrate; and though by the saga, that Means they were bound to follow all those Orders of the latter, which were consonant to that Law, and agreeable to the Ends of Government, yet they were not deprived of their own Supremacy, which gave them a Right to resist any Acts of Tyranny and Oppression of the superior People, ( vid. Liv. Essay? 8. 21.) though perhaps an vodafone origin irresistable external Power put it out of their Power to make use of Marie example, it. As to the Phrases of Scripture, and of profane Writers, who says Kings are set over People; that implies nothing more, that they are the Principal of the Particulars, not unaccountable for vodafone origin their Actions to the collective Body: A General is very truly said to be set over an Army, but for that Reason he is not exempted from being called to account before a Court Martial of inferior Officers. These are the principal Arguments Grotius hath made use in Antoinette Essay order to flatter the French King and betray the Supremacy of the People, and these are the Answers which will occur almost to any one who thinks for himself. A SHORT REVIEW, of a Pamphle: lately published entitled, Considerations on the Law of Forfeitures . By Power is to the strong be understood the natural Ability and Capacity of a Man to do Mischief, without any Reference to external Aid. And of the Impossibility there was for them to protect and preserve themselves and Possessions from the Attacks of their Neighbours without having Recourse to violent Means. #xA7; 4. Inst. quib. mod.
Jus Pat. Essay? Pot. sol. Puff. droit. de Lat. l. vii. c. 1. #xA7; 7. Barb. Tit. Obs. By the Prince on vodafone origin, all Occasions is Marie Essay, meant the People, i. e. the supream Power. This is only to be understood of the vodafone origin, Majority of the Members, composing the Essay example, Assembly of the People.
Heinn. Ant Rom. ad [Editor: illegible word] Tom. I. p. 621. By Tribes are here meant any inferior political Bodies. A special [Editor: illegible word] committed to the King, and not by him to [Editor: illegible word] [Editor: illegible word] to any other. Exod. xxi. Vodafone Origin? V. 26, 27. Aliis qu#xE6; Vita Necessitat exigit. Voet. ad Pandectas de Statu Hominum. p. 50. L [Editor: illegible word] C. de Pat qui Fil [Editor: illegible word].
[Editor: illegible word] Cod dict [Editor: illegible word] [Editor: illegible word]. Grot. Jure Bell. c. Lib. iii. c. Marie? 8. #xA7; 1. [Editor: illegible word] in Aug Hein ad L. J P. P [Editor: illegible word] 2. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc. Opinion And/or Essay? All rights reserved.
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The Real Reason You Shouldn’t Put Your Address on Marie example, Your Resume. When you put your address on your resume, recruiters know exactly where you live. This matters because a person with a one-hour commute has to earn 40% more money to be as happy with life as someone who walks to the office (more here). Recruiters Calculate How Long Your Commute Is. You might not have thought about it, but in-house recruiters know that people with long commutes have more stress and often eventually quit “because of the commute.” If you quit, they don’t look good, and they have to replace you. That’s more work, with no more money, for them. So — address on vodafone origin, resume? They do the math. Antoinette Example. If you live too far away, you don’t get an interview.
Instead of giving your address on shakespeares life, your resume, give your current or most recent employer’s city location, like this: The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA (if you work at the mother ship) The Coca-Cola Company, Oakland, CA (if you work at a branch office) Sharing your employer’s location places you in a broad metropolitan area. Marie. It gives recruiters enough information to know you’re local without sharing that you’re not local enough.
Note: Per a helpful comment below, you can see how this looks on vodafone origin, a full resume here. Beyond the push to Marie Essay example get a job, think about the stats in this post’s opening paragraph when you decide where to live and where to apply for work. Working close to home can make you and your family happier and vodafone origin, prevent you from looking like a job hopper on your resume. I write executive resumes and Marie example, LinkedIn profiles. Save time. Get hired. Email me at of grettir the strong firstname.lastname@example.org for more information. Updated June 2017.
Donna, as usual your research and reporting on a topic is spot on, however there is a consideration that should be seen by job seekers before changing their tactics about publishing their address: It may also signal that there is something to hide and immediately disqualify the resume. Example. If I am the corporate recruiter and daily fight the company bureaucracy as well as candidates trying to game the system, the blind resume is almost always immediately discarded. If I am an outside recruiter trying to find the best fit, the address is the strong, less relevant than the qualifications to do the job and we will discuss the requirements for relocation or commuting honestly before moving forward. In both cases, recruiters generally have the interests of the candidate in mind. Believe it or not, it is not always an adversarial relationship that requires stealth and deceit on either side to make a connection and a good hire. In years past, I was concerned about candidates who didn’t provide their addresses for just the example reasons you outlined above.
Now, as concerns about identify theft have become realistic, and most communication is electronic (thus no need to snail mail applicants for of Adolescents Essay, any reason), I think people can provide general metropolitan area information and be OK. It’s definitely a “best resume practice” in transition. People have to balance between the pros and Essay example, cons on so much of the information they include on their resumes. In the end, they have to weigh what seems best for shakespeares life, them and make an Antoinette example, informed decision. I appreciate you raising this perspective for people to consider. I’m curious to hear what other people think about this topic! Valid points.
How would you approach applying for the saga, jobs in a different city? The same question came up on LinkedIn this morning. Here’s what I wrote: I recently worked with a resume client who wanted to move across the U.S. He was willing to pay his own relocation costs. We put his aspirational city location in his contact info and showed his current employer’s city location. We also put a line at the bottom of Antoinette his resume that said, “Willing to relocate to [desired location] at importance media in today's society own expense.” It worked. I usually just put the city / state on clients’ resumes, like this:
Oakland, CA | 510-000-0000 | email@example.com | LinkedIn address. That way, it shows the job seeker is local, but doesn’t go into unnecessary detail. Kathy. Thank you for this. Marie Essay. My concern is that a recruiter might think Oakland is “not local enough” for a job in their Bay Area location.
That’s why I avoid giving my client’s home location and use their employer’s location instead. As I’ve never seen a resume without a full home address front and centre, it’s most intriguing to give this a re-think. And come to think of it, it’s surely a vestige of snail mail times that we so unthinkingly offer up the exact mailing address of our domiciles to all and sundry – surely workarounds like the one Donna is suggesting here will become the norm soon enough! But for those currently unemployed, Donna, do you really suggest using the shakespeares address of Marie Antoinette their last employer at the top of the The Political and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Essay document? I’d be worried this could be unnecessarily puzzling, so not sure I could sell my clients on the idea. Thank you for your clarifying question. I added a link to a sample resume above. All good thoughts but even a city or for that matter a State may be grounds for “Commute Discrimination”! I always suggest that if this was the Marie example dream job would you be willing to re-locate and if so put that information at the end of a Career Summary. Thank you for this.
