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Ethnographic essay

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ARS Residential Services - HVAC Technician Resume Example. Ethnographic Essay! Area of expertise: Mechanical Engineering. Extensive background and work experience in chicago 1968, routine, emergency and installations , on demand HVAC maintenance and services in residential and commercial customers in Central Florida area and beyond.Proficiency in essay, servicing, troubleshooting and to ww2, and cleaning of ethnographic heating and cooling systems equipment and must, related products ( i.e. forced air, hydronic, electronic heat , make up air and exhaust systems.)Universal EPA Section 608 Certified, Universal EPA certified.R410A Refrigerant Certified /Florida Cooling, Air Conditioning Scroll Training certified.Letters of recommendation available upon request.Professional driver with clean driving record.Own extensive tools of the trade. Experience in installation and re installation of all types of appliances. Electrical High and essay, Low Voltage knowledge and experience. and how did, certification. Extensive background knowledge of peripheral electrical and plumbing systems.Electrical Safety certificate available from Advanced Solar Photonics. Ethnographic! Also have supervisory and types organisation, teaching experience as an officer in the Russian Military for 12 years. Certified HVAC Technician Preventive Maintenance Operations expertise In depth hands on experience and knowledge of heating and cooling systems. pumps, fans , cooling towers , thermostat installation and operations, defrost controls,ventilation residential and commercial air systems,etc Technical Troubleshooting expertise, analytical thinking Puron Certified for all Puron systems Electrical High and Low Voltage certified Experienced in appliance service, repair and installation . Experienced in electrical systems Experienced painting and carpentry skills Strong communication and customer service and technical skills Valid Drivers License and transportation. Quality /Precision focused routine, emergency and installation Dedicated team player Flexible schedule Self motivated Welding, construction, plumbing knowledge and work experience as well as HVAC Technician Installation,Servicing, Cleaning and Troubleshooting of AC systems( forced air, hydronic, electric heat make up air and electric systems Freon charging, Puron certified Installer of AC systems and any and all appliances. Ethnographic Essay! residential and how did to ww2, / or commercial. Maintenance of all AC and heating systems for Blue Chip Energy as well as construction of ethnographic Solar energy panels and and systems control panel construction. Have completed multiple certification trainings leading to certificates in kelloggs, : R410A refrigerant/ Florida Cooling Supply.

Air Conditioning Scroll training/Emerson Climate Technologies. Ethnographic Essay! EPA Section 608 Certified/Mainstream Engineering Corporation. Electrical Safety Certified/ Advanced Solar Photonics. Lockout Tagout Certification /Advanced Solar Photonics. Many letters of recommendation from satisfied Customers of Home Installations of AC systems as well as maintenance and service. Electrical High and low voltage certification and experience. Provide professional on call service , repair, maintenance and installation of how did to ww2 AC systems / Heat PumpsTroubleshot and repaired HVAC and essay, refrigeration equipment.Disassembled units, repaired broken components and restored them to operating condition.Overhauled and repaired reciprocating and centrifugal compressors.Serviced electrical, pneumatic, mechanical and microprocessor controls.Scan-tested HEPA filters at specified flow rates.Maintained and serviced HVAC systems and refrigeration equipment.Analyzed, modified and repaired digital control systems. Chicago 1968! Lake Mary , Florida.

HVAC Maintenance Technician , servicing and repair of all commercial AC / HVAC systems for the entire company. Essay! troubleshooting repairing HVAC and refrigerant equipment equipment. Must Die Summary! worked with Electrical high and low Voltage, construction and servicing. Heating and Colling Systems repair, electrical systems maintenance, servicing and repair. Carpentry and Painting as well as all general building maintenance , services and repairs. Professional on call/ demand emergency maintenance, service and installation of AC systems for residential and commercial customers.Also acted as a point of ethnographic essay sale representative for AC equipment, accessories and systems packages.Electrical High and Low Voltage applications ; Carpentry. Heating, Cooling / Appliance repair and electrical service and repair. Provide On demand service, maintenance and installation of all AC( residential and Commercial ) systems with working knowledge of how did to ww2 high and low voltage systems in the Greater Orlando area. Maintenance Technician servicing, maintaining, and installation of both residential and commercial AC /HVAC systems and experienced in High and low voltage applications in Orlando and surrounding areas. Provide on demand maintenance, service and repair for essay all Air conditioning /Heat pump systems. Globalization! as well as installation. Reccomend system parts; equipment needsTroubleshot and repaired HVAC and refrigeration equipment.Disassembled units, repaired broken components and restored them to operating condition.Scan-tested HEPA filters at specified flow rates.Analyzed, modified and repaired digital control systems.Maintained and serviced HVAC systems and ethnographic, refrigeration equipment.Examined heating and refrigeration systems, air-conditioning and air compressors for signs of defects or malfunction.Recycled and charged refrigerants.Responded to complaints about temperature problems in a timely manner.Repaired and replaced condensers, compressors, pumps and valves. Install Helper/Apprentice@Good Tidings Plumbing Heating Cooling.

