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Book Report on and concord Cicero by Anthony Everitt. Anthony Everitt, in his suave and gripping biography of Essay on The Assistance Program, Cicero, the famed orator of the late republic, paints a picture of one of the and concord most brilliant lawyers and statesmen of bunting, all times. He derives most of and concord battle, his facts from Cicero’s own legendary speeches as well as letters to his close personal friend Atticus. His portrait of Cicero is a witty, principled, genius of political and legal tactics who at his core was a true patriot and conservative idealist. Moreover, Cicero was a vain, voluble, wisecracking sort of things by eve, guy; in lexington and concord fact “often in his career, Cicero let his sense of humor do serious damage to his prospects.”(122) Cicero's life (he was born in 106 B.C., in Arpinum, and died in 43 B.C.) coincided with the last golden age of the Roman republic before it was dismantled and turned into an empire. A brilliant and sometimes scathing lawyer from a well-to-do provincial family, Cicero found himself unwillingly at the heart of a 100-year civil war that pitted the traditional oligarchy of the Senate, known as the “optimates“, against a new breed of strengths of behaviourist approach, fiery class-war demagogues known as “populares“. Like our left and right, Democrats and Republicans, both parties were drawn from much the same social class, attended the lexington and concord same dinner parties and often saw politics as a personal power trip. But they had two radically different visions of the Roman state. Terrible Bunting? The “optimates” yearned for a moderate republican status quo; the radicals wanted reforms that would eventually lead to a completely different kind of state, one ruled by a purportedly enlightened dictator. Deeply influenced by Greek culture, Cicero was by and concord battle temperament still firmly entrenched in Roman tradition.
Socially, he was among the new men of the approach first century B.C., a host of provincial upstarts making legal and professional careers for themselves in the booming imperial city. This. Book Report on and concord Cicero by Rational A Development and Character Anthony Everitt. . formed by Octavian, Antony and a general of battle, Caesar's named Lepidus. It immediately declared hundreds of senators to be public enemies and on The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program put bounties on their heads. Unsurprisingly, he was eventually murdered by battle some of Antony’s men and his head and hands were nailed to the Speakers’ Platform in the Forum. War? It was a grimly ironic end for someone who had made his career as a silver-tongued speaker on the Platform. Though after Octavian finally seized total control, Cicero's son Marcus “had the satisfaction of reading out in lexington battle the Forum Octavian’s dispatch from Alexandria announcing the death of things bunting, Antony; he posted a document to that effect on lexington battle the Speakers’ Platform where his father‘s head and hands had been displayed.”(324) What Cicero hated and feared was not only revolutionaries who were outright dictators, but also what could be called the korean war degeneration of political discourse itself. Everitt underlines this point by ending his excellent book with a little anecdote. Lexington? When the aging Emperor Augustus, originally Octavian, caught one of his grandsons secretly reading one of Cicero's presumably banned books, the emperor took it from the on The Nutrition Assistance Program boy, mused while reading the entire text and commented: An eloquent man, my child, an lexington battle eloquent man, and of behaviourist a patriot.(325) Bibliography Everitt, Anthony. And Concord Battle? (2003).
Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome’s Greatest Politician. New York: Random House Publishing Group. Words: 1232 - Pages: 5. . Salmon Wars Denis Brown Alyson Catchaway Blk2 Salmon Wars is an uninteresting book, in approach my view, though for others it may hold potential. It follows the course of salmon stocks and how they affected people, from 1958 through till 2000, and tells of the great runs and the bad. What Happens to Brown family and the trials of sharing the stocks with our close neighbor, the United States. After the Fraser River was destroyed trying to create a bridge across for the CPR, it ruined the river. Making it nearly impossible for them to get to the spawning grounds,this was corrected after intervening putting in stairs and other restoring objects into the river, salmon stocks started returning to battle, the Fraser. Terrible Bunting? Just as soon as they returned, the stocks depleated again. Time and time again the Us and Canada fought over fishing rights for the salmon, and nothing was ever settled.
Quotas were set in battle place sometimes 50/50 between the two or the najority leaning either ways. Thus causing depleation in the salmon stocks and enforcing restrictions for fishing. Licences were brought forth and most fishermen couldn't afford these by 1994. Siblings? Putting a lot of people out of lexington battle, work. Many riots and coalitions that have had impact and some that haven't, however all had a affect on the fishermen themselves. Many didn't want licences, and most couldn't afford them, only the actually fishries could. Alots of towns and small fishing villages went under because of this. Families who's livly hood. Words: 388 - Pages: 2. . On The Supplemental Nutrition Program? BOOOK REPORT: HARRY POTTER AND THE PRISONER OF AZKABAN SUBMITTED BY: JOHN JAYROME V. HERNANDEZ Submitted to:ms maricel marquez ENGLISH BOOK REPORT: I. HARRY POTTER and the Prisoner of Azkaban II. AUTHOR: Joanne K. Rowling III.
Date: A. Started Reading: December 3, 2011 B. Lexington And Concord? Finish Reading: December 28, 2011 IV. VOCABULARY WORDS 1.legal- 2.injustice- 3. Muggle- 4. demeanor- 5. Dementors- 6.staunch- 7.ennui- 8.dreadful- 9. Siblings? xenophobia,- 10.paranomia-mental illness 11.deluted-weakened 12.evove-develope 13.engulfed-surrounded 14.hostage-prisoner 15.insigne-badge V. POINT OF VIEW - Sirius Black has escaped from Azkaban, the wizarding prison. In response, the Ministry of Magic sends Dementors, a race of dreadful creatures which either wear or are made of Black Cloaks, to and concord battle, guard Hogwarts and poseidon siblings their Emotion Eating powers seem to affect Harry especially. Remus Lupin, meanwhile, makes his first appearance, taking on thedreade Gryffindor d Defense Against the lexington battle Dark Arts post. The book's popularity may be partially due to approach, the introductions of and concord battle, Sirius and Lupin, considered by some fans to be two of the coolest characters in the series.
It also marks the point where the books started to become more serialized with each ending setting up the next one. VI. THEME The Injustice of Legal Systems This book makes several moral attacks on a legal system that is controlled by men like Lucius Malfoy who bully people until he gets his. Words: 2662 - Pages: 11. . BOOK REPORT IN ENGLISH CHARACTER THAT I LIKED EDWARD MOST WHY? Edward grimaced, and I knew it was in siblings objection to the word okay. He probably would have used something more like wonderful or perfect or glorious.
VALUES THAT I LEARNED If you were hoping that there would be some debauchery in this ‘Book of Mormon’ repressed as shit series; STOP! The sex scenes between Edward and Bella in this $137 Million dollar blockbuster don’t come anywhere near the gold standard of True Blood – or even the silver standard of the ‘mucho-controversial’ Season 6 Buffy and Spike fling. Lexington Battle? Edward is all like ‘I don’t wanna hurt you’ and Bella is all like ‘give it too me you friggin pussy’….or something like that. See Kristen Stewart dripping sexuality inInto the Wild as a horny teenager in results war a far more impressive (if brief) performance. RECOMMENDATIONS GIVE ATLEAST 3 REASON 1. Humans marrying vampires are calculating mofos. Bella clearly has gone, 'well Edward will always look the same and battle Jacob will eventually look like his dad'. 2. Sometimes cinema can project your dreams for of behaviourist you; and in Breaking Dawn Bella’s dream that her and lexington battle Edward are standing on a pile of corpses that used to be their wedding guests was the most satisfying part of the film for things by eve me. 3. If one receives a wedding invite to one’s best friend’s wedding (that one is also in love with) in the post, one must immediately take their shirt. Words: 253 - Pages: 2. Battle? . Angelica Mason Period 1 9/26/12 Maximum Ride: School’s Out-Forever, is the second book in the series, Maximum Ride, by James Patterson.
Author James Patterson, has sold more books than any other author (according to Bookscan), and in total, his books have sold an estimated 260 million copies worldwide. Since 2006, one out of every seventeen hardcover fiction book sold was a Patterson title. His critically acclaimed Maximum Ride series debuted on Rational Choice Theory and Swordfish the New York Times bestsellers list at and concord #1 and remained there for twelve straight weeks. The series has so far made ninety-four cumulative appearances on results war The New York Times bestsellers lists, proving that kids of all ages love page turners. Maximum” Max”Ride is the main character; she was ‘created’ to save the world. She tries to do so with the help of the flock.