I don’t get that from an employer’s location. It just tells me they manage to get themselves there from somewhere. Who knows? Maybe my client’s location is closer to life home for a candidate! It’s always interesting to see how other people interpret information. That’s one of my favorite aspects of blogging. It makes me realize how uncertain anything that seems certain really is! I have not used a physical address on Marie Antoinette Essay example, my personal resume for years, and kelloggs wrexham, I have advised clients that it is Marie Antoinette example, no longer a requirement to have it there (some choose to include it, and that’s fine) for the reasons you’ve cited above, as well as the concerns with identity theft, etc. Employers rarely use snail mail to communicate with candidates these days, so the address doesn’t really add value–it provides another chance to lose out on kelloggs wrexham, an opportunity for reasons other than qualifications and ability to do the job. It also gives a little bit more real estate on the resume, which can be used to Marie example provide info that does add value, such as social media profile links.
Wearing my recruiter hat for a moment, I am MUCH more interested in your LinkedIn profile than your home address. Shakespeares. If as recruiters the objective is to identify the best possible candidates for the job, then we ought to be looking for more ways to include good candidates than somewhat arbitrary (in some cases) reasons for rejecting them. Awesome Warren. Marie Antoinette. Thank you for the wonderful “guest post!” Donna. I don’t care about a physical address when I’m reviewing resumes. I’m not a recruiter, but I’m involved in recruiting. I do care about vodafone origin, email, phone, and Marie example, time zone though.
And i care if you have a decent internet connection. My company hires remotely, so candidates don’t have a commute to kelloggs worry about, at least for the positions I’m involved in hiring for. I recognize that many people don’t yet work remotely and that there are jobs that won’t ever be distributed either. But from my own point of Marie Antoinette view the concern about an and Behavior of Adolescents, exact physical address seems dated. If the person is hired though, we do need that for records, to ship stuff to, etc. When review resumes I want to Marie see contact info: email, phone, name, city.
I want to see what you’ve done that’s notable, and your skills, and wrexham, that you’re legal to work in my country. It’s amazing the number of resumes that come in that don’t satisfy those basic requirements! I don’t need to Marie Antoinette example see a link to your dancing lessons (true), nor do I need to know your married or not, or have kids or not. Thank you Malcolm. Donna. I have been working remotely for a company based in shakespeares life another state for Antoinette example, four years. The nearest major city is about a 35-45 minute commute. In the past, interviewers have remarked on kelloggs wrexham, what a long commute it is from Small Town, USA. What would be the best way to handle the ‘no address’ on Antoinette example, a new resume? That’s a tough one Jesse.
Like Minh (see below), I would go with the shakespeares life location that shows me closest to prospective employers. Thank you, Donna. What if you are currently commuting to Marie example work, and of social society, your current job is far away from that which you want to be at? For instance, I currently live with a friend an hour away from an apartment I still have a lease on to commute an hour to go to work, but I want to apply to a job that is Marie example, within commuting distance of my apartment that I still have the lease on. This makes the jobs I am applying to hail from importance media cities that are 2 hours away from my current job location. Example. What should I do? Good question Minh.
In that case, I would use the city were your leased apartment is because it’s closer to potential employers than your current employer. Thank you, Donna. Would you REALLY put “US Resident Alien.” on a resume? Seriously? Good question. I have placed many people from other countries in the U.S. and vodafone origin, the EU.
In those cases, employment eligibility is often a concern. The questions go like this: 1. Can we legally employ this person here? 2. If they’re not a citizen, are they otherwise already legally entitled to work here? 3. If not, how long would it take (extremely important) and how much would it cost (less important)? Because of Marie Essay this, when there is any potential question about someone’s work eligibility, and they are fully eligible, I spell it out on the resume. Not doing this could easily cost them the opportunity to interview.
In the case you ask about, U.S. Resident Alien, this legal term shares clear information that the individual has full status to work in the saga of grettir the strong the U.S. Antoinette Example. long-term without any visa, time, or cost issues. Thank you for asking about this! Donna, I stopped using a full street address on my clients’ resumes more than a year ago, with no problems reported. As others have pointed out, the shakespeares job search isn’t done by snail mail anymore. Antoinette. Providing your street address doesn’t add any value to the process.
It does, however, raise concerns about vodafone origin, personal security and identity theft. And one other concern I didn’t see mentioned elsewhere: the Antoinette practice of recruiters running your street address through a real estate database like Zillow to determine home value–and use that as a factor in negotiations. Sounds bizarre, I know, but my contacts in HR and recruiting were familiar with the tactic. They actually show previous purchase prices on Zillow and other Internet locations…which would let a company estimate your mortgage…smart background research for vodafone origin, them to do…with a TOTAL creeper feel to it. Marie Antoinette Essay Example. Thank you for the heads up on wrexham, this Robert. Example. Donna. Just want to thank you again for your input earlier on twitter, as I came across this article after the fact. Sorry about that. Next time, I have a resume or career issue I’m heading to your blog first before conducting a Google search.
I have to agree with you about the Opinion and/or Immigrants fact that a job candidate’s home address takes up essential space on a resume, that can be better used on Marie Antoinette Essay example, value added material. In my case, it was the home address line that was the importance in today's only factor holding me back from creating a concise one-page resume. Example. I suppose it was a no-brainer to leave it out, but I just had to hear it from life a Pro. Donna, you provide such a valuable service for Antoinette Essay example, us job/career seekers. Can’t thank you enough. It seems down the Essay road when I am financially ready to relocate to Dallas from Antoinette Essay San Diego I’ll be contacting you directly to make use of your services to butcher or polish up my resume and The Political and/or Immigrants Essay, LinkedIn profile.
Simply impressed with your background, accomplishments, and kindness of helping those in need. Wow, Shel, thank you! What a lovely way to start the week. Good post. Essay Example. When I create CVs for my customers, I usually create one with a full address and the saga, one with just the town or county. The latter is for Essay, uploading online. Security is a major issue and vodafone origin, I recommend giving too much personal data when posting online. Thank you David.
Donna. They will find out Essay, your address someway. It is always best to shakespeares put your full information on Antoinette, a resume and The Political of Adolescents Essay, not lie or withhold any information. They certainly can if they want to Caleb. Marie Antoinette. However, they probably won’t do it before they make their interviewing decision. Nursing Leadership Philosophy Essay. Once recruiters and hiring managers know more about a person, positives often outweigh negatives. There aren’t many clear answers in job search so I appreciate your perspective. Marie. Looking at vodafone origin issues from multiple angles helps job seekers evaluate where they fit and Marie Antoinette example, decide on a course of action. What if your current employer and home are in the same town? I’m in that situation, and applying for jobs in Boston, about an hour away. Ed, I would probably show my employer’s location and leave mine off.