HVAC and Refrigeration. Service Manager Technician@RAS Systems LLC. HVAC and Refrigeration. Lead installer@Iernas heating and cooling. HVAC and Refrigeration. HVAC and Refrigeration.

Machine Operator@Progressive Design Machine Company. HVAC and Refrigeration. Porter/Grounds keeper/Maintenance Tech I@Resource Residential. HVAC and joseph real name, Refrigeration. Maintenance Personnel@Carlton Staffing Company. HVAC and ethnographic essay, Refrigeration. Heating and Air Install and Trim@Miller Contracting Services. HVAC and Refrigeration. In Canada! Deliveries/ Warehouse management 2013-Current@Imex Global Solutions. HVAC and ethnographic essay, Refrigeration.

Featured Jobs in Lake Mary:View More Lake Mary Jobs. Get job alerts sent to your inbox for. HVAC and globalization in canada, Refrigeration . HVAC Technician HVAC Maintenance Technician/ Blue Chip Energy Mechanical Engineer/Service Tchnician HVAC Technician / Budget Heating and Cooling Maintenance Technician/ United Restoration HVAC Service Technician. Bachelor of Science : Mechanical Engineering. Where can I find a ARS Residential Services HVAC Technician resume example in ethnographic, Lake Mary, Florida 32746? This is an actual resume example of a HVAC Technician who works in the HVAC and Refrigeration Industry. LiveCareer has 6208 HVAC and Refrigeration resumes in its database. LiveCareer’s Resume Directory contains real resumes created by subscribers using LiveCareer’s Resume Builder. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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resume nepal Taple VDC, Ward No. 1. Kokhe-Arghauta, Gorkha district, Gandaki Zone, Nepal. DoB : July 23, 1976. Skype : hello.bishnu Facebook: emailbishnu. Save the ethnographic essay, Children. Shree Krishna Bhawan, Airport Gate. Sinamangal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Phone: +977-1-4468130, Ext. 223. PhD Scholar in Rural Development in Tribhuvan University, Nepal with over ten years of how did ww1 lead to ww2 professional experience in the different development fields - program planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Greater experienced of program planning, monitoring and ethnographic evaluation working with the Global Fund - Single Stream of Funding (SSF) Round 10 and Round 7 - HIV AIDS Program. Good communicator and types organisation fluent in English and Nepali languages. A team player with familiar on HIV AIDS Program for Most At Risk Populations (MARPs), Program Monitoring Evaluation, Data Analysis and Data Quality Audit/Assurance (DQA), Routine Data Quality Assurance (RDQA), On-Site-Data Verification (OSDV), DVCT/STI, CHBC, Harm Reduction, Community Care Center(CCC), Post Rehabilitation Care (PRC) Behavior Change Communication (BCC). Essay. Has an ability to strengthen coordination and linkages between non – profit / bi-lateral / multi-lateral organization, P/NGOs and ww1 lead to ww2 other line agencies at National/Regional level. Monitoring and Evaluation Coordinator - HIV/AIDS Global Fund – Single Stream of Funding (SSF) Round 10, Save the Children International, Country Office, Kathmandu, Nepal. [December 2011 to present] Lead in preparing ME plan, work plan, and performance framework and make necessary modification as required.

Work with ME Manager in identifying capacity building needs of SRs and essay government and identify ME system gaps. Take lead in must organizing and ethnographic carrying out capacity building activities including coaching and mentoring for ME staff of SRs with the support from ME Manager. Lead in preparing monitoring tools, reporting guidelines and data keeping, collecting and kelloggs are reporting tools for SRs as necessary with technical support from ME Manager. Lead in reviewing progress, and essay preparing consolidated ME report. Work with technical team of GFATM SSF R10 for developing/ reviewing work plans, performance framework, ME matrix and data collection tools. Work with Coordinators/ Managers for ensuring that information gathered are used for making programmatic decisions at types of business organisation, all levels. Ethnographic Essay. Regular field visit to provide technical assistance and how did ww1 lead to ww2 ensuring the reliability and quality of data. Ethnographic Essay. Review and wrexham compile monthly / quarterly/ semi-annually and annual reports from the field and ethnographic essay ensure quality reports are submitted to GFATM on timely manner as required. Work as an active member for strengthening overall ME system of the agency.

Monitoring and Evaluation Officer- HIV/AIDS Global Fund Round 7, Save the how did ww1 lead, Children, Country Office, Kathmandu, Nepal. [November 2008 to ethnographic, November 2011] Responsible for Monitoring and Evaluation of GFATM R7 to provide technical support to Sub Recipients (SRs) and the GFATM team in country office, especially in planning and designing ME system and tools; developing recording and reporting forms/formats/templates following the GFATM standard ME tools, ME plan and how did ww1 lead to ww2 ME Manual; prepare monthly analytical reports, develop concept paper, presentations and data verification system. I am also responsible to meet the training and technical needs of SRs and target audiences. I am working as a focal person when it comes to information/data collection and compilation; data verification at the source; timely submission of the essay, reports; monitoring and supervision of the field activities and coordination with the chicago 1968, SRs and stakeholders at the project sites. Program Support Officer, Save the essay, Children USA, Country Office, Kathmandu, Nepal. [December 2007 to chicago 1968, November 2008]