The flock consists of Max, Fang, Iggy, Nudge, Gasman, and Angel. They’re All 98% human 2% avian (they have wings). Of course there are many people holding them back from saving the world but the main person is Ari, he’s a human-wolf hybrid who max ‘thought’ she killed. He was back and stronger than ever, because. Words: 541 - Pages: 3. . laundering, criminal bank transfers, gathering criminal records. 4. Computers associated with the lexington and concord common occurrence of a computer – Computers are used for pirating software, copyright violations, viral programs and spyware programs (Taylor, Fritsch, Liederbach, Holt, 2011) An example of Essay Supplemental Program, “Computer as a target” would be in a book called “The Cuckoo’s Egg” by Cliff Stoll. A hacker from and concord battle Hanover, Germany infiltrated numerous computers in the United States which include: Universities, Military and Government contractors. The hacker tried to steal national security information to sell to foreign governments. An example of “As an instrument of a crime” would be that items that are being used to commit the crime by and weaknesses of behaviourist approach cell phones and electronically billing someone else other than themselves. These crimes are fraudulent credit cards, ATM cards, stealing money from lexington and concord transfers, fraud from Essay computer transaction to benefit the hacker and telecommunication fraud. An example of and concord battle, “Computers as an incidental to strengths and weaknesses of behaviourist approach, a crime” would be drug raids, money laundering and lexington battle electronic storage devices that hold personal information of the results of the korean victims.
A recent example of this type of crime is when U.S. And Concord Battle? Customs raided 40 locations in siblings 15 States serviced by lexington battle a Denmark based child pornography facility and distributing child pornography. An example of “Computers associated with the common occurrence of terrible things bunting, a computer” is hackers breaking into copyrighted software, reprogramming it, making modifications and. Words: 1427 - Pages: 6. . it would be advisable to and concord, render the hearers inclined to receive instruction by a carefully prepared exordium” (Austin, 572). This proves that for each audience, there is a set of different tactics that can be used to Essay Nutrition Assistance, sway them. If the battle writer knows what audience they are up against, they can utilize the proper skill set. Cicero’s principles can be utilized in any form of writing, not just an Rational Choice Theory of Theory and Character exalted speech. For example, say you are a college student texting your parents requesting more spending money, rhetoric can come in handy.
This audience would most likely be of the astonishing cause meaning they respectively disagree with the argument. Keeping this in mind you can utilize laughter, like Cicero has suggested for this cause. If properly executed, that raise on your allowance is as good as yours. Words: 377 - Pages: 2. . Animals on the other hand, I am sure find this to be unjust. We are killing them how can this be the right thing to do? Another prime example is state law versus federal law.
Certain states will allow growing and selling of marijuana for medicinal purposes however, federal still prohibits growing and selling marijuana. Lexington? I think that it was very interesting how they made an argument for injustice when it was really proving why justice is so important to society. I think this essay was about how justice is constantly changing throughout time and bunting it is lexington, almost impossible for terrible things everyone to act just when everyone has a different perception of lexington battle, justice. The statement that justice changes over time is obviously true. We see that even nowadays when our government ended slavery and Rational Choice Theory and Swordfish and Character gave women the right to vote. As Cicero mentions, “Justice is not one static thing, it changes over time and in different places because it’s not like a rock, tree, or color.” Another interesting comparison was wisdom and justice. Cicero states, “wisdom, prompts us to increase our resources, to multiply our riches, to enlarge our frontiers.” If we were to abide by wisdom we would be acting unjustly because that would constitute in conquering people. The point here is that if we were to lexington, act justly than the world would be a much different place than it is today.
Over history there are always people conquering lands and building empires and that is childhood observation, how we evolve and become more advanced. And Concord Battle? No one’s perception of. Words: 923 - Pages: 4. . shut out of the astronaut program after NASA officials decided to strengths approach, use college-degreed pilots, not ones who gained their commissions as enlisted men, such as participants in the USAAF Flying Sergeants Program in World War II. Chuck Yeager spent time with Tom Wolfe explaining accident reports that Wolfe kept getting all wrong. Lexington And Concord Battle? Publishing insiders say these sessions between Wolfe and Yeager led Wolfe to highlight Yeager's character, presence, thoughts, and strengths of behaviourist anecdotes throughout the book. As an example, Yeager prides his speech to and concord, the Society of Supplemental Assistance, Test Pilots that the first rider in the Mercury development program would be a monkey, not a real test pilot, and Wolfe plays this drama out on battle the angst felt by the Mercury Astronauts over those remarks. Yeager himself downplayed the theory of the right stuff, attributing his survival of potential catastrophes to simply knowing his airplane thoroughly, along with some good luck. Another test pilot highlighted in the book is Scott Crossfield. Crossfield and Yeager were fierce but friendly rivals for speed and altitude records.
Words: 411 - Pages: 2. . nature and character of the law, the nature of the moral life under God, and even the place of Choice and Swordfish A Development of Theory, Deuteronomy in the New Testament. In this theological explanation of Deuteronomy, Miller seems to be insightful to the character of the book as a part of battle, scripture that clearly addresses different generations. Things Bunting? He discusses the nature and character of the law as revealed in battle Deuteronomy, as well as the nature of the moral life under God. The treatment of Deuteronomy in the New Testament, and customary introductory issues such as authorship and date, are dealt with in terms of their significance for things by eve interpreting and understanding Deuteronomy's character and intention. The Book of Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible, and lexington battle of the Jewish Torah/Pentateuch. On The Nutrition? The Hebrew title is taken from the opening phrase Eleh ha-devarim, These are the words. In Jewish tradition the book is also called ‘the book of words’. Miller explains that the title of the book is in part an lexington battle accident of Hebrew word order, it is exceedingly appropriate as a characterization of the content and subject matter of Deuteronomy (Miller, 2012:1).
He pointed out that the book of Deuteronomy is more a book of words than any other Pentateuch books. The book consists of poseidon siblings, three sermons or speeches delivered to the Israelites by Moses on the plains of Moab, shortly before they enter the Promised Land (Miller, 1990:45). The first sermon recapitulates the forty years of wilderness wanderings which have led. Words: 1235 - Pages: 5. . The Rise and Spread of Islam •The Post Classical Period: Faith and Commerce - Spread of major world religions o Budhism o Christianity o Islam 1. Spread through preaching, trade routes - Development of Systematic o Boat trade 2. Indian Trade spread disease, religion, ideas - Three Big Ideas o Trans-regional communication and exchange networks o Forms of state organize. Diversify o All societies increased productive capacity • Pre-Islamic Arabia - Bedoin culture based on Kin/clan/tribal networks o Survival dependent on loyalty to clan o Magnified by harsh environment - Shayks- clan/tribal leaders o Conflict was frequent o Society was fragmented - Fierce inter clan rivalries and struggles for resources o Emphasis on revenge, “male honor” - Towns and long distance trade----Mecca and Medina o Medina (Yathrib) (established on oasis) o Mecca more important – Umayyad (ruling clan) – Quraysh; (Ka’ba) - Status of women varied by clan o More respect vs. less respect - Little art/architechture (no big civs) o Focus on lexington and concord poetry 1. Gives glimpse into daily life - Bedovin religions- blend of animism and polytheism o Animism- nature worship - The life of Myhammad and terrible bunting Genesis of lexington battle, Islam o Born around 570 CE – Merchant, married Khadijah. Words: 1390 - Pages: 6. . Siblings? Alexander Hristov Dr. Lexington And Concord? Peter Becker ENGL E-166 May 5, 2015 Literature as Art: Aesthetic Appeal in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita Close reading is the foundation of poseidon, literary analysis. Russian writer Vladimir Nabokov famously noted in an interview that, “Curiously enough, one cannot read a book: one can only and concord, re-read it. A good reader, a major reader, and results of the active and lexington creative reader is a re-reader.” Essentially, he contends that one cannot fully appreciate a book’s artistic subtleties and thematic nuances because initial readings require more rigorous information processing. Nabokov believed that only upon further reading and re-reading could one interpret the significance of an author’s style. His 1955 classic, Lolita, is by eve, a veritable case study on literature as art.
Ever the writer’s writer, Nabokov uses language as a means of artistic expression. Lexington And Concord? In Lolita, shocking subject matter is effectively assuaged by means of literary invention. Nabokov, referencing his novel, once noted: There are gentle souls who would pronounce Lolita meaningless because it does not teach them anything. I am neither a reader nor a writer of didactic fiction…For me a work of fiction exists only insofar as it affords me what I shall bluntly call aesthetic bliss, that is a sense of being somehow, somewhere, connected with other states of being where art (curiosity, tenderness, kindness, ecstasy) is the norm (Azevedo 2). The story itself is replete with abhorrent topics: rape, murder, and. Words: 1216 - Pages: 5. . Shaunah Seiverd 9 October 2015 Professional Reading Assignment In the book The Five Temptations of a CEO: a Leadership Fable, author Patrick Lencioni tells a story about Andrew O’Brien- CEO of a major company, who meets an older, much wiser man, Charlie, on his supposed train ride home. This man, whether he is real in strengths life or a figment of imagination, lectures Andrew about the complications of lexington battle, being the CEO of a big company and what causes most of korean, them to lexington, fail in regards to the five temptations. Assistance Program? Charlie starts off with the first temptation which is choosing your status over results. Lexington? He says that this is the hardest temptation to break and in short rather than caring about how their company is doing and its accomplishments, some (if not most) chief executives are more worried about securing their position.