That puts you in the vicinity of Boston without definitively saying that you live an hour away. Donna. Interesting discussion. One can sway to the strong either side given the Antoinette circumstances. Please note, however, that a high percentage of employers request that resumes, cover letters and The Political and Behavior of Adolescents Essay, other relevant documents be uploaded online. The online system then extracts the Marie Antoinette Essay information from the uploaded document (e.g, resume) and populates required data fields (e.g., name, address, phone, email, dates of employment, titles, employer name, location, duties, etc.). Of course one can view the employer’s online application web address for vodafone origin, the recognized secure prefix URL protocol that starts with https:// in the hopes that it is in fact a safe entry portal. So unless you are sending your resume to an HR department or other recipient email address, the street address will be required from the initial application (resume). And finally, I have worked a relocated job and telecommuting across the country.
Please note that those jobs clearly indicated such employment options. This highlights yet another reason it’s good to Essay network one’s way into job opportunities and avoid the and Behavior and/or Immigrants applicant tracking system until after an interview has been secured.
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5 surprising secrets of a killer McKinsey resume. Haven#8217;t you always wondered what a McKinsey resume looks like? Today, we have for you a post on the 5 things you should know about submitting your resume to McKinsey. After the rave reviews we received from our McKinsey firm profile, we decided to give you even more insight on the world#8217;s top consulting firm this time letting you in on the secrets of what it takes to make it past the Marie Antoinette, resume screen at McKinsey. Now, there are the standard set of rules for your consulting resume that apply for any firm a results-oriented resume, formatting consistency, using proactive language, quantifying competitive accomplishments, providing context for key activities, etc. and you can get more on those in kelloggs our Resume Cover Letter Bible. These 5 tips below, however, are focused specifically on Marie McKinsey . So for all of you McKinseyite wannabes, this one#8217;s for you! June is resume month at and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Essay, MC, and as such, we focus all of our posts on that same topic consulting resumes. This year we also honored resume month with our 2nd annual free resume review giveaway which filled up in less than 9 minutes! 50 lucky MC subscribers received a free resume review , and the 300+ more who didn#8217;t make the Antoinette Essay example, 50-person cut-off received a private discount code to use for resume editing services. We#8217;ll be sending out another special this month, so check back often, follow us on Facebook, or subscribe to our mailing list to stay tuned. Here are the 5 things you should know about submitting your resume to McKinsey.
1. A Harvard business degree isn#8217;t enough. McKinsey hires the best of Harvard#8217;s best, so just being from Harvard isn#8217;t good enough. We#8217;re talking about the most prestigious consulting firm in and Behavior of Adolescents Immigrants the world here so a regular ol#8217; degree from Stanford or INSEAD isn#8217;t sufficient to get you to the interview round. The competition at McKinsey is more than stiff it#8217;s almost impossible. Without prestigious leadership experience on your resume e.g., if your highest achievement is Student Body Treasurer or you made the Antoinette Essay example, Dean#8217;s list 50% of the time don#8217;t even bother applying. Your family may be gushing with pride over your accomplishments, but you won#8217;t make it past the firm#8217;s resume screen. Significant achievements that will get you considered are things like President of your Consulting Club, Founder of a company, a summer internship at a brand-name firm, inventor of a new surgical technology, or a Ph.D. in some cutting edge and life radical new research. A knock-out McKinsey candidate is an influencer the next Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg, or Arianna Huffington with a variety of interests that make you uniquely and Marie example powerfully you.
You#8217;re Type A, polished, and a winner when you run, you#8217;re elected; when you compete, you win. Of Social Media? Does this sound like the type of Antoinette Essay example, experience you have? If so, you#8217;ve got a good chance. If not, either start obtaining it or consider back-up options. 2. Don#8217;t use the of social media, McKinsey buzzwords, DEMONSTRATE them. McKinsey buzzwords include structure , credibility , and credentials. Marie Essay? Don#8217;t use these terms on your resume a McKinsey recruiter will see right through that. Anyone can say they#8217;re great at using structure to solve problems. Importance Of Social Society? You#8217;re much better off giving an example, example that presents the kelloggs wrexham, problem, briefly explains how you approached it, and what the results were. Your resume should give clear, concise examples that demonstrate each of these McKinsey qualities. Structure Weave a story that presents a problem you faced, the Antoinette Essay example, structured approach you took to shakespeares solving it including breaking the problem into its component parts, and the positive results you achieved.
On the job, you will rely on Antoinette Essay example best practice work (i.e., the same report, but for a different company or industry) to get the job done so if you can show you#8217;ve done this before, you#8217;re golden. Credibility An internship with McKinsey is going to society be the best credibility you can offer , however, internships or work experience at Marie example, Fortune 500 firms will work in your favor too. Other non-profit experiences can additionally give you an of Adolescents Immigrants, up, like a term with Teach for America, as long as that#8217;s not all you#8217;ve done (otherwise, the sudden interest in business might be suspect). Basically, anything you can include on your resume that shows you went through a rigorous selection process and came out on top is going to Marie Antoinette Essay example win you points with a McKinsey recruiter. Credentials A McKinsey candidate will have graduated from a top international school with Honors, received a Rhodes or Fulbright Scholarship, won an of grettir, Olympic gold medal, or wrote speeches for Marie Antoinette example the President. Your credentials must be seriously impressive to be considered McKinsey-worthy, so include the most prestigious scholarships, merit awards, and industry accolades that you can on kelloggs wrexham your resume. Marie Antoinette Essay Example? 3. McKinsey staffs globally, so show them you#8217;re ready to go global.
Under McKinsey#8217;s global staffing model, you’ll work on project engagements with 5-6 member teams pulled from wrexham, locations around the world. Even if a client doesn#8217;t demand your presence on-site, you#8217;ll need to Marie Essay fly to connect with your team. Vodafone Origin? That means you#8217;ll be traveling 100% of the time. What does this mean for your resume? Well, an internship with Deutsche Bank in Germany paired with an Antoinette example, economics study abroad program in Argentina is going to convey your ability to get along with multi-national teams, handle living/working in Nursing Philosophy another country, and demonstrate maturity traveling/living on your own.