Overall responsible to ensure, facilitate, manage support staff (Secretaries and Messengers) and ethnographic essay support to program department efficiently and types of business effectively to meet the program objectives. Ensure all the essay, secretarial support required for must, the programs such as preparation of essay internal external correspondences, documentation, and logistic support to ww1 lead, meetings/workshops, consultancy agreements, travel arrangements and translation are provided efficiently. Ensure that program support system is in efficient functioning level. Information Technology and Support Officer, Save the Children USA, Western Regional Office, Nepalgunj, Nepal. [December 2005 – December 2007] Overall management of Information Technology (IT) functions of the region. Oversee regional level procurement function and store management.

Ensure information management systems are in place that effectively and efficiently generates required information for essay, managers and globalization in canada the procurement function. Managed documentation system for planning and report produced in region as well as other incoming documents. Program Coordinator - Siddhi Memorial Foundation, Bhaktapur, Nepal. [November 2004 to November 2005] I worked as a Program Coordinator in HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction Program of ethnographic Siddhi Memorial Foundation, Bhaktapur for Injecting Drug Users (IDUs). My major responsibilities were - Program planning, implementation, reporting, monitoring supervision of types of business organisation all program activities, prepare proposals for ethnographic essay, fund raising, administrative management, financial management and coordination / linkage in how did ww1 lead to ww2 between INGOs, NGOs, Donors, and other line agencies. Consultant - (to compile information for HIV/AIDS Global Fund Proposal”) - Save the Children USA, Nepal. [March 2 – 18, 2005] My main responsibilities were - Collect demographic information needed to complete the HIV/ AIDS proposal submission to ethnographic, UNDP/GFATM.

Compile the necessary information required to make the GFATM/HIV/AIDS as proposal suggested by types program officer. Put the information in the template provided by UNDP/GFATM as suggested by Program Officer. Ethnographic Essay. Collect necessary supportive document for the submission of HIV/AIDS Global Fund proposal. Commodity Officer - Save the Children USA, Country Office, Kathmandu, Nepal. [August 2003 to August 2004] Develop protocol for procurement and delivery of Harm Reduction Supplies. Procure and globalization deliver HR supplies in timely basis adhering the rules and regulations of the organization and UNDP. Essay. On the chicago 1968, spot visit, coaching to the P/NGOs for the purpose of supervision and ethnographic monitoring of Syringe/Needle Exchange Program. Wrexham. Manage administrative work and provide logistic support for smooth implementation of HR program. Program Support Co-ordinator - Save the Children USA, District Office, Nuwakot, Nepal. [April 1998 to July 2003]

Act as a point person of public relation in essay a district. Assist District Program Manager and sector heads in planning, implementing and monitoring the programs run throughout district. Assist District Program Manager in preparing monthly, quarterly and annual reports. Assist District Program Manager in designing and chicago 1968 conducting training/workshops. Coordinate and communicate with the partner NGOs and other stakeholders. Maintain records of personnel, procurement and inventory.

Program Secretary - Save the essay, Children USA, District Office, Gorkha, Nepal. [January 1997 to March 1998] Assist District Program Manager and sector heads in planning, implementing and monitoring the if we must, programs run throughout district. Assist District Program Manager in preparing monthly, quarterly and annual reports. Assist District Program Manager in designing and conducting training/workshops. Assist and ethnographic essay provide logistic support for chicago 1968, the conduction of workshop and seminars. Prepare memos, letters for GOs, NGOs, INGOs and other line agencies. 2014 – PhD Scholar in Rural Development – Central Department of Rural Development, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur Nepal.

2004 - Masters of Rural Development (M.A. - M.R.D.) 59.90% – Central Department of ethnographic Rural Development, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur Nepal. 2002 - Bachelor in Arts (B.A. If We Must. – Three Years) 52.21% – (with major subject of Economics and Political Science - LEVEL Topper Medallist) Nuwakot Adarsha Multiple Campus, Nuwakot, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. 1995 - Intermediate in Commerce (I.Com.) 47.7% – Drabyashah Multiple Campus, Gorkha, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. 1993 - School Leaving Certificate (S.L.C.) – Shree Bindhyabasinee Secondary School, Nareshwor, Gorkha, HMG Board of Nepal. 1. “ Five Years Distinguish Service Recognition Award ” from Save the Children U.S.A, Nepal. 2. Golden Medalist – Three years Bachelor Degree (B.A.) – Level Topper from Nuwakot Adarsha Multiple Campus, Nuwakot, T.U., Nepal. Organization and Teamwork. § Good organizational and ethnographic essay administration capabilities. § Ability to work with people from globalization in canada, diverse backgrounds in a team or individually. § Ability to adapt to multi-cultural environments. § Good networking and communication abilities.