Next he explains the second temptation, striving to be popular instead of being accountable. He insists that instead of on The Assistance Program, CEOs trying to lexington and concord, be liked by their employees, they need to bunting, tell them what is expected of them and give ultimatums if said expectations cannot be upheld. Andrew then asks about temptation number three, the and concord temptation to results of the war, certainty over clarity. And Concord? CEOs at times may wait too long to on The Supplemental Assistance Program, make an important decision until they know for sure that it is the right one because they are more scared of being wrong; which ties in with them being unable to hold themselves accountable. In transition they come to the fourth temptation, the desire for harmony.
Another man. Words: 798 - Pages: 4. . Billy Elliot Book report. Lexington Battle? – Bruge til SRP – Engelsk Historie Billy Elliot is early, a novel by Melvin Burgess, based on lexington and concord the film, which have same title. Results? The film takes place in lexington the late 80’s in a small town, that is an industrial mining town. Not a good place to live because, it was deeply affected by former British prime minister. The story is about a young boy, Billy Elliot and results war his fight to become a ballet dancer instead of a boxer, because it is family related from his father’s side. But Elliot want to be ballet dancer in an environment, where prejudices blossom, and where money is rare.
The father and his brother go on the picket line everyday to strike against the closing of the local mine. We also get to and concord battle, know, how it changes of a country’s structure can affect. In the book Elliot mostly receives from his flawed family is abuse and neglect, which does play a role in motivating him to follow his dreams and prove them wrong. Only at the end of the Book, Elliot’s father finally accepts Elliot’s hunt and begin to Supplemental Assistance, help him complete his dreams of becoming of lexington and concord, professional dancer. He just want’s to be like his mother and grandma. Results War? He does care about his grandma. She is old and hardly recognizes Billy when he spends time with her. The only thing he has left that kind of reminds him of battle, his mother is the grandma and the piano.
His mother used to play at the piano, but now when she is Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, gone, Elliot play at lexington and concord battle the piano sometimes. Just to be reminded of his mother. Billy he is. Words: 506 - Pages: 3. . Tiarah Bissonette P4 Oliver Twist Charles Dickens 1. Summary: This story was about a boy named Oliver Twist who was a orphan after his mom died while she was giving birth to results korean war, him and then he moved to London. Then while he was in London he was kidnapped by John Dawkins and lexington and concord battle then later escapes. Then, later is mixed in with these mass murders and opens up Oliver eyes to see how bad of people they are. Oliver is now a trouble maker and has a while behavior and is reported to the Fargin.
After he gets reported then Oliver straightens up 2. Setting: The setting of this book was terror of unanticipated violence where it was always cold and weary. The time was in the 19th century in Rational Choice Theory England 3. Character: 1. Oliver Twist: (27) “ The hungry and destitute situation of the lexington and concord battle infant orphan was duly reported by worth house authorities to the parish authorities”—Oliver was known as a orphan than anything else in this book and I think that’s what this quote was leaning now towards 2. Mrs. Maylie: (302) “I know that she deserves the best and purest love the results of the korean war heart of man can offer” – she was a very offering women and a stately women also. 3. Mr. Bumble: (30) “no, you could not.
You are a humble women”—he was more of a cranky man and never wanted to giver good advice 4. Conflict: it was a good vs evil and to lexington and concord battle, find his quest and of the korean war place in this world 5. Theme: this main theme about the lexington and concord book would probably be mad interrelated ideas and about the poverty in this.
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Sample Of Muet Essay Essays and Research Papers. Sample essay Topic: Test anxiety causes university students to underperform in their examinations. Discuss. NOTE: The . essay is in the left column. In the right hand column there are short notes indicating the lexington battle various academic writing skills present in the essay . Essay | Comment | This essay examines the Theory and Character relationship between test anxiety in university students and their performance in examinations. Typically universities use examinations to battle test part or even all the knowledge of students, particularly. Academia , Anxiety , Bachelor's degree 2517 Words | 7 Pages. collectors provide a very meaningful contribution to today's society.
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Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is battle, a process that requires finesse. Terrible Things By Eve! If it’s stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into the “no” pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. On the other hand, if it’s clean and professional ( even if it’s filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the eye of a hiring manager and land you an lexington and concord battle, interview. Although content is ultimately the Essay on The Nutrition Assistance, most significant element of your resume, it’s important to lexington, not underestimate the early childhood, power of appearance. The reason we need the lexington battle, adage “don’t judge a book by its cover” is because we do judge things by their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not. Siblings! This guide will help you take advantage of that fact . Finding the best aesthetic font , outlining ideal margins and even discussing your paper selection —we will cover it all. 1.) Best font for a resume: Style, size color. Creating a clear, succinct resume requires multiple elements working in lexington and concord battle harmony. Essay Nutrition Assistance Program! For this to happen, one thing is certain: don’t use Comic Sans . Choosing an aesthetic font might seem daunting, but it doesn’t need to be.
People often ask us: is there a best style? We’ve crunched the numbers, and we have an answer. Battle! The best font for a resume is… Tricked you—there isn’t truly a single best font, but there are several options that stand out amongst the rest! We will give you some solid choices and you can take it from there. Consider downloading some resume templates and see which ones are most attractive to you.
Select your favorite, and try out Rational Choice Theory of Theory that font! First, consider this: how will you be sending your resume? Printed fonts and those read on a computer monitor appear differently to lexington battle, the reader. There are two key groups of fonts used globally: serif and Theory and Swordfish of Theory sans-serif (i.e. “non-serif”). Serif fonts have accentuated corners that make them appear more distinct, especially when printed. Sans-serif fonts simply don’t have these accents, which make them clearer at smaller sizes as well as on lexington and concord battle a computer screen. Example of Essay on The Supplemental Assistance Program, serifs on a capital F, using Garamond Sans-serif capital F, Calibri. Keep these ideas in mind when constructing your resume. Here’s a breakdown of and concord, our top three serif and sans-serif options: Top 3 serif choices: Times New Roman : Times New Roman is a classic serif that looks good both on paper and on early a computer screen.
It’s a safe, standard choice for any resume. Garamond : Garamond is an attractive option for people who enjoy a classic, graceful font. Georgia : Georgia is also a popular choice. Clear, familiar and functional, it’s a nice change for people who like Times New Roman but want something a little different. Top 3 sans-serif choices: Arial : An excellent choice if you prefer the lexington and concord, sans-serif style.
It is easy to read, and familiar to many people due to of the korean, its appearance on commonly used web applications like gmail. Lexington And Concord Battle! Calibri : Popular amongst professionals. Poseidon Siblings! If you’ve ever opened a Microsoft Word document, you’ve used Calibri—its use as a Word default makes it palatable for most readers. Verdana : The spacing of Verdana is slightly wider than Arial and quite more so than Calibri. Lexington And Concord! Choose this style if you’re aiming for ease-of-reading. Font size is another area that you’ll need to play with to find your ideal option.
Each style handles sizing differently– for example, Garamond is noticeably smaller than Arial at 12. Many experts consider 11 to be the Choice Theory of Theory, perfect size, but this depends on and concord battle the font. The most important thing is that it’s clear and large enough to read . Poseidon Siblings! A rule of thumb is to battle, choose between 10 and 12; adjusting it according to your style. If you’re leaning toward a smaller font, consider selecting a sans-serif option. The simpler design will help keep visual clarity, which serif styles lose at smaller sizes.
Before you shrink your words too much though, try changing the wording to see if you can organically make it smaller. This should be your first course of action, but if necessary, it’s acceptable to make minor changes to approach, the font size margins. The majority of resumes use a standard black and white format. There is a reason for this– bright colors are distracting and take away from your actual content. With that said, you are allowed to use some color if you want, just make sure it complements your content rather than detracts from it. Your name, as well as the headers throughout your resume can be modified– but make sure you use the same color here to keep things uniform. Lexington And Concord! A dark red, blue or green can be a nice touch, but using neon colors is a surefire way to make the hiring manager take you less seriously. 2. Resume margins, length alignment. The size and strengths and weaknesses approach shape of your resume are just as important, if not more so, than the font. At a glance, the structure already expresses certain ideas to the reader– for example, larger margins make your content seem lacking, whereas smaller margins make things feel cluttered. You don’t want your resume to get noticed for its formatting.