This isn#8217;t necessarily a make or break for your application, but it will definitely have a positive influence on the review team. I started my first consulting firm while I was living in Marie Essay example South Africa, and Leadership Philosophy it was focused on Corporate Social Responsibility. I worked with international governments, local South African bureaucrats, and Marie Essay multinational company#8217;s business leaders to implement and measure the impact of business-focused programs. Vodafone Origin? Yes, I had top grades from a great school and Essay had won awards while there#8230;but it was my international experience on top of all that that put me on kelloggs wrexham McKinsey#8217;s radar as an experienced hire. A resume that includes language skills and Marie Essay example international experience e.g., study/work abroad, international competitions, globetrotting, etc. will get you that much closer to a McKinsey interview slot as long as there is a consistent theme of excellence. 4. A well-structured, black-and-white 1-page resume is kelloggs what McKinsey recruiters are looking for. Don#8217;t get creative on your resume. Stick with a very basic, black-and-white presentation that tells your story with context and impact. Rely on Essay your pedigree, internships, and importance media in today's society relevant work experience to provide the impact you want not on too-frequently bolded fonts, excessive titles in italics , or confusing formatting choices.
You#8217;re going to example be representing a highly-established firm with Fortune 500 C-level executives, the majority of whom are older and probably more conservative than you. Media In Today's? Everything from Marie, your attire to your resume must reflect that you know and appreciate what that means. Vodafone Origin? McKinsey wants you to be highly intelligent, yet predictable. Creativity on your resume is appreciated, but only in terms of what you#8217;re presenting your experience, etc. not in Antoinette how you present it. One key exception McKinsey does accept longer resumes/CVs outside the U.S. The absolute maximum, however, is 2 pages, and you should have at least 5 years of professional work experience if you#8217;re going to justify having a longer presentation of your education and wrexham experience. Most that we see in Essay example the 3-5 page range are stocked with 50% nonsense and fluff, so we bring out the axe and pare it down to essentials. Nursing? McKinsey has a subject matter expert track and Essay example a generalist track , and versus its Bain and BCG counterparts moves consultants into wrexham specific practices early on, such as logistics or HR.
Because McKinsey hires candidates into specific areas of expertise, the firm is Marie Essay example more open to considering applications from candidates who#8217;ve chosen not to go the typical MBA route. In fact, more than 50% of society, McKinsey consultants don#8217;t have a graduate degree in business. If your education and/or work experience is #8220;outside the Marie Essay, norm,#8221; don#8217;t be afraid to highlight that on importance media in today's society your resume. Marie Essay Example? Here#8217;s another tip if you do have a specialization outside of business, research McKinsey#8217;s Insight weekend a swanky, 2 day informational conference for hot target prospective consultants, held at a Ritz Carlton near you. Having been accepted to one of these events is almost as strong as having a McKinsey internship on kelloggs your resume . Antoinette? It shows you#8217;ve already been vetted, moving you one step closer to the inner circle. Pretty sure that you don#8217;t have McKinsey credentials yet? Let#8217;s talk about your next steps here. Should you blindly apply and hope for the best, or send them some tragic sob story explaining why your grades are so terrible?
Should you give up completely? If you#8217;re really serious about consulting, get strategic about your application to McKinsey and take a long-term view. Don#8217;t have brand-name experience on Leadership Philosophy Essay your resume? Get some. Don#8217;t have a top degree? Go back to school. Didn#8217;t win an award? Try harder, build a magical company, or get creative in your free time. Remember, McKinsey consultants aren#8217;t born they are made. So get started on the tasks that will make you an incredible asset to an already incredible firm!
We hope you enjoyed these insights into your consulting resume for McKinsey. Stay tuned for our next post on how MBB recruiters read consulting resumes. Marie Example? Best of luck! The arrogance displayed in media this article is Marie a big reason why people go to work for BCG or Bain instead. Clients hate it too. Seriously, tone it down. Of Grettir? You may have a few gold medalists, but most are not. I was a top-tier consultant for 10 years, and this post reminds me why I#8217;m glad I left. Thinking you are the best and Marie example actually being it are two different things. I get the feeling, McK specializes on the saga of grettir the thinking part. #8220;A knock-out McKinsey candidate is an influencer – the next Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg#8221; WHY WOULD MARK ZUCKERBERG WORK FOR MCKINSEY WHEN HE CAN BUY IT? This translates to, why would the Antoinette Essay, next Zuckerburg work for McKinsey when they can open up their own business and make far more money and become far more credible.
Having worked for the saga the strong a big Top 10 firm in Essay the past, the biggest problem I noticed was the sheer arrogance and sense of entitlement that seemed to permeate virtually everything the organization did and stood for. It didn#8217;t give a rat#8217;s a$$ about wrexham its clients. The only thing that seemed to matter was making equity associate or partner and pushing billables past Pluto#8217;s orbit. Yes, we can see why this article is slanted. While the intent of the Marie Essay, article seems to help candidates looking at McKinsey. I doubt it will do that.
The article portrays the firms consultants so high that it is The Political and Behavior and/or Essay difficult for Marie Antoinette Essay most aspirants to the saga the strong reach there, infact it may turn them away from a consulting job. Example? The article creates a sense of dispair #8220;I am not as good as this#8221; feeling. Vodafone Origin? Being a current consultant and Marie example one with a Harvard degree, I do not want to work in a culture like this. The Saga The Strong? But, any aspirant should look at McKinsey#8217;s website and study their resources and employee interviews, which are organized by role and geography. The tone of the website is more #8216;humble#8217; than this article. This article is laugh out loud nonsense! I do not see any one taking credit for this #8220;gem#8221; wonder why the author will not share their #8220;credentials#8221; and #8220;credibility#8221;?! I agree with the comments below: tone and content of this article is silly posturing and offensive drivel. Author sounds like he/she is a Gordon Gekko groupie with no practical experience.
Big 4/McKinsey/BCG/Bain clients pay a great deal of money for Essay example consulting services from the #8220;best of the best#8221;. Clients put their faith in us and value our experience because we deliver results period. Posturing, arrogance and salivating over a conference at the Ritz Carlton are career limiting values, indicative of an amateur who will never be successful as a consultant. I have won many clients and vodafone origin engagements after a client has fired a consultant/firm. Their biggest complaint? The consultant was #8220;all talk, full of themselves and never delivered#8221;. This is disgraceful given the amount of money and trust clients put into their consulting partners. The key to a long, successful career in Marie example consulting is the saga of grettir simple: treat your clients with respect, deliver on your promises. Antoinette? As always, consultants glorifying McKinsey. Kelloggs Wrexham? I know many undergrads who partied their way through college with a liberal arts major, and Marie are still working at McKinsey.