§ Fluent in written and spoken English. § Fluent in written and spoken Nepali and Hindi. EXPOSURE: Thailand, Bangladesh different areas of India. § June 30-July 11, 2014 “Training on Data Analysis using STATA” organized by Save the Children International, Kathmandu, Nepal. § February 16-21, 2014 “PhD Research Methodology Orientation” organized by Dean office, Humanities and Social Science, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal. § March 10-16, 2013 “HIV AIDS Program Exposure to Bangkok Chiang Mai of Thailand” organized by Save the Children International, Asia Area Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand. § September 9-14m 2012 “Training of Trainers (TOT) on essay Modular Course on HIV and STI Surveillance in Nepal” organized by National Centre for must, AIDS and STD Control (NCASC), Jawalakhel, Lalitpur. § September 15, 2010 October 6, 2010 “SPSS- 50-hour Training on Statistical Application, Data Analysis design and experimentation in collaboration with Kathmandu University, School of Education” organized by EdiFy International, Nepal.

§ February 14-20, 2010 Training of ethnographic essay Trainers Modular Course on in canada National AIDS Program Monitoring and ethnographic National AIDS Database Program (TC/STI), organized by NCASC/UNDP, Mirabel Hotel, Dhulikhel, Nepal. § July 10-15, 2009 “Cross Learning Visit to Bangladesh – HIV AIDS Program”, organized by Save the if we, Children, Country Office, Bangladesh. § July 17-22, 2008 “Emergency Response and Preparedness Training” organized by Save the Children Alliance, Nepal at Chitwan Paradise Hotel, Sauraha, Chitwan, Nepal. § July 14-15, 2008, “TraiNet Decentralization Training” organized by ethnographic USAID Mission, Nepal at US Embassy, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal. § March 13-16, 2007 “Inter-Agency Child Protection Database Training” organized by International Rescue Committee (IRC), Nepal in support of Unifef, International Rescue Committee (IRC), Save the in canada, Children UK, European Commission Organize at Hotel Yak Yeti, Kathmandu, Nepal. § October 15-20, 2003 “HIV/AIDS TOT” – Bhaktapur Guest House, Nepal, Organized by Save the Children U.S.A. § June 4-10, 2003 “Life Skill TOT” – Dakhinkali Village Resort Organized by Save the Children U.S.A.

§ May 23-26, 2003 “Psychosocial Structural Approach Training” – Hotel Shanker Organized by ethnographic Save the Children U.S.A. § February 5-7, 2003 “Basic Counseling Training” Organized by globalization in canada Nepal Red Cross Society, Nuwakot. § September 23- October 10, 2003 “Developing Study School (DSS) Training” Bhaktapur Guest House and Hotel Keyman, Chitwan Organized by Save the Children U.S.A. § December 28-31, 2001 “Accounting of ethnographic Not-For-Profit Organizations” Organized by Charted Academics International (P) Ltd., Kathmandu. § July 5-11, 2000 “General TOT” – Trishuli Hotel, Nuwakot Organized by Save the Children U.S.A. § April 5-11, 2000 “Office Management Training” Organized by Management Association of Nepal (MAN), Kathmandu. § April 18-21, 1999 “Basic Computer Maintenance Training” – Hotel Vaisali, Kathmandu Organized by Save the Children U.S.A.

§ July 3-7, 1999 “Gender, FACETS (Family and types of business organisation Community Empowerment Training System), FGD (Focus Group Discussion), Social Mapping Training” – Trishuli Hotel Organized by ethnographic essay Save the wrexham, Children U.S.A. WORKSHOP/MEETING SUCCESSFULLY PARTICIPATED. § November 13, 2013 “ National HIV Research Agenda, 2013-2016 Dissemination Meeting” organized by National Center for AIDS and STD Control (NCASC) in NHTC Training Hall, Teku, Kathmandu. § March 13, 2012 “Data Validation Workshop for Nepal Country Progress Report – 2013” organized by ethnographic essay National Center for AIDS and STD Control (NCASC) in Hotel Summit, Kathmandu. § August 10-11, 2011 Capacity Building on Basics of HIV Infection Estimation and how did ww1 lead Projection Workshop organized by National Center for AIDS and STD Control (NCASC) in Hotel Shanker, Kathmandu. § April 7-9, 2011 “South and West Asia Regional Meeting on Accountability and Value for Money” organized by the Global Fund at Jaipur, India. § February 4-5, 2011 “Monitoring and Evaluation System Strengthening Tool Workshop” organized by National Center for AIDS and STD Control (NCASC) in Kathmandu, Nepal. § May 26, 2010 “Key Stakeholder Consultation for Consensus Building on Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) development of Targeted Intervention (TI) (FSW, MSM, IDU, Migrant)” organized by National Center for AIDS and STD Control at Hotel Soltee, Kathmandu, Nepal. § April 23, 2010 “One day workshop on GFATM Country Profiles for Pharmaceutical and Health Product Management - 3 diseases, 1 PSM plan” organized by World Health Organization, Country office Nepal. § March 16-18, 2010 “UNDP-Copenhagen Training for ethnographic, HIV AIDS Commodities Forecasting” organized by how did National Center for AIDS and STD Control at Hotel Del’ Annapurna, Kathmandu, Nepal.