Playing it safe is lexington, advisable. On The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program! Avoid extremes and battle you’ll be in good shape (pun intended). Standard one inch by one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility. The smallest margins considered to be acceptable are half an inch by half an war, inch (.5 by .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly. A good visual balance would be keeping your top and bottom margins between .5? and battle 1? , and moving between .6? and Choice Theory A Development of Theory 1? for lexington, your left and right margins . This will help decrease reader fatigue and things make your resume more palatable for whoever is looking at it. Take a look at the following sample to get an idea of good, balanced margins: The next image is a snippet of a resume with extremely narrow margins. Notice how they push to the very bottom of the page– this gives a cramped feeling to the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore. For most people the and concord battle, ideal resume length is poseidon, one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above. Occasionally two pages is acceptable, but three pages is almost always in lexington danger of being too wordy.
Here are some reasons you may need to make yours longer than one page: You have a large quantity of of behaviourist, relevant experience. Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but it’s usually possible to narrow them down to the most relevant ones and fit them onto a single page. Lexington Battle! If you have many examples of related experience that make your application stronger, don’t be afraid to include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of results korean war, space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Landing an executive position is your goal . Lexington And Concord! These posts require large amounts of poseidon, relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive.
Before deciding upon lexington and concord battle, a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the early observation, information you’ve added worth the additional page? Or will the hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to a potential employer so you can proceed to lexington, the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of childhood observation, work you’ve ever performed. Quality is more important than quantity. If you really do need to cut the length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of lexington battle, a career objective or qualifications summary. Here’s a table to Essay on The Nutrition Assistance Program, check if you’re okay at your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming. The best alignment makes your resume easy to lexington, read. We learn to read English from the left, therefore left alignment is Essay on The Nutrition Assistance Program, always a safe bet . Your name and contact information is and concord, usually centered , but the headers (“Professional Experience”, “Education”, “Additional Skills”) and your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered. This depends on the template you’re following, as well as your personal taste. Left-aligned Resume Sample.
Center-aligned Resume Sample. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. You don’t need your resume to be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to try! Another way to accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the reader’s attention to your stronger sections, and strengths of behaviourist make the overall reading experience more pleasant. And Concord Battle! If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at Rational Choice and Swordfish A Development getting an interview.
There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to lexington and concord, be on point. Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the reader subconsciously linger on your objective. This is poseidon siblings, a good tactic if you want them to give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in a functional resume to draw the lexington and concord battle, reader’s attention toward your skills section and away from early childhood observation, your work history. Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to mask your 1) lack of or 2) abundance of experience. They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from company to lexington and concord battle, company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to see.
Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is not the time to put a clip art image of an Assistance, adorable little Pug puppy on your Veterinarian resume. Lexington! The only terrible things, flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to and concord, make this experience clear to by eve bunting, the reader . Battle! This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in different shapes and sizes, and are the primary symbol used in a resume because they draw the hiring manager’s attention to your achievements and poseidon skills. If there’s a time to get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to keep things clear. You can’t go wrong with the battle, circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for the less conventional job applicant.
Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is a bit outdated. As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for results, your resume.
If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to lexington battle, steer clear of them, but if you do want to use a text box or two (or several), go for it! Text boxes can be an ally in your quest to achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out childhood is by lexington, emphasizing certain pieces of information , like your name. And Weaknesses Approach! Notice in the following image how a text box around the applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the page. A hiring manager is much more likely to remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on battle in the hiring process. An applicant’s name in a text box. Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. Check out how these headers are highlighted through the use of things, each text box.
Each header included in lexington and concord battle a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and make it stand out, but don’t go overboard! They have the power to strengthen and weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Your draft is looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the right time to use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material. Terrible Bunting! I’d also advise against spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only works in the movies. Legally Blonde might not be the lexington and concord, place to look for early, job application advice.
With that said, it’s still important to and concord battle, consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and childhood professional to have physical copies on lexington and concord hand. The paper color of your printed resume should be some shade of terrible things bunting, white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to lexington and concord battle, be the Easter Bunny. Plain white is definitely acceptable for strengths and weaknesses of behaviourist approach, most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of ivory or cream-colored paper. These colors stand out a bit from lexington and concord battle, run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much. They are like adding cuff-links to early childhood observation, a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and lexington and concord look nice, but aren’t needed to look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? It’s the Rolls Royce of the paper world, and it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. It’s soft yet sturdy, and gives the holder a strong urge to never let go.
Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. Strengths And Weaknesses Approach! 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by much. Use some serious paper to and concord, show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and we’ve just covered the terrible things, visual elements. If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the job hunt.
Try not to lexington and concord battle, underestimate the importance of good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to start, you can take a look at our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder. Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of and weaknesses approach, job seeker, and exportable PDFs and Word docs.
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15 Apps for Writing Better Papers and Essays. And Concord Battle! The American journalist Gene Fowler once remarked, #8220;Writing is Rational and Swordfish of Theory and Character easy. All you do is stare at and concord a blank sheet of paper until drops of poseidon blood form on and concord battle, your forehead.#8221; Make no mistake, though Fowler was totally lying, and writing is really hard. So let#8217;s enlist the help of Supplemental Nutrition Program our robot overlords in order to make it a little easier. Today I#8217;ll share 15 apps and websites that might help you become a better writer. Some are huge, multi-faceted programs, while others are more single-purpose and can help with organizing research, planning, gaining motivation, or editing.
If you#8217;d like even more resources to lexington help with other aspects of bunting your education, you’ll find even more websites, apps, and and concord, tools over at the Resources page. If you’re unable to see the video above, you can view it on YouTube. Coggle a free mind-mapping tool that can help you organize ideas. Storyline Creator a mapping tool that#8217;s built around individual characters and the flow of events in a story. Evernote my second brain. Pretty much everything I write starts out Essay Nutrition Assistance Program, as a note here. Here#8217;s another article I wrote with additional Evernote tips. Scrivener a full-fledged application for writing a novel. This is what I finished writing 10 Steps to lexington and concord Earning Awesome Grades with. Korean! Novlr a new alternative to lexington and concord Scrivener. War! It seems like it has a nicer design, but fewer features.
I found some recommendations for it on the NaNoWriMo forums. Byword a minimalist Markdown editor for OS X. You don#8217;t need to know Markdown to use it#8230; but Markdown is really easy to learn. Twinword Writer a tool with a built-in thesaurus that suggests alternative words when you pause in lexington and concord your writing. Write or Die an early observation app that will punish you if you don#8217;t keep writing. Punishments can range from annoying noises to #8220;Kamikaze Mode#8221;, which starts erasing your writing! Written? Kitten! a more positive take on the Write or Die concept; instead of punishing you, it rewards you with pictures of lexington battle kittens every 100 words.
750words the name describes it pretty well; this is a site that can help you build a daily writing habit. It#8217;s got pretty cool stat-tracking as well. DailyPage a site that gives you a different writing prompt (e.g. Write about your favorite leader ) every day. Mendeley I#8217;m not a grad student, but I#8217;d use this if I was. It#8217;s a free tool that can help you manage research documents and PDFs. editMinion a tool that can analyze your writing and pick out weak and siblings, over-used words.
It can also tell you if your sentences are too short or long. Coffitivity plays coffee shop noises to give you a nice working atmosphere a good alternative to white noise generators. Brain.fm a web app that uses AI to lexington and concord battle generate music that#8217;s supposed to help you increase your focus and attention. The site even has research to back up their claims. I#8217;ve tested it a few times, and while I#8217;m not sure if the music is truly working or just providing a placebo effect yet, I will way that it#8217;s pretty darn good music for and weaknesses approach, working. By the way, if Brain.fm#8217;s style of lexington and concord music isn#8217;t for you, then you might enjoy my Ultimate Study Music Playlist on YouTube. I add new songs to it often. Lastly, if you haven#8217;t heard it, you might enjoy the CIG podcast episode where I break down how I wrote my 27,000 word book. Got other recommendations that I didn#8217;t include here?
Share them in on The Supplemental Nutrition the comments! If you liked this video, subscribe on YouTube to stay updated and get notified when new ones are out! Thomas Frank is the geek behind College Info Geek . After paying off $14K in lexington and concord student loans before graduating, landing jobs and internships, starting a successful business, and travelling the globe, he's now on childhood, a mission to help you build a remarkable college experience as well. Battle! Get the Newsletter | Twitter | Instagram. Siblings! You are here: College Info Geek » Blog » Videos » 15 Apps for Writing Better Papers and Essays. Hey there! Please note that some links in the article may be referral links, meaning that if you buy something through them, I'll earn a commission (at no extra cost to you). This helps to and concord support CIG, but please don't buy anything unless you truly believe it'll benefit you! You can learn more here.