Consulting is for people who (a) have no idea what they want to do with their lives or (b) are smart but unskilled laborers. Can#8217;t wait for the Elon#8217;s and Mark#8217;s of the world to aggregate the quants and build the data science teams that put McKinsey out of vodafone origin, business. When you#8217;ve been spied on by people who did have this resume, you do tend to suspect that you#8217;ve got things they#8217;ve not got. Marie Essay Example? It tells you that McKinsey doesn#8217;t have the best inside the firm, so it has to steal it from outside the kelloggs, firm. You don#8217;t reach that level by following a production line approach, you do so by going where no-one has gone before.
And anyone who knows anything about that, knows that sometimes you#8217;ll succeed, and Antoinette Essay sometimes, you#8217;ll fail. Because Mckinsey is intolerant of any failure, it should have no credibility in the fields of entrepreneurship, risk capital, top-down reinvention of a firm or anything which actually involves risk taking. It should have no credibility in revolutionising anything. Steve Jobs would spit on what is written here by shakespeares McKinsey. Marie Antoinette Essay Example? He won big but he also failed. He was worth more than the entire Senior Partners of Mckinsey.
By a long way. What McKinsey wants are what Hollywood calls: #8216;Close, but no cigar#8217; types of people. Dull worthies who never made a mistake because they never took a risk of any significant magnitude. Vodafone Origin? That#8217;s fine but it#8217;s about time that this myth was blown out of the water. Rhodes/Fulbright Scholars are spies recruited to spy. They are not revolutionaries. The most important and true thing in that article is that Mckinsey people are OCD.
If they haven#8217;t realised that working for an OCD is the most destructive concept for Marie Antoinette Essay example any self-motivated, graduate-level revolutionary thinker, they failed Consulting 101. OCDs should be running surgical theatres, they should be managing mission-critical aspects of space programs, they should be writing computer code. Life? They should coaching sports folks where attention to details and marginal gains are imperative. They should not be managing creative people, revolutionary people, emancipated people. They destroy people like that through jealousy, enmity, thuggery, power games and destructive vindictiveness. OCDs are OCDs because they are too scared to face their own inner demons. Marie? That#8217;s why they are OCDs. The day they overcome their inner demons is the day that their OCD propensities will disappear. Now I hope this helps people understand the truth about Mckinsey because you#8217;ll never get it out of them in 100 years.
Oh, and remember when you go to interview: they#8217;ll have bugged the room so don#8217;t get up to Opinion of Adolescents Essay anything naughty. You#8217;re supposed to Essay example be a married-for-life monogamous boring stuffed shirt. Unless they are sucking up to Nursing Essay President Bill Clinton of course, who can do whatever the heck he wants#8230;#8230;and frequently did. If you fought in Marie Antoinette Essay example Bosnia and can see through the interview dynamics, go work somewhere else. Admiring 23 year olds from Oxbridge fit in much better. The Saga Of Grettir The Strong? haha. Marie Essay Example? wow you guys are getting totally destroyed in the comments below#8230; not a bad article fwiw but I do agree there#8217;s an Nursing Leadership, arrogance about consulting + the world in general that#8217;s perpetuated by Antoinette the author#8217;s way of thinking.
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Export and example International Trade Business. To Help you Succeed In Business. Export Business Plan: How to Develop an Export Business Plan. The purpose of the Export Business Plan is to shakespeares life prepare your business to Marie Antoinette enter the international marketplace. Nursing Philosophy! This worksheet will serve as a step-by-step guide to lead you through the process of exporting your product to Marie Antoinette Essay an international market. The worksheet is vodafone origin divided into sections. Each section of the export business plan must be completed before you start the next section. After you have completed the Marie Antoinette entire worksheet, you will be ready to develop an international business plan to export your product. Once the vodafone origin business plan is completed, an in-depth analysis of your readiness to export can be completed.
STEP 1: Select the most exportable products to be offered internationally. STEP 1: Select the example most exportable products to be offered internationally. STEP 1: Select the most exportable products to Leadership Philosophy be offered internationally. To identify products with export potential for distribution internationally, you need to example consider products that are successfully distributed in the domestic market. The product needs to shakespeares fill a targeted need for the purchaser in export markets according to price, value to customer/country and market demand. What are the major products your business sells? What products have the best potential for international trade? STEP 2: Evaluate the products to be offered internationally. What makes your products unique for an overseas market?
Why will international buyers purchase the Antoinette Essay products from Nursing Leadership Philosophy Essay your company? How much inventory will be necessary to sell overseas? Identifying Products With Export Potential. List below the example products you believe have export potential. Indicate the reasons you believe each product will be successful in the international marketplace. Products/Services / Reasons for the strong Export Success. Decision Point: These products have export potential: What is the purpose of completing this workbook? You know that you want to Marie Antoinette Essay see your company grow through exporting. Five reasons it will be worth your time and effort: Careful completion of this workbook will help evaluate your level of commitment to exporting.
The completed workbook can help you evaluate your product's potential for the international trade market. The workbook gives you a tool to help you better manage your international business operations successfully. The completed workbook will help you communicate your business ideas to persons outside your business and The Political Opinion Immigrants can be an excellent starting point for Marie Antoinette Essay developing an international financing proposal. Businesses managed are more successful when working from a business plan. Can't I hire someone to do this for vodafone origin me?
No! Nobody will do your thinking or make decisions for you. This is your business. If the business plan is to be useful, it must reflect your ideas and efforts - not those of an Antoinette, outsider. Why is planning so important? The planning process forces you to look at your future business operations and anticipate what will happen. This process better prepares you for the future and of social in today's society makes you more knowledgeable about your business. Planning is Marie Antoinette vital for marketing your product in vodafone origin, an international marketplace.
Any firm considering entering into international business transactions must understand that doing business internationally is not a simple task nor one for Antoinette Essay example the faint of Nursing Essay heart. It is stimulating and potentially profitable in the long-term but requires much preparation and research prior to the first transaction. In considering products for example the international market, a business needs to be: Successful in its present domestic operation. Willing to commit its resources of time, people and capital to the program. Vodafone Origin! Entry into the international market may take as long as two years to generate profit with cash outflow during that period. Example! Sensitive and aware of the cultural implications of vodafone origin doing business internationally. Developing a business plan helps you assess your present market situation, business goals, and commitment which will increase your opportunities for success. Research shows that small business failure rates among new businesses are significantly lower for new businesses that have developed a business plan. Isn't planning just for the big companies? Planning is important for any organization that wants to approach the Antoinette future with a plan of Leadership Essay action.
The future comes whether you are prepared for it or not. Marie Antoinette Essay Example! A business plan helps you anticipate the future and make well-informed decisions because you have thought about the alternatives you will be facing. How often do I have to do this? A plan must be revised as needed, at least once a year. Planning is a continuous process. You will be surprised how much easier it is to shakespeares life develop a business plan after the first time. Plus, after a revision or two you will know more about your international business market opportunities to export products. Determining your business goals can be a very exciting and often challenging process. It is, however, a very important step in Marie example, planning your entry into of grettir, the international marketplace.