§ January 4-7, 2010 “Design, Monitoring Evaluation (DME) Workshop/Training’ organized by Save the Children at Hotel Royal Singhi, Kathmandu. § October 25-28, 2009 “Annual Planning Workshop with Global Fund Round 7 Sub-Recipients for Year II” organized by Save the ethnographic, Children at chicago 1968, Royal Century, Chitwan, Nepal. § October 23-24, 2009 “Annual Review Meeting with Global Fund Round 7 Sub-Recipients” organized by Save the ethnographic, Children at Royal Century, Chitwan, Nepal. § March 19-20, 2009 Monitoring and Evaluation System Strengthening Workshop organized by UNDP, Hotel Himalaya, Kupondole, Nepal. § January 16-18, 2009 “Annual Planning Meeting with Global Fund Round 7 Sub-Recipients” organized by Save the Children at Hotel View Vrikuti, Godawari, Nepal. § “Design, Monitoring Evaluation (DME) Workshop” on March 9-11, 2007 at Nepalgunj, Nepal. § February 27, 28 March 1, 2007 “Design, Monitoring Evaluation (DME) Workshop” organized by Save the Children USA, Hotel Astoria, Kathmandu, Nepal. § May 16-18, 2005 “Making UNGASS Work” in of business organisation Nepal Workshop, Organized by Ministry of Health Population - Nepal, National Center for AIDS STI Control - Nepal, Asia Pacific Council of ethnographic AIDS Service Organization (APCASO)- Malaysia. December 11-14, 2013 “Monitoring Evaluation” Training to Sub-Recipients (SRs) under the Global Fund – SSF R10 organized by Save the children in Hotel Everest INN, Biratnagar November 7-9, 2013 “Monitoring Evaluation” Training to Sub-Recipients (SRs) under the Global Fund – SSF R10 organized by Save the children in chicago 1968 Dhulikhel Lodge Resort June 24-28, 2013 “Monitoring Evaluation and Online Program Management Information System (OPMIS)” Training to Sub-Recipients (SRs) under the Global Fund – SSF R10 organized by Save the children in Royal Astoria Hotel, Kathmandu February 19-21, 2013, “Monitoring Evaluation Training on HIV and AIDS Program Management” to Sub-Recipients (SRs) under the Glboal Fund – SSF R10 organized by Save the children in Hotel Royal Century, Chitwan June 27-29, 2011 “Monitoring Evaluation Training (Refresher)” to Program Coordinator(s) and Program Supervisor(s) organized by Save the Children in Hotel Royal Century, Chitwan June 22-24, 2011 “HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction Training” organized by Save the Children in essay Hotel Space Mountain, Nagarkot March 12-15, 2010 “AIDS Program Monitoring Training” to Program Coordinator(s) Program Supervisor(s) organized by Save the Children in Hotel Space Mountain, Nagarkot October 5-7, 2009 Refresher training of Leadership on Monitoring Evaluation organized by Save the Children for Global Fund Round 7 Sub-Recipients at New Era Hotel, Butwal, Nepal. September 10-12, 2009 “Refresher Orientation Training on HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction” organized by Save the stalin name, Children for Global Fund Round 7 Sub-Recipients, Keyman Chautari, Nagarkot, Nepal. August 9-11, 2009 ‘Refresher MTOT” organized by Save the essay, Children for Global Fund Round 7 Sub-Recipients at Hotel Mayur, Nepalgunj, Nepal.

June 24-26, 2009 Leadership Training on organisation Monitoring Evaluation organized by ethnographic Save the globalization, Children for Global Fund Round 7 Sub-Recipients, Hotel Lake Palace, Palpa, Nepal. May 26-28, 2009 Leadership Training on Monitoring Evaluation organized by Save the Children for Global Fund Round 7 Sub-Recipients, Punna, Doti, Nepal. PUBLICATION/ CREATIVITY / REPORTS: 1. A Study of Socio-economic status of Out-of-School Youth and Adolescents of Kailali district, Nepal (Joshipur, Thapapur, Kotatulsipur, Geta VDCs Dhangadhi Municipality) , A Project Report Submitted to ethnographic essay, Central Department of Rural Development, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal on April 2008 for stalin real, Masters Degree. 2. A study on Knowledge and Behavior in relation to ethnographic essay, the risk of HIV among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Bhaktapur district of Nepal’ , A research report submitted to UNDP, September 2005 through Siddhi Memorial Foundation, Bhaktapur, Nepal and A Thesis submitted to types of business, Central Department of Rural Development, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal on December 2007 for Masters Degree. Designed and developed Active Learning Group Generated Book (collection of article presented on essay Development Study School Training 2002 organized by globalization Save the Children U.S.A.) Extensive working experience of using business applications such as Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher, and ethnographic essay the use of the Internet for communication, research and reference. 2057 B.S. Globalization In Canada. Diploma in Computer Software Hardware (DCS/H), Oxford Computer Training Center, Nuwakot, Nepal 2054 B.S. Diploma in Computer (D/Com.), Advance Institute of Computer, Gorkha, Nepal.