Thank you :) Did you find this article useful? Over 150,000 awesome students are learning how to dominate their classes, get more done, and terrible, land the lexington and concord, jobs they want - and you should too. Join in, and I'll also send you a free copy of my book on earning better grades! 12 Comments on 15 Apps for and weaknesses of behaviourist approach, Writing Better Papers and Essays Great list, I#8217;m saving for future reference #128578; I use Kotobee Author though, instead of Scrivener to create ebooks. Lexington Battle! Scrivener is of Theory and Character great, but I found Kotobee to be more comfortable and smooth. It also helps me export ebook apps for mobile app stores easily and cheaply. I never needed to buy a license, I#8217;m using the lexington, free version while purchasing app credits to create book apps for $30 a pop. very informative article mate, thanks for sharing.
Thanks for your many great videos. I was especially interested in Coggle, the mind mapping software. It seems like there are a number of competitors in the space. MindNode is one the early childhood observation, best although it is only for Mac. Maybe you can do a video on lexington, the different options? Thanks again for all your great work! Hi Thomas! Awesome article if it#8217;s ok I would like to add few to your list: I personally found them helpful. Terrible Things Bunting! Good luck with your blog) I really like ProWritingAid.
Even though I don#8217;t write directly into lexington battle it, but I like to copy and past my work in there to check my writing. It checks for spelling and grammar and siblings, sentence length, redundancies and a lot of lexington and concord other cool stuff. It has a Pro subscription option, but the free option itself is Rational Choice of Theory and Character neat enough. Another great tool that can help with organising ideas in a mind map is Knowledge Base (this app can be accessed from Windows store). This is a great option for those who have Windows 8/10. Lexington Battle! Also, recently I came across apps like StyleWriter and Grammarly that can help me proofread my papers. They are quite useful if I#8217;m too absent-minded. Hello! I#8217;ve never tried brain.fm, but I swear by [emailprotected] (https://www.focusatwill.com/music/#player). Poseidon Siblings! It#8217;s the lexington and concord, same sort of ideamusic for productivityand there are many different #8220;channels#8221; you can choose from. It doesn#8217;t have anything fancy besides an Essay Program awesome selection of music, but I bought the year subscription and have no regrets!
Hey Thomas, I#8217;m a 30 yo from lexington battle Brazil. On The Assistance Program! This month I am in a parental leaving + vacations (unfortunately ending this weekend), so, 4 weeks to organize and plan the future. A couple of weeks ago I found your blog/channel and pretty much watched everything. THANK YOU A LOT! With you content I was able to organize my stuff using apps and plataform, started to manage my tasks and habits and lexington battle, also did an Impossible List. Keep doing that wonderful work, sharing your knowledge and changing people#8217;s lifes. If you ever come to Sao Paulo, I#8217;d love to have a chat and thank you in person. This was so helpful! Thank you for the list! Hey!
I recently found your YouTube channel and I love it! I have learned so much from you and I#8217;m applying it towards my education in college. I appreciate all your hard work. Results Korean! Keep making great videos! #128578; The Mutant Guide To Studying For Finals. And Concord Battle! 'Sup. I'm Thomas, the guy behind this site.
I'm obsessed with geeky books, travel, and of the korean, finding better ways to lexington and concord do things. I want to approach help you make college a remarkable experience. Battle! Learn more. Want more? Join over 150,000 students and grab my free book on earning better grades > So here's the deal. Things! I want to help you be awesome at lexington college, and I'd love it if you joined my newsletter so I can keep you up to early childhood date. I'm concerned with helping you win big in college.
That's why you see in-depth guides on getting smarter, landing jobs, and destroying debt here - instead of dumb posts on how to do laundry in your dorm bathroom. My newsletter subscribers get even more - tools for impressing recruiters, bonus tips, and a free copy of my book 10 Steps to Earning Awesome Grades (While Studying Less). Battle! You in?
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Free Information Technology essays. Over the past century, communication and communication systems have developed enormously. The massive growth in bandwidth demand has led to various technologies in lexington and concord battle communication facilities in today’s network. One of the main factors for continuous research to create more efficient communication systems is the things bunting, need to send more data (information) through a communication medium (channel) , communication through fiber optic is one of them. Fiber optic communication is a communication method that uses light pulses to transmit information (data) from and concord battle, one point to another. Figure 1.1 represents a block diagram of optical communication system which consists of an Rational of Theory optical transmitter, a communication channel, and and concord, an optical receiver. Optical communication system can be categorized to guided and unguided syetem. In guided lightwave system, the results war, transmitter emits optical beam through a fiber optic which in that case the beam remains spatially confined. Unguided ligtwave system is similar to the spreading of microwave system because the optical beam spreads in space but in forward direction because of its short wavelength.
Unguided optical systems are less proper for broadcasting applications than microwave systems because of beam short wavelength they need very accurate pointing between the battle, transmitter and receiver . However, this thesis does not consider unguided optical communication system but will focus on the guided optical systems. Figure 1.1: a generic optical communication system . A guided optical fiber is childhood observation a cylindrical waveguide that made from low-loss materials, in general silicon dioxide. The waveguide core has a refractive index a little higher than that of the outer medium (cladding), so that light pulses is directed along the lexington and concord battle, axis line of the childhood observation, fiber by total inside reflection. Generally a guided fiber optic communication systems consist of an optical transmitter to change an electrical signal to an optical signal for lexington, transmission through inside the optical fiber, a cable has several bundles of optical fibers, optical amplifiers to amplify the power of the optical signal, and an optical receiver to reconvert the received optical signal back to the original electrical signal . Figure 1.2: guided optical communication system . Optical fiber technology development is considered as a major driver to the revolution of the information technology and results war, tremendous progress on telecommunication that has been seen in recent years. Moreover it the most adequate unique transmission medium for data signals, voice and video.
Indeed, at present optical fibers have entered virtually in all sectors of telecommunication networks . By year 1930, Heinrich Lamm introduced one of the first attempts to and concord battle, use optical fiber to send image by Essay on The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, using a short bundle of optical fiber for possible medical imaging. Lexington And Concord! However, no additional works were done after the demonstration phase, because the technology for manufacturing low-loss fibers with acceptable light confinement was not yet done . Further work and tests for image transmission via fiber optic continued till 1960 when the attenuation of glass-clad degraded to results korean war, about1 dB/m. Although this attenuation makes fibers to be used for medical imaging, it is and concord battle too high for communication until 1970 when it decreased less than 20 dB/km by using a novel fabrication technique. At the same period, GaAs semiconductor lasers, running continuously at and Swordfish A Development room temperature, were revealed. Low loss (attenuation) optical fibers together with optical so- urces led the lexington battle, efforts for enhancing the fiber-optic communication systems . At that time it was revealed on the fabrication of first single-mode fiber with an attenuation of Theory and Character 0.017dB/m at the 633-nm helium-neon line and lexington and concord, that declaration was considered a great breakthrough with many others developments which opened the door to fiber optic communication. In the beginning of 1980, first terrestrial optical system became available commercially with less than 0.1 Gb/s as a data rate. Within period of less than quarter of Rational Choice and Swordfish and Character a century the development has been rapid as by an increasing in the system capacity by a factor of 100,000 . To increase the benefits of fiber optic many technologies have been developed to get more network capacity, reliability, scalability and less cost and one of the and concord battle, first technological advances was the capability to carry multiple light channels through one fiber optic cable.
It achieves buy combining (multiplexing) different optical frequencies (wavelengths) onto a single fiber and that what is early observation known Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) . First WDM created in the late 1980s by using the two widely spaced wavelengths in the 850 nm and 1310 nm (or 1310 nm and 1550 nm) regions. The a second generation of WDM saw in early 1990s, occasionally called narrowband WDM, in which 2 to lexington and concord, 8 channels were used. Essay Nutrition Assistance! These channels were now apart at an interval of about 400 GHz in the 1550-nm window. With 16 to 40 channels and spacing from 100 to 200 GHz Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) systems were emerging in mid-1990s , since year 2000 when the number of and concord wavelengths reached to over 100 per fiber and that number provides massive network capacity . Currently, most of observation modern optical telecommunication networks composed of a plenty of lexington and concord various devices. Working such a network is a challenge task. It needs an accurate planning; taking into account all technological needs and offers of the optics, to early, end up with an operating network which provides the best return on the spent investments. Fiber optic has vast advantages over other transmission media because:
Unlike the copper that depletes the natural earth resources, it is made of cheapest resources in the earth (sand). The information travels with the speed of light. Optical pulses are immune to the Radio frequency interface (RFI) and electromagnetic interface (EMI). It is not affected by atmospheric conditions. Very low Bit Error Rate (BER) 10^-11. The only limitation that limits the and concord battle, bandwidth of an optical fiber is dependent on the equipment that creates the light in the fiber . Optical Fiber Structure. In its simplest form an optical fiber consists of cladding that surrounds the cylindrical core that is results made of silica glass. The core which is a central part of the fiber, has a refractive index (refractive index term refers to the change in lexington light speed in terrible bunting vacuum to its speed in other media) of N1, is higher than refracting index N2 of cladding. So when the light beam enters the fiber, the cladding forces it to remain in the core, and the beam travels down the fiber because of internal reflection between of cladding and the core .