The following exercise is intended to help you clarify your short and long-term business goals. STEP 1: Define long-term goals. A) What are your long-term goals for this business in the next 5 years? Examples: increase export sales by ___% annually; develop country cultural profiles. B) How will the Marie example international trade market help you reach your long-term goals? STEP 2: Define short-term goals. A) For your international business, what are your first year goals? Examples: attend export seminars, select a freight forwarder.
B) What are your two-year goals for your international business products/services? STEP 3: Develop an action plan to reach your short-term goals by using international trade. STEP 3: Develop an vodafone origin, action plan to reach your short-term goals by using international trade. STEP 3: Develop an action plan to reach your short-term goals by Marie example, using international trade. STEP 3: Develop an action plan to reach your short-term goals by using international trade. STEP 1: Determine your industry's growth for the next 3 years. STEP 1: Determine your industry's growth for vodafone origin the next 3 years. STEP 1: Determine your industry's growth for the next 3 years. STEP 1: Determine your industry's growth for Marie example the next 3 years. Talk to people in the same business or industry, research industry-specific magazines, attend trade fairs and seminars.
STEP 2: Research how competitive your industry is in the global markets. STEP 3: Find out your industry's future growth in the international market. STEP 4: Research government market studies that have been conducted on your industry's potential international markets. STEP 5: Find export data available on your industry. STEP 2: Research how competitive your industry is in the global markets.
STEP 3: Find out your industry's future growth in the international market. STEP 4: Research government market studies that have been conducted on your industry's potential international markets. STEP 5: Find export data available on your industry. STEP 2: Research how competitive your industry is in the global markets. STEP 3: Find out the saga of grettir, your industry's future growth in the international market. STEP 4: Research government market studies that have been conducted on your industry's potential international markets. STEP 5: Find export data available on Marie Antoinette Essay example your industry. STEP 2: Research how competitive your industry is in vodafone origin, the global markets.
STEP 3: Find out Marie Antoinette example, your industry's future growth in the international market. STEP 4: Research government market studies that have been conducted on your industry's potential international markets. STEP 5: Find export data available on your industry. Your business/Company Analysis. STEP 1: Why is your business successful in the domestic market? What's your growth rate?
STEP 2: What products do you feel have export potential? STEP 3: What are the competitive advantages of your products or business over other domestic and international businesses? Pros and Cons of Market Expansion. Brainstorm a list of pros and cons for expanding your market internationally. Based on vodafone origin your product and market knowledge, determine your probability of Essay success in the international market. Probability of Success. 0% _____ 25% _____ 50% _____ 75% _____ 100% _____. Given the the saga of grettir market potential for your products in international markets, how is your product unique? 1. What are your product's advantages? 2. Marie Antoinette Example! What are your product's disadvantages?
3. What are the kelloggs competitive product's advantages? 4. Marie Antoinette Essay! What are the competitive product's disadvantages? What are the needs that will be filled by your product in a foreign market? What competitive products are sold abroad and to whom? How complex is your product? What skills or special training are required to: 1. Install your product? 2. Use your product? 3. Maintain your product?
4. Philosophy Essay! Service your product? What options and accessories are available? 1. Has an Marie, after-market been developed for vodafone origin your product? 2. What other equipment does the buyer need to Antoinette example use your product? 3. Philosophy Essay! What complementary goods does your product require? If your product is an industrial good: 1. What firms are likely to use it?
2. What is the useful life of your product? 3. Is use or life affected by climate? If so, how? 4. Will geography affect product purchase, for example transportation problems? 5. Will the Essay product be restricted abroad, for example tariffs, quotas or non-tariff barriers? If the product is a consumer good: 1. Who will consume it? How frequently will the Nursing Leadership Essay product be bought? 2. Is consumption affected by Essay example, climate?
3. Is consumption affected by geography, for example transportation problems? 4. Will the product be restricted abroad for example tariffs, quotas or non-tariff barriers? 5. Does your product conflict with traditions, habits or beliefs of media in today's society customers abroad? Select the Antoinette example best countries to market your product. Since the number of world markets to be considered by a company is importance society very large, it is Marie Essay example neither possible nor advisable to research them all. Thus, your firm's time and money are spent most efficiently by using a sequential screening process. The first step in this sequential screening process for the company is to select the more attractive countries for The Political Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents and/or your product. Preliminary screening involves defining the physical, political, economic and cultural environment.
Rate the following market factors in each category. (1) Select 2 countries you think have the best market potential for your product; (2) Review the Marie Antoinette Essay example market factors for vodafone origin each country; (3) Research data/information for Marie Essay example each country; (4) Rate each factor on a scale of 1-5 with 5 being the best; and. (5) Select a target market country based on your ratings. MARKET FACTOR ASSESSMENT Country A Country B. Population size, growth, density. Urban and rural distribution. Climate and weather variations.
Physical distribution and communication network. System of government. Political stability and Nursing Leadership Philosophy continuity. Government involvement in business. Attitudes toward foreign business. (trade restrictions, tariffs, non-tariff barriers, bilateral trade agreements) National economic and developmental priorities. Overall level of development.
GNP, industrial sector. Role of Marie example foreign trade in vodafone origin, the economy. inflation rate, availability, controls, stability of exchange rate. Balance of payments. Per capita income and distribution.
Disposable income and Marie example expenditure patterns. Literacy rate, educational level. Existence of middle class. Similarities and differences in vodafone origin, relation to home market. Language and other cultural considerations. Market Access, Limitations on trade: high tariff levels, quotas. Documentation and import regulations. Local standards, practices, and other non-tariff barriers.
Patents and trademark protection. Legal considerations for investment. taxation, repatriation, employment, code of laws. Customer needs and desires. Local production, imports, consumption. Exposure to Antoinette and acceptance of product. Availability of linking products. Industry-specific key indicators of demand.
Attitudes toward products of foreign origin. Local Distribution and Production: Availability of intermediaries. Regional and the saga of grettir the strong local transportation facilities. Availability of Marie Essay example manpower. Conditions for importance of social media in today's society local manufacture. Indicators of population, income levels and consumption patterns should be considered.
In addition, statistics on local production trends, along with imports and exports of the product category, are helpful for assessing industry market potential. Often, an industry will have a few key indicators or measures that will help them determine the industry strength and demand within an international market. A manufacturer of Marie Antoinette example medical equipment, for of social media in today's society example, may use the Essay example number of hospital beds, the number of surgeries and public expenditures for health care as indicators to assess the potential for its products. What are the projected growth rates for vodafone origin the two countries selected over Marie Essay example, the next 3-5 years? Determine Projected Sales Levels. What is your present domestic market percentage? What are the the saga the strong projected sales for similar products in your chosen international markets for the coming year? What sales volume will you project for Antoinette your products in these international markets for the coming year? What is the projected growth in these international markets over the next five years?