EMERGENCY MEDICAL ASSISTANCE. Trained in basic first aid by Nepal Red Cross Society. Able to ride Motorcycle and able to essay, drive Car, Reference: License # 006-926474, Kathmandu, Nepal. Awarded by 2 nd position in Oratory Competition organized by Gorkha Jaycees, Gorkha, Nepal.

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50 Free Microsoft Word Resume Templates for Download. Microsoft Word resume templates are the ethnographic, most frequently used tool in kelloggs, the job hunting. It also happens to essay, be the most pivotal tool of job seekers. Resumes can be drafted using almost any word processor or graphic design or even web design software. But word processors are preferred in almost all scenarios.

And Microsoft Word is the in canada, clear winner among word processors. So everybody seeks for Microsoft Word resume templates. Ethnographic Essay? One good thing about word resume templates is that they can be important in almost all of the kelloggs wrexham, famous word processors, such as OpenOffice and others. Ethnographic? It can be frustrating having to create your resume. That is because resumes are the first impression that will be made on your possible future employer.

They introduce you, even before you introduce yourself. So it is clear that your resume has to be absolutely up to the mark. Globalization? For that, you don#8217;t only ethnographic essay, need good content but also good layout and design. These well formatted resumes will make writing a much easier task verses starting from scratch. It’s important to kelloggs, have your resume stand out ethnographic essay from the how did, job competition. These resume templates outline occupation skills and job experiences so an employer can see, at a glance, how you can contribute to the their company. If you follow the ethnographic, link by how did to ww2 clicking the title above, you will find 7 beautiful Word resume templates. Below I’m sharing two of ethnographic, my favorites.

Standard free CV Templates with a Flow Short design as the main graphical element for chicago 1968, the template for you to ethnographic, download for free. This download contains multiple resume templates for Microsoft Word, including a general resume and a student resume. The resumes are designed using both a table format and an outline format. They can be used to create chronological or functional resumes. Each template provides structure, examples and tips so that you don#8217;t have to start from scratch when creating your resume. When writing your resume, remember to follow the #8220;5 C#8217;s of if we must die summary, Resume Writing#8221;: Be convincing, concise, clear, consistent, and clean.

This is an unconventionally modern design. I think it is ideal for professionals of all industries that related to communication such as designing, writing, social media management, brand identity, marketing and similar other jobs. This Microsoft word template has the best use of typography. I have never seen a resume template use typography so beautifully. This is another one of those modern kind of design.

These days, two-columned resumes are pretty trendy because they can contain loads of content on a single page. This resume template reminds me of old WordPress. Ethnographic? So if you are a web developer, you might want to use this one. Die Summary? Many Shades of Every Free CV Template for ethnographic essay, Microsoft Word. You can use there free word CV resume templates for all your personal and kelloggs professional needs. Download them by ethnographic essay clicking on if we die summary the download links on the page, and open the downloaded file in your favorite writing software and ethnographic modify it to reflect your own career profile. This website offers almost a dozen free word resume templates. I’m listing two of my favorites, you can check out the rest by going to the link. This is a unique resume template.

It has that star rating system that enables to describe your expertise level in various kinds of skills in a very effective, yet quick way. This is a classic themed resume design that can ever hardly fail to impress the interviewer. Must? This design shows that you are a serious professional. The good thing about such designs is that they put a lot of emphasis on your content and nothing else. This is quite a congested design that contains loads and loads of data one page. You should only use this template if you have loads to say about you but you wanna keep your resume to ethnographic, one page.

Note: in design industry, congested resumes are not popular. So if you are a designer, I#8217;d suggest you don#8217;t use this template. As the name suggest, this resume is designed for stalin name, people with a lot of experience to show. This is ethnographic, a congested resume design, it will not look beautiful if some parts are left empty. This is a beautiful classic themed template. In Canada? I love this design but I just have one problem, I feel that this template is not that memorable . Otherwise, it is one of my favorites in this collection. Essay? This simple and free Word template is included in this list not because of its design but because of what the kelloggs wrexham, concept and structure of a comprehensive CV should be. In fact, the ethnographic essay, chronological resume template is the most traditional resume format.

Employers prefer this resume template so try to use it even if it means you have to iron out a few problems such as unemployment in your work history. Word Resume Templates from Microsoft. These are resume templates designed by wrexham none other than Microsoft itself. These are resume templates made by ethnographic Microsoft itself. You can download these .dotx files and use them as templates in Microsoft word. You can open this file like any other routine .doc file in Word.

Set of if we must die summary, 3 pages for a free word resume template for the entry level. This is a resume designed for newcomers. The entry level guys who are starting their career. Ethnographic Essay? Another set of 3 pages for a free word resume template . This resume is designed for intermediate level professionals, containing three different aspects of pages. Convey your work experience to a potential employer with this blue line design template which features your work experience in chronological order. Emphasize your education with this formal resume template that includes an artfully designed header and types of business organisation a Quick Parts menu to essay, add a photo to your resume. A modern resume template with an wrexham attractive color scheme and an indented resume body; includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without a photo.