Figure 1.3: Optical Fiber Structure . Optical signal can travel through the fiber in many ways and that corresponds to battle, a particular mode. Essay On The Assistance! Each mode is determined by the angle of and concord battle incident of the optical beam. Internal reflection can take place at any angle greater than the terrible bunting, critical angle but optical light may not propagate through the fiber on all angles and that because some of incident angles result in and concord battle destructive interference and that leads to prohibit light propagation, in contrast with other angles that cause constructive interferences which allows the light to propagate. The mode of the fiber is the number of paths for the light rays inside the cable and according to that numbers and structure, fiber cables can be classified as a single mode and multimode fiber. Single mode fiber permits propagation of strengths and weaknesses light beam by no more one path and its core size (diameter) is around 9-10 ??m. Multimode term refers to the matter of fact that many light beams (mode) are carried at same time through the waveguide (over more than 100 modes at a time) with size of its core diameter around 50??m or 62.5??m. In general, the diameter of the single mode is smaller than multimode diameter and because of that the number of reflections in single mode for lexington and concord, a light passes inside the core is lesser than in multimode. Such reasons leads to fact that optical pulses experience very low attenuation and makes the signal to early childhood, travel further (long distance) and faster and higher bandwidth compared to multimode fiber that is used in short distance because of high dispersion and attenuation .
Figure 1.4: Single mode and multimode fiber optic. The main advantage of multimode fibers over the single mode is that a light could be inserted simply on bigger core and allows lesser coupling loss for lexington and concord, example, through an LED. But injecting the light in the single mode is difficult process because of thinner core diameter and that is one of its drawbacks. The one of problems in multimode fiber is intermodal dispersion. This is due to the inequality in velocities of light for each incident angle. So instead of a sharp ray, multiple light beams are received at childhood the far end, with separated in the time domain. This result increases with the distance between the two ends, therefore offering a lower bit rate. However dispersion problem can be lessen by decreasing the number of modes which can be reduced by diminishing the core radius, reducing numerical aperture, and increasing the lexington battle, light wavelength and strengths and weaknesses of behaviourist, that can be seen in the following equation: To find the number mode m in multimode fiber :
Where V is the normalized frequency. Ko =2 ??/?? , and and concord, a is the core radius. ?? represents the wavelength of light in strengths approach a vacuum. There are numerous impairments that affect signal propagation and shorten transmission distance in fibers. The major impairment that affects signal propagation is attenuation. It is and concord a property of the fiber and it is a consequence of the several material, structural, and modular impairments in a fiber. It is given as a specification for a particular fiber type. Things By Eve Bunting! Attenuation means loos of light energy (It is called optical loss) when the light pulses travel through fiber from one point to the other point and it is directly proportional to the length of the cable . An intrinsic fiber loss and lexington, extrinsic bending loss are two components that optical loss (fiber loss) consists of. Intrinsic loss can be characterized to  :
Material absorption loss: it results of imperfection and bunting, impurities in the fiber. Raleigh scattering loss: it is because of the collision of light quanta with silica molecules in battle the core and that causes a scattering in different directions. Extrinsic bending loss includes  : Microbending loss: due to imperfection in the cylindrical geometry of Supplemental fiber through the manufacturing cycles. Macrobending loss: bending of fiber (core and cladding) in small radius leads to certain modes not to be reflected and causes loss. Figure 1.5: Extrinsic bending losses type . Attenuation factor ?? represents the and concord, loss in strengths and weaknesses of behaviourist approach dB per fiber length in kilometer. Power attenuation can calculate by lexington, using : dp/dz Represents the power change with respect to the length. So, if P1 is considered input power and results, L is the length of the fiber cable, the output power P2 can be calculated by using equation 1.4. ?? in dB/Km can be calculated by using equation 1.5. Typically ”’??0.25 dB/km for a single mode fiber in lexington battle the 1550 nm band.
?? = 0.5 dB/km for a single mode fiber in childhood observation the 1310 nm band. Attenuation was considered the biggest obstacle at beginning of optical communication technology. It was very high (was more than 1000 dB/km) in the glass optical fibers but new process was invented by using silica as the battle, main material, reduced the and Swordfish of Theory, attenuation to less than 20 dB/km at carrier wavelength about 1??m. Progressing the lexington, optical fiber manufacturing technology decreased the attenuation quickly to the typical values that can be seen in results of the korean war the figure 1.6. The curve in the figure refers to the region around 1300nm and 1550nm where the attenuation at these region has minimum values whereas at region between 800nm and lexington and concord, 900nm the attenuation at maximum value and that refers to the historical values before the development when the light source operated at the wavelengths from that region . Figure 1.6: attenuation curve of early childhood silica based optical fiber . Dispersion is another impairment that effects on the optical signal when travel through fiber optic cable. Each optical pulse has various spectral components or multiple frequencies and each of battle them has its own velocity that can pass through fiber cable in different paths.
Such reason leads each component to reach at the end of fiber in on The Program different interval time. The time differences depend on different spectral components that lead to a longitudinal spreading of the pulse along the Z-direction (direction of propagation of the optical pulse) of the fiber (cylindrical waveguide). Lexington And Concord Battle! The optical spread amount depends on the length of fiber and the bite rate  Over adequately long fiber the dispersion may cause intersymbol interference (ISI) whereas in high bit rate, two consecutive pulses are adjacent to each other causing difficulty in detecting the and Swordfish A Development, pulses and that means increasing in bit error rate (BER).There are two dispersive effects affect the optical pulse in the fiber: intermodal dispersion and chromatic dispersion . Intermodal dispersion: Takes place in multimode fiber only since different modes have various group velocities. Chromatic dispersion: Is named group velocity dispersion (GVD) and occurs in battle single mode type because of results of the frequency dependence of the group velocity. The sources of chromatic dispersion are : 1- Material dispersion: Occurs because of variation on account of refractive index of core as a function of wavelength and takes place even when different wavelengths pass at lexington and concord battle same path.
2- Waveguide dispersion: in general, any optical signal travels through the optical fiber; practically eighty percent of optical power is confined inside the and weaknesses approach, core and rest of the power into cladding. Absorption is other type of loss that may affect the light propagation. And Concord! This type comes when some molecule of the hydroxide anion OH. which is called hydrogen water molecules are combined in of the korean war silica fiber during manufacturing process. Because OH anion of water can absorb light at 950nm, 1240nm and 1380nm but this absorption is and concord less at strengths and weaknesses approach higher wavelength. Practically, it can be avoided by changing the transmitting wavelength to 1550nm because the lexington and concord battle, attenuation reduced from 0.5 dB/km at1300nm to 0.001db/km at terrible 1550nm . Since fiber cable is considered practically as an lexington imperfect cylinder and perfectly without constant physical dimensions, the lack resulting from the manufacturing process are the causes for the differences in the cylindrical geometry. This difference also leads to what is known birefringence whereby a fiber with birefringence causes a propagating pulse to lose the balance between the polarization components. Childhood Observation! This leads to a point where different polarization components pass at different velocities creating pulse-spread, and this spread is polarization mode dispersion PMD . Generally, modern fiber-optic communication systems contain an optical transmitter, amplifiers, and lexington and concord battle, receiver.
Transmitter is used to things, convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to send into the optical fiber, and battle, use multiple kinds of amplifiers to recover and boost the weak optical signals that experience from different loses that mentioned before. At the end of optical fiber and before optical signals reach to destination an optical receiver is used to detect and Assistance Program, convert signal to lexington, an electrical signal. The information transmitted is typically digital information generated by computers, telephone systems, and cable television companies. The most widely used optical transmitters are semiconductor devices like laser diodes and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The main difference between LEDs and laser diodes is that LEDs produce incoherent light output, whereas laser diodes produce directional coherent light output. Results Of The! When it in optical communication, it is necessary be efficient, supply high optical output power, compact, and reliable, when operating in an optimal wavelength range, directly modulated at high frequencies . Commonly, optical communications LEDs are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) or Indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP). Since InGaAsP LEDs work at a longer wavelength than GaAs LEDs (1.3 micrometers vs. 0.81-0.87 micrometers), both output spectrum, while equivalent in energy is broader in wavelength terms by 1.7.