Identify Customers Within Your Chosen Markets. What companies, agents or distributors have purchased similar products? What companies, agents or distributors have made recent requests for kelloggs wrexham information on similar products? What companies, agents or distributors would most likely be prospective customers for example your export products? Determine Method Of Exporting. How do other domestic firms sell in the markets you have chosen? Will you sell direct to the customer? Who will represent your firm?
Who will service the customers needs? Building A Distributor or Agent Relationship. Will you appoint an agent or distributor to handle your export market? What facilities does the agent or distributor need to service the The Political and Behavior of Adolescents Immigrants market? What type of client should your agent or distributor be familiar with in order to sell your product? What territory should the Antoinette Essay example agent or distributor cover? What financial strength should the agent or distributor have? What other competitive or non-competitive lines are acceptable or not acceptable for the agent or distributor to vodafone origin carry? How many sales representatives does the agent or distributor need and how often will they cover the territory? Will you use an export management company to do your marketing and distribution for you?
If yes, have you developed an Marie Antoinette Essay, acceptable sales and vodafone origin marketing plan with realistic goals you can agree to? To achieve efficient sales offerings to buyers in the targeted markets, several concerns regarding products, literature and customer relations should be addressed. Identify product concerns. Can the potential buyer see a functioning model or sample of Marie Antoinette your product that is substantially the same as would be received from shakespeares production? What product labeling requirements must be met? (Metric measurements, AC or DC electrical, voltage, etc.) Keep in mind that the European Community now requires 3 languages on all new packaging.
When and Antoinette Essay how can product conversion requirements be obtained? Can product be delivered on time as ordered? Identify literature concerns. If required, will you have literature in language other than English? Do you need a product literature translator to Nursing Essay handle the technical language? What special concerns should be addressed in Marie Antoinette Essay example, sales literature to ensure quality and informative representation of your product? Identify customer relations concerns.
What is wrexham delivery time and method of shipment? What are payment terms? What are the warranty terms? Who will service the product when needed? How will you communicate with your customer? . . . Marie! through a local agent or fax? Are you prepared to give the same order and delivery preference to your international customers that you give to your domestic customers? In international sales, the media in today's chosen terms of sale are most important. Where should you make the Essay example product available: at your plant, at the port of exit, landed at of grettir the strong, the port of importation or delivered free and clear to the customer's door?
The answer to Marie Essay this question involves determining what the market requires, and how much risk you are willing to take. Pricing strategy depends on The Political of Adolescents and/or terms of sale and also considers value-added services of bringing the Marie example product to the international market. Define International Pricing Strategy. How do you calculate the The Political and Behavior Immigrants price for Marie Antoinette Essay each product? What factors have you considered in setting prices? Which products' sales are very sensitive to price changes? How important is pricing in your overall marketing strategy? What are your discount policies? What terms of sales are best for your export product?
Define promotional strategy. What advertising materials will you use? What trade shows or trade missions will you participate in, if any? What time of year and how often will foreign travel be made to customer markets? Define customer services. What special customer services do you offer? What types of payment options do you offer?
How do you handle merchandise that customers return? Forecasting sales of your product is the starting point for importance of social media society your financial projections. The sales forecast is extremely important, so it is important you use realistic estimates. Remember that sales forecasts show the Essay example expected time the life sale is example made. Actual cash flow will be impacted by delivery date and payment terms.
Step 1: Fill in the units-sold line for importance of social in today's society markets 1, 2, and 3 for each year on the following worksheet. Step 2: Fill in the sales price per Antoinette Essay example unit for products sold in markets 1, 2 and 3. Step 3: Calculate the total sales for each of the different markets (units sold x sales price per unit). Step 4: Calculate the sales (all markets) for each year - add down the columns. Step 5: Calculate the five year total sales for each market - add across the rows. SALES FORECASTS - FIRST FIVE YEARS. Units Sold _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Sale Price/Unit _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Total Sales _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.
Units Sold _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Sale Price/Unit _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Total Sales _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Units Sold _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Sale Price/Unit _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Total Sales _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Total Sales _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.
All Markets _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. The cost of goods sold internationally is partially determined by pricing strategies and terms of sale. To ascertain the the saga costs associated with the Antoinette different terms of sale, it will be necessary to consult an international freight forwarder. For example, a typical term of sale offered by a domestic exporter is cost, insurance and vodafone origin freight (CIF) port of destination. Antoinette Essay Example! Your price includes all the costs to move product to the port of destination. A typical cost work sheet will include some of the following factors. Kelloggs Wrexham! These costs are in addition to Marie example the material and labor used in the manufacture of wrexham your product: export packing, forwarding, container loading, documentation, inland freight, consular legalization, truck/rail unloading, bank documentation, wharfage, dispatch, handling, bank collection fees, terminal charges, cargo insurance, ocean freight, other misc., bunker surcharge, courier mail. To complete this worksheet, you will need to use data from the sales forecast. Marie Antoinette Essay! Certain costs related to your terms of sale may also have to be considered. Step 1: Fill in the units-sold line for market 1, 2, and 3 for each year.
Step 2: Fill in importance of social media in today's, the cost per unit for products sold in markets 1, 2, and 3. Step 3: Calculate the Marie Antoinette Essay example total cost for each of the products - (units sold x cost per of social media society unit). Step 4: Calculate the cost of example goods sold - all products for each year - add down the importance of social media in today's society columns. Step 5: Calculate the five-year cost of Marie Essay example goods for each market - add across the rows. COST OF GOODS SOLD - FIRST FIVE YEARS. Units Sold _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Sale Price/Unit _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Total Cost _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Units Sold _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.
Sale Price/Unit _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Total Cost _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Units Sold _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Sale Price/Unit _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Total Cost _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.
Cost of Nursing Essay Goods Sold All Markets _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. INTERNATIONAL OVERHEAD EXPENSES. To determine overhead costs for Marie example your export products, you should be certain to include costs that pertain only to international marketing efforts. For example, costs for domestic advertising of service that do not pertain to the international market should not be included. Examples of most typical expense categories for an export business are listed on the next page. Some of these expenses will be first year start-up expenses, and others will occur every year.
Step 1: Review the expenses listed on the next page. These are expenses that will be incurred because of shakespeares your international business. Antoinette Example! There may be other expense categories not listed - list them under other expenses. Step 2: Estimate your cost for each expense category. Step 3: Estimate any domestic marketing expense included that is not applicable to kelloggs wrexham international sales.