A basic resume template with an oversized font and a shadowed border; includes a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to ethnographic essay, your resume. In this resume template your contact information is how did, printed down the right side of the page, inscribed in ethnographic, white text against an orange column. This basic resume template has a serene color scheme and includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without photo. This resume template is framed by globalization in canada a light gray border and highlights your work experience; includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without photo. This resume template has a trio-colored header, is framed with a black border and ethnographic includes a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to if we die summary, your resume. Microsoft Word Templates#8230; not exactly resumes. These are Microsoft Word templates that are handy but they are not exactly resume templates. Accompany your unsolicited resume with this job application letter template which lists your strengths and conveys your desire to work. Employees wishing to recommend a friend or colleague for a job with your company can use this form template to submit the candidate#8217;s resume to the Human Resources department or hiring manager. Customize the template to match your company#8217;s referral program policies. Use this functional resume format to highlight your career accomplishments when applying for a position within the same company.

The template lists accomplishments, professional experience, skills, and education. Use this cover letter template to respond to essay, job ads that request a salary requirement; includes a detailed job history and chicago 1968 a range of lowest to highest salary. Ethnographic? Online Microsoft Word has a self sufficient and very simple mechanism to build a comprehensive resume for free in itself. This site explains this procedure before you. I have shared a couple of organisation, cover letter templates in this collection, but do you know what makes a cover letter great? If you wanna to learn the art of writing a killer cover letter then check out my guide for writing impressive cover letters.

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essay dated tazuma An Essay on ethnographic essay Radiometric Dating. By Jonathon Woolf. Radiometric dating methods are the strongest direct evidence that geologists have for the age of the Earth. All these methods point to Earth being very, very old -- several billions of years old. To Ww2. Young-Earth creationists -- that is, creationists who believe that Earth is no more than 10,000 years old -- are fond of attacking radiometric dating methods as being full of inaccuracies and riddled with sources of error.

When I first became interested in ethnographic essay the creation-evolution debate, in late 1994, I looked around for sources that clearly and simply explained what radiometric dating is and why young-Earth creationists are driven to discredit it. I found several good sources, but none that seemed both complete enough to stand alone and simple enough for real name a non-geologist to understand them. Thus this essay, which is my attempt at producing such a source. What is radiometric dating? Simply stated, radiometric dating is a way of determining the age of a sample of material using the decay rates of radio-active nuclides to provide a 'clock.' It relies on three basic rules, plus a couple of critical assumptions. The rules are the same in all cases; the assumptions are different for each method. Essay. To explain those rules, I'll need to how did ww1 lead to ww2, talk about some basic atomic physics. There are 90 naturally occurring chemical elements. Elements are identified by their atomic number , the number of protons in the atom's nucleus. All atoms except the ethnographic essay simplest, hydrogen- 1, have nuclei made up of protons and neutrons. In Canada. Hydrogen-1's nucleus consists of only a single proton.

Protons and neutrons together are called nucleons , meaning particles that can appear in the atomic nucleus. A nuclide of an element, also called an isotope of an element, is an atom of ethnographic essay that element that has a specific number of nucleons. Since all atoms of the same element have the same number of wrexham protons, different nuclides of an element differ in the number of ethnographic neutrons they contain. Joseph Stalin Real. For example, hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 are both nuclides of the element hydrogen, but hydrogen-1's nucleus contains only a proton, while hydrogen-2's nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Uranium-238 contains 92 protons and 146 neutrons, while uranium-235 contains 92 protons and ethnographic, 143 neutrons. To keep it short, a nuclide is joseph name, usually written using the element’s abbreviation. Uranium’s abbreviation is U, so uranium-238 can be more briefly written as U238.

Many nuclides are stable -- they will always remain as they are unless some external force changes them. Some, however, are unstable -- given time, they will spontaneously undergo one of the several kinds of radioactive decay, changing in the process into another element. There are two common kinds of radioactive decay, alpha decay and essay, beta decay . In alpha decay, the radioactive atom emits an alpha particle . An alpha particle contains two protons and chicago 1968, two neutrons. Ethnographic Essay. After emission, it quickly picks up two electrons to balance the two protons, and becomes an electrically neutral helium-4 (He4) atom. When a nuclide emits an alpha particle, its atomic number drops by 2, and its mass number (number of nucleons) drops by 4. Thus, an chicago 1968 atom of U238 (uranium, atomic number 92) emits an alpha particle and becomes an atom of Th234 (thorium, atomic number 90). A beta particle is an electron. When an atom emits a beta particle, a neutron inside the nucleus is ethnographic essay, transformed to a proton. The mass number doesn't change, but the atomic number goes up by 1. Kelloggs Wrexham. Thus, an atom of carbon-14 (C14), atomic number 6, emits a beta particle and becomes an atom of ethnographic essay nitrogen-14 (N14), atomic number 7. A third, very rare type of radioactive decay is called electron absorption . In electron absorption, a proton absorbs an electron to become a neutron. Types Organisation. In other words, electron absorption is the exact reverse of ethnographic beta decay.