The spectrum width of LEDs is lexington battle function to higher fiber dispersion, and that leads limit their bit rate-distance relationship. LEDs are used with local area network applications with bit rates of on The Supplemental Nutrition 10-100 Mbit/s and transmission distances of lexington and concord battle a few kilometers, local-area WDM (Wavelength-Division Multiplexing) networks with multimode fiber cable since this type of fiber accepts large angle light . Laser diodes are frequently directly modulated because the light output is and weaknesses of behaviourist controlled by a current applied to the device. A photodetector, typically is a semiconductor-based photodiode, is the main component in lexington and concord battle the optical receiver which uses photoelectric effect to of behaviourist approach, convert light source into electrical signal. There are different types of photodetector, the lexington and concord, first type was made from Indium gallium arsenide, then several type follows the first generation like p-n photodiodes, p-i-n photodiodes and Metal-semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors which are used for circuit integration in generators and wavelength-division multiplex as a result of their stability .
A converters (Optical to poseidon, electrical) are usually connected with a limiting amplifier and a transimpedance amplifier to lexington, produce a digital signal ( electrical domain) from the incoming optical signal, which may be attenuated and distorted during travelling through the fiber optic cable. Before the data is passed on, additional signal processing applied like clock recovery from data (CDR) achieved by a phase-locked loop . Because of the limitation of nonamplified fiber span to approximately 200 km for Supplemental Assistance, bit rate in lexington battle the Gbs, using optical amplifiers in the optical networks are very important to Essay Nutrition Assistance, work perfectly. Lexington And Concord Battle! Optical amplifier used in three different places along fiber transmission link. Amplifiers operating as power amplifier, their function are to amplify the power signal before it is launched on on The Nutrition Program, the line to extend the transmission distance before further amplification is and concord required. As line amplifier are placed at particular points along the transmission link to restore the signal to its original power level. Results Of The Korean War! Finally, as a preamplifier, it increases the signal level at the input of an and concord battle optical receiver to improve the detection performance for strengths and weaknesses of behaviourist, the signal . Optical amplifier has same functions of electrical amplifier or repeater. Optical Repeater is and concord known 3R generator and that means it reshapes, reamplifys and retimes the optical signal but after O-E-O signal conversion. In contrast the optical amplifiers amplify data stream totally in the optical domain and on The Nutrition Program, that make them entirely transparent to signals and protocols .
There are three types of amplifier: Doped fiber amplifiers: they amplify light at specific wavelength and make use the cores of fibers which are doped with elements. They amplify an lexington and concord battle optical signal by a doped optical fiber as a gain medium. Doping fibers with the rare earth erbium are effective at wavelength range between 1520 and 1560 nm. Childhood Observation! Erbium doped fiber amplifiers or EDFAs ( Figure 1.6) is lexington battle common example for doped fiber amplifier and has gain up to 30 db and that means it outs 1000 photon for each 1 photon in terrible bunting . And Concord Battle! In past before EDFA deployment, individual wavelength through fiber had regenerated one time each 40 km long by using expensive electronic device and increased to 1500-2500 km long when use more recent EDFA system . Figure 1.7: Erbium doped fiber amplifiers . Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: These types make use of an adapted semi-conductor laser. When photons of light pass through the active region some of extra energy of electrons loses in the form that more photons match the initial wavelength. Rational Theory And Swordfish Of Theory And Character! So any optical signal travel through the active region is boosted as it can be seen in figure 1.7 .
Figure 1.8: Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers  Raman Amplifier: the amplification process is taken place by nonlinear interaction. between a pump laser and the signal within an optical fiber. Two types Raman amplifier has: distributed Raman amplifier and lumped Raman amplifier: A distributed type uses the lexington and concord battle, transmission fiber as the gain medium by multiplexing a signal wavelength with a pump wavelength. Lumped Raman amplifiers use shorter, dedicated length of fiber for by eve bunting, amplification process. The gain providing by Raman amplifier depends mainly on the optical frequencies, polarization and pump frequency. It is lexington and concord noticed from the figure 1.8 that maximum gain when pump-signal frequency difference 13.2 THz . Figure 1.9: Raman Amplifier gain .
The main advantages of Raman amplifier are possibility to amplify variable wavelength and can be used to extend the Essay on The Nutrition Assistance Program, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers EDFAs and it is used with single mode fiber. But high pump power needs is the main disadvantage of Raman amplifier also the need of complex gain control and noise are two points add to the disadvantages . Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Generally, multiplexing term refers to techniques which combine multiple signals for transmission over a scarce resource. The principle idea is to divide a shared resource into equal smaller parts to be used in parallel to achieve a specific task. In this method, the utilization of resource is multiplied without expanding the lexington and concord battle, resource itself. Nutrition! Multiplexing technique is lexington and concord also applied in optical networks by combining many fibers into one cable. TIME Division Multiplexing (TDM) is prominent example of results korean that method . Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a method of multiplying the available optical fibers capacity by using parallel channels, each channel uses a dedicated wavelength of light as it cleared in figure 1.9. And Concord! WDM and Frequency Division multiplexing ( FDM) both share same principles, where WDM relates to light wavelength in fiber cable FDM corresponds to things by eve bunting, analogue transmission but WDM is more reliable than FDM since it is totally passive.
The main advantage of and concord battle WDM is increasing a transmission speed without increasing the things by eve bunting, capacity of the connections, and that done by dividing a high bandwidth bitstream into several time slots which each one carries traffic on a lower bitrate. In other words, upgrading to higher capacity does not need to change the backbone of fiber optic network but just needs to implement WDM and lexington battle, upgrade the transmitters and results korean, the receivers of the network. This technique allows new optical advance generation to be applied without laying new fiber . Usually, WDM system based on lexington, light spectrum between 1460 nm to 1625 nm because optical signals experience relatively low attenuation at this region as shown in figure 1.1x. This region is divided into 3 regions: short band (S-band), congenital band (C-band), and long wavelength band (L-band). Most of strengths and weaknesses of behaviourist approach WDM systems use C-band and extended to use L and S bands to increase capacity of system .
Figure 1.1x WDM regin. Figure 1.10: Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) Before proceeding to examine different type of WDM, it will be necessary to summarize the usage of lexington WDM technology advantages: Upgrade the capacity of Rational Choice Theory and Swordfish current fiber networks without adding new fibers. Add transparency feature to optical channels since they can transport any transmission format: analog, digital at different a synchronize bit rate.
Add scalability feature since any additional demand, it is required to buy and install equipment at the fiber’s end. Use wavelengths for routing and switching and lexington and concord battle, that adds another dimension to strengths of behaviourist approach, time and space. Depends on wavelength pattern, WDM is divided into two types: Dense WDM (DWDM): It is lexington chosen for transporting very large amounts of data traffic over long distances in the telecommunication system. Terrible Bunting! From the size of data that can carry it is considered an and concord optimal way of combining advanced technology functionality with cost efficient transport. DWDM able to transport 76-96 lambdas (channels) in conventional band (C-band) in the 1550nm region with 50 GHz spacing and childhood, supports 120-160 wavelengths (called ultra-dense WDM) in the L-band with 12.5 GHz spacing. In general, DWDM channels can carry data with 10-100 Gb/s as a bit rates and lexington battle, can reach to 3000km as maximum distance and in of the transoceanic system, transparent link can reach up to 20,000km.
Recently, commercial systems have ability to transport accumulated traffic capacity in the range of 100 Tb/s . The long distances that DWDM can reach comes from the advantage of the operating window of the EDFA Amplifier to boost the lexington battle, optical channels . Coarse WDM (CWDM): it is similar to DWDM by Nutrition Assistance Program, using light wavelength to send signals over a single fiber. It uses 20nm wavelength spacing and it is wider than DWDM and that is why CDWM is less costly than DWDM. In addition CDWM supplies only eight or 16 out of 18 lambdas (in c- band) between any two CDWM multiplexers, which are usually passive, over a pair of battle single fiber. Poseidon! Wavelengths of CDWDM can carry payload 1.2, 25, 4, 5, or 10 Gb/s which . The maximum distance link that CWDM supports is 100km and that because of CWDM uses a specific wavelength range that cannot be amplified by and concord battle, EDFA amplifier . CWDM is suitable for low-latency and high bandwidth but it is low scalable, complex installation, cost, and operation than DWDM . WDM enabling equipment. DWDM systems consist of several main components as show in figure : Figure 1.11 DWDM system structure.
Optical Transmitters and Transponders. To increase the number of strengths and weaknesses of behaviourist wavelengths in 1550nm band and and concord, minimize the signal impairments effects like dispersion, the optical transmitter should be very high resolution, accuracy narrow-band lasers. Such lasers allow close channel spacing. The optical transmitter lessens loss of power and attenuation which to allow optical signal to pass long distances through fiber optic and a high level of approach signal integrity. Optical amplifiers can be used by lexington battle, these lasers to amplify the signal strength to Essay on The Nutrition Assistance, extend the transmission distance  .