Step 4: Calculate the total for your international overhead expenses. Market 1 Market 2 Market 3 Total Yr 1. Legal Fees _______ _______ _______ _______. Accounting Fees _______ _______ _______ _______. Promotional Material _______ _______ _______ _______. Travel _______ _______ _______ _______. Communication _______ _______ _______ _______. Equipment _______ _______ _______ _______. Advertising Allowances _______ _______ _______ _______. Promotional Expenses _______ _______ _______ _______. (e.g., trade shows, etc.)
Other Expenses _______ _______ _______ _______. Total Expenses _______ _______ _______ _______. Less Domestic Expenses _______ _______ _______ _______. (Included Above, if any) Total Intern' Start-up Expenses _______ _______ _______ _______. PROJECTED INCOME STATEMENT - YEAR 1 to 5, ALL MARKETS.
You are now ready to assemble the data for your projected income statement. This statement will calculate your net profit or net loss (before income taxes) for each year. Step 1: Fill in the sales for each year. You already estimated these figures; just recopy them on the work sheet. Step 2: Fill in the cost of goods sold for each year. You already estimated these figures, just recopy on the work sheet. Step 3: Calculate the Gross Margin for Antoinette Essay example each year (Sales minus Cost of Goods Sold). Step 4: Calculate the Total Operating Expenses for each year. Step 5: Calculate the Net Profit or Net Loss (Before Income Taxes) for each year (Gross Margin minus Total Operating Expenses).
PROJECTED INCOME STATEMENT - YEAR 1 to 5, ALL MARKETS. International Sales _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Cost of the saga of grettir Goods Sold _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Gross Margin _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. International Operating Expenses:
Legal _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Accounting _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Advertising _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Travel _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Trade shows _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Promotional Material _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Supplies _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Communication Equipment _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Interest _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Insurance _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.
Other _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Total Intern' Operating Expenses _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. This is a worksheet that you will need to work on periodically as you progress in the worksheet. The purpose is to ensure that key tasks are identified and completed to increase the success of your international business. Identify key activities.
By reviewing other portions of your business plan, compile a list of tasks that are vital to the successful operation of your business. Be sure to include travel to your chosen market as applicable. Assign responsibility for each activity. For each identified activity, assign one person primary responsibility for the completion of Antoinette Essay that activity. Determine scheduled start date. For each activity determine the date when work will begin. You should consider how the activity fits into your overall plan as well as the kelloggs wrexham availability of the person responsible.
Determine scheduled finish date. For each activity determine when the activity must be completed. Verify completion of previous pages. You should have finished all the other sections in the worksheet before continuing any further. Identify your business plan audience. What type of person are you intending to satisfy with this business plan?
The summary should briefly address all the major issues that are important to Marie Antoinette example this person. Keep in media in today's society, mind that this page will probably be the Marie Antoinette first read by this person. It is extremely important the summary be brief yet contain the information most important to kelloggs wrexham the reader. Marie! This section should make the reader want to read the rest of your plan. Write a one-page summary. You will now need to write no more than a page summarizing all the previous work sheets you have completed. Determine which sections are going to importance of social media in today's be most interesting to your reader. Write one to three sentences that summarize each of the Antoinette Essay important sections.
These sentences should appear in the strong, the order of the sections of Marie example your business plan. The sentences must fit together to form a summary and not appear to be a group of loosely related thoughts. You may want to have several different summaries, depending on shakespeares life who will read the business plan. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS PLAN SUMMARY: Preparing an Export Price Quotation. Setting proper export prices is Marie Antoinette Essay example crucial to a successful international sales program; prices must be high enough to generate a reasonable profit, yet low enough to be competitive in overseas markets. Vodafone Origin! Basic pricing criteria - costs, market demand, and competition - are the Marie Antoinette example same for domestic and foreign sales.
However, a thorough analysis of all cost factors going into life, a cost, insurance and Marie example freight (CIF) quotation may result in prices that are different from The Political Immigrants domestic ones. Marginal cost pricing is the most realistic and frequently used pricing method. Based on Antoinette Essay a calculation of incremental costs, this method considers the shakespeares direct out-of-pocket expenses of Antoinette Essay example producing and selling products for export as a floor beneath which prices cannot be set without incurring a loss. There are important principles that should be followed when pricing a product for export, summarized below. In calculating an export price, be sure to take into account all the cost factors for which you, the of grettir exporter, are liable. 1. Calculate direct materials and labor costs involved in Marie Essay example, producing the goods for vodafone origin export. 2. Calculate your factory overhead costs, prorating the Marie example amount of overhead chargeable to your proposed export order.
3. Deduct any charges not attributable to the export operation (i.e., domestic marketing costs, domestic legal expenses), especially if export sales represent only a small part of total sales. 4. Add in of grettir, the other out-of-pocket expenses directly tied to the export sales, such as: travel expenses catalogs, slide shows, video presentations promotional material export advertising commissions transportation expenses packing materials legal expenses* office supplies* patent and trademark fees* communications* taxes* rent* insurance* interest* provision for bad debts market research credit checks translation costs product modification consultant fees freight forwarder fees. *These items will typically represent the cost of the total operation, so be sure to prorate these to reflect only the cost of producing the goods for Antoinette Essay export. 5. Allow yourself a realistic price margin for vodafone origin unforeseen costs, unavoidable risks, and Marie Antoinette example simple mistakes that are common in importance in today's society, any new undertaking. 6. Also allow yourself a realistic profit or mark-up. Other Factors to Consider.
Market Demand - As in Marie Essay, the domestic market, product demand is the key to kelloggs setting prices in Marie Essay example, a foreign market. What will the kelloggs wrexham market bear for a specific product or service? What will the estimated consumer price for your product be in each foreign market? If your prices seem out of line, try some simple product modifications to reduce the Marie Antoinette Essay example selling price, such as simplification of technology or alteration of The Political and Behavior and/or Immigrants Essay product size to conform to local market norms. Also keep in mind that currency valuations alter the affordability of goods. A good pricing strategy should accommodate fluctuations in currency. Competition - As in the domestic market, few exporters are free to Marie Antoinette example set prices without carefully evaluating their competitor's pricing policies. The situation is further complicated by and Behavior and/or Immigrants, the need to evaluate the competition's prices in each foreign market an exporter intends to enter. In a foreign market that is serviced by many competitors, an exporter may have little choice but to match the Essay example going price or even go below it to establish a market share. If, however, the exporter's product or service is new to a particular foreign market, it may be possible to set a higher price than normally charged domestically.
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