The design of the laser systems should be: Follow the ITU-T wavelength frequencies for interoperability and component selection issues . Laser system should be tunable to control the emission wavelength on demand . Some of DWDM systems use a component called a transponder, which uses optical-to electrical-to optical(O-E-O) conversion to convert a broadband optical signal to specific wavelengths (1330nm or 15550nm to a precision narrow-band wavelength). This conversion is necessary for devices which are not equipped with precision narrowband lasers to multiplex onto a single fiber, like ATM switches, routers . They used to amplify optical signals to decrease the effects of and concord battle power loss and attenuation that coming from passing light pulses through optical fiber. Use the optical amplifier or not in the DWDM depends on the optical transmitter technology and fiber optic long because not all DWDM network types need to boost the optical signals before sending since the signal reaches to fiber end’s terminal at level which photodetector at war receiving side can detect and recover. Additionally, optical amplifier technology is the lexington and concord, key to things by eve, achieving the high-volume transmission, DWDM high speed to occur . Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexers.
Optical multiplexers and and concord, demultiplexers are very important devices and they are considered a core of poseidon siblings DWDM technology. Optical multiplexers are used to combine transmit optical signals that have different wavelengths into a composite signal which have boosts by lexington and concord, optical amplifier if need to amplify before sending onto single optical amplifier. Optical demultiplexrs have opposite function to multiplexer by and weaknesses of behaviourist, splitting the lexington and concord, composite optical signals into their component wavelengths at poseidon the receiving terminal .  Typically, optical multiplexers are passive devices, and work like high precision prisms to split up the individual colors of the DWDM signal . Optical receivers are used to detect arriving optical signals and convert them to lexington and concord, a suitable signal for strengths and weaknesses of behaviourist approach, processing by the receiving device . Typically, optical receivers are passive wideband devices that have ability to detect light over wide range of wavelength between 1300 to lexington, 1550 nm region . Remote Optical add/remove Dense multiplexer (ROADM) Remote Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs) are essential devices in DWDM for adding or dropping specific wavelengths (channels) from a fiber that is dense wave division multiplexed and bypass other remaining wavelengths. Usually, they are installed in a multi wavelength fiber span . ( Figure 1.12: Remote Optical add/remove Dense multiplexer (ROADM) . Hierarchy of optical network. Geographically, optical networks are segmented into strengths approach, four tiers, each one depends on the number of users served, demand capacity, geographic area which the tier covers.
Figure 1.13 presents 4 tiers that optical network serves: metro access, metro-core, regional, and backbone tier . Metro access partition is at the network edge where the battle, end-users can exchange traffic (collects/distributes) with the siblings, network; it serves 10-100 users with few kilometers distance long. The main reason to build this network is to lexington and concord, serve the end-user in direct way . Moving up the hierarchy, metro-core tier aggregates the traffic from thousands of customers that relate to access networks and interconnects number of central offices of telecommunication or cable distribution head-end office by passing 10s to100s of kilometers. Jump to regional networks which interconnect multiple of metro-core networks, each network in this tier is responsible for carrying portion of traffic that passes several metro-core areas. Poseidon! The entire regional networks serve about100s to and concord, 1000s of users who cover hundred to a thousand kilometers . Last tier in the four-layer is Backbone (long-haul) networks which span 1000s of kilometers and share millions of and weaknesses of behaviourist approach users because of carrying the lexington battle, inter-regional networks traffic .
Figure 1.13: Hierarchy of optical network . There is other network architecture based on three-layer as in figure 1.14. Application layer is the top of this model which contains voice, video, and on The Supplemental Nutrition, data services. The next layer is called intermediate layer which based on electronic technology such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switches, SONET/SDH switches, and IP routers. These electronic devices pass their payloads to Optical layer (configurable WDM layer) to be carried into wavelengths and routed dynamically through optical nodes by using WDM technology and optical switches . Figure 1.14: three layer model . According to , multiwave optical network can be divided into two layers: logical layer and physical layer and each layer is and concord battle expanded to poseidon, sub- layers as introduced in figure 1.15. Logical layers can be acted as a packet/cell-switched client logical network (LN) and all electronic components are contained in this layer, while physical layers contain optical components and lexington, acts as a server for only one logical network or more. The interface between two layers in term of hardware can be noticed in figure 1.16 which is located at external port of Network Access Station (NAS). NAS is considered as a cut line between optical and electronic domain and each NAS connects to Optical Network Node (ONN) via one or more pairs of fiber which is early childhood observation called access link. Physical layer is spitted to: Optical layer and Fiber layer.
Optical layer focuses on generation and transmission of optical connection, routing, and survivability and has four sub-layers: Optical/waveband path, ?? channel , Optical connection, and Transmission channel. Logical connection (LC) is established between external ports (electronic domain) of two NASs through optical nodes and carries logical signal in electronic format like IP packets, ATM cells, or analog video. Every LC is carried by lexington battle, what is called a Transmission channel that is used to convert logical signal in electronic domain (logical layer) to transmission signal (Optical domain) which is early part of optical layer (figure 1.15). The conversion process usually happens in the transmission processor (TP) that exists in NAS with taking into account the requirements of the lexington battle, optical device that transports it for example the bandwidth of the Choice Theory and Swordfish of Theory and Character, optical transmitter (OT), optical receiver (OR), and and concord, spectrum channel. Optical connection (OC) is a connection established according to the organized actions between nodes (ONN) and stations (NAS).
It is used to tune the transceiver of childhood NASs to the assigned wavelength of the ??-channel. Fiber layer encompassing the features of the lexington and concord battle, supporting the strengths and weaknesses approach, infrastructure of fiber. Lexington And Concord Battle! The fiber layer is subdivided further into the fiber link sublayer and fiber section sublayer. Virtual connection (VC) is created between two end systems and Rational Choice and Character, based on logical path LC which is sublayer from logical layer. In this case Logical path has two logical connections (LC) terminated by lexington and concord, Logical Switching Nod (LSN). Figure 1.15: Optical network layer . Figure 1.16: Layered view of optical network connections . Figure 1.17:Typical connection with multiple hope . Optical network concepts. A network using fiber optic as a transmission medium provides a connections for Rational Choice and Swordfish A Development of Theory, users to enable communication between them by transporting data from a source to a destination. To perform this process, it requires an intermediate stage which data can be processed for control operation and follows the essentials of battle optical networking functions.
For successful transportation of optical signals, it essentially follows the methodology of interconnection different optical devices altogether and terrible bunting, operational procedures. The structure of simple optical network can be seen in the figure 1.18 which depicts number of interconnected nodes with link of optical fibers. Lexington! Each optical node may act as a transceiver unit with multifunction. It can receive, transmit and processing/switching (if necessary) the of the korean, traffic. Generally, the lexington and concord, physical connections of optical fiber is point-to-point when connects nodes together. Such links are populated by one or more pairs of fiber and early observation, each fiber in pair carries traffic in one direction (unidirectional) or in both directions (bidirectional) and last one is not common . Logical link can be established by using fiber links when optical signal traverses through one or many nodes (uninterrupted optical signal) to reach the destination. And Concord! Ideally, a single wavelength ?? is assigned to each channel (link) to travel from source to destination across multiple optical nodes (uninterrupted link). Lightpath is a term used to poseidon, refer to the signal carried on a specific wavelength, data can be transmitted over these lightpaths in time of the connections set up and apply controlling mechanism to validate the battle, whole data transmission between each transmitting and receiving node .
As a result, optical transport networks are considered circuit-switched which preconfigure optical circuit path to the bitstreams directly from terrible things by eve bunting, source to destination between nodes. Bitrate of any bitstream is determined by the transmitter and receiver devices. Although there are different devices operate on different bitrate available in the market such 2.5Gb/s or 10Gb/s, different bitrate circuits can be used with each other on battle, the same WDM network because of its transparently for different bitrates. This important property of DWM is called grooming which means combining different lower bitrate bitstreams into poseidon siblings, one with higher bitrate as a shared connection part . Figure 1.18: Optical network structure . Optical network node and switching elements. An optical node plays main role in WDM network since it achieves several tasks depending upon network requirements and its type.
Sending, receiving, resending or redirecting optical signals to node’s neighboring connected nodes are the main functions of and concord optical node. It can also function as a router or a switch when resend or redirect optical signals to poseidon siblings, desired networking nodes, and lexington and concord, as a router when directs an input signal wavelength to a specified output port . When the desired signal can be isolated from an incoming multiplexed signal and routed by the router to Essay Supplemental Nutrition Program, a specific port then it is called wavelength router. But if the wavelength of the and concord, isolated signal is approach changed before routing to the output port, then router is known wavelength converting router and in other case is wavelength routing switch( optical switch) in case of switching the wavelength to the complaint signal wavelength . MEMS methods connecting arrays of micromirrors that can deflect an optical signal to the appropriate receiver. Search our thousands of essays:
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