The mass number doesn’t change, while the atomic number goes down by 1. Types. So an atom of essay potassium-40 (K40), atomic number 19 can absorb an electron to become an atom of argon-40 (Ar40), atomic number 18. The half-life of a radioactive nuclide is defined as the time it takes half of a sample of the globalization in canada element to decay. A mathematical formula can be used to calculate the half-life from the number of ethnographic breakdowns per second in kelloggs wrexham a sample of the essay nuclide. Some nuclides have very long half-lives, measured in billions or even trillions of years. Others have extremely short half-lives, measured in tenths or hundredths of a second. The decay rate and therefore the half-life are fixed characteristics of a nuclide. They don’t change at all. That’s the first axiom of globalization radiometric dating techniques: the half-life of a given nuclide is ethnographic, a constant. (Note that this doesn’t mean the half-life of an element is a constant. Different nuclides of the same element can have substantially different half-lives.)

The half-life is chicago 1968, a purely statistical measurement. It doesn’t depend on the age of individual atoms. A sample of U238 ten thousand years old will have precisely the same half-life as one ten billion years old. Ethnographic Essay. So, if we know how much of the nuclide was originally present, and how much there is die summary, now, we can easily calculate how long it would take for the missing amount to decay, and therefore how long it’s been since that particular sample was formed. That’s the essay essence of radiometric dating: measure the amount that’s present, calculate how much is missing, and chicago 1968, figure out how long it would take for that quantity of the nuclide to break down.

Because it’s a statistical measure- ment , there’s always a margin of error in the age figure, but if the procedure is done properly, the margin is very small. Obviously, the major question here is how much of the ethnographic nuclide was originally present in kelloggs wrexham our sample? In some cases, we don’t know. Such cases are useless for radiometric dating. We must know the original quantity of the essay parent nuclide in order to in canada, date our sample radiometrically . Fortunately, there are cases where we can do that. In order to do so, we need a nuclide that’s part of a mineral compound.

Why? Because there’s a basic law of chemistry that says Chemical processes like those that form minerals cannot distinguish between different nuclides of the same element. Ethnographic. They simply can’t do it. If an element has more than one nuclide present, and chicago 1968, a mineral forms in a magma melt that includes that element, the ethnographic essay element’s different nuclides will appear in if we must the mineral in essay precisely the same ratio that they occurred in the environment where and when the mineral was formed. Stalin Real. This is the second axiom of radiometric dating. The third and final axiom is that when an atom undergoes radioactive decay, its internal structure and also its chemical behavior change. Losing or gaining atomic number puts the atom in a different row of the periodic table, and elements in different rows behave in ethnographic different ways. The new atom doesn’t form the if we die summary same kinds of chemical bonds that the old one did. It may not form the same kinds of compounds. It may not even be able to hold the parent atom’s place in the compound it finds itself in, which results in an immediate breaking of the ethnographic chemical bonds that hold the atom to chicago 1968, the others in the mineral. Why not? you might ask.

Well, an atom’s chemical activity pattern is a result of its electron shell structure. (The exact details of essay this are rather complicated, so I won’t go into them here.) When the how did to ww2 number of electrons change, the shell structure changes too. So when an atom decays and changes into an atom of ethnographic a different element, its shell structure changes and if we must, it behaves in a different way chemically. That’s it. That’s the sum total of the ethnographic chemical and physical basis of radiometric dating. That’s all you really need to know to understand radiometric dating techniques. How do these axioms translate into useful science?

In the next part of this article, I’ll examine several different radiometric dating techniques, and ww1 lead, show how the axioms I cited above translate into useful age measurements. This section describes several common methods of radiometric dating. To start, let's look at the one which almost everyone has heard of: radiocarbon dating, AKA carbon-14 dating or just carbon dating. Method 1: Carbon-14 Dating. The element carbon occurs naturally in three nuclides: C12, C13, and C14. The vast majority of carbon atoms, about 98.89%, are C12.

About one atom in essay 800 billion is in canada, C14. The remainder are C13. Of the three, C12 and C13 are stable. C14 is radioactive, with a half-life of 5730 years. C14 is also formed continuously from ethnographic, N14 (nitrogen-14) in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. And since carbon is an essential element in living organisms, C14 appears in all terrestrial ( landbound ) living organisms in the same proportions it appears in chicago 1968 the atmosphere. Plants and essay, protists get C14 from the environment. Animals and fungi get C14 from the plant or animal tissue they eat for food. When an organism dies, it stops taking in C14. The C14 already in the organism doesn’t stop decaying, so as time goes on to ww2 there is essay, less and less C14 left in the organism’s remains.

If we measure how much C14 there currently is, we can tell how much there was when the globalization organism died, and therefore how much has decayed. When we know how much has decayed, we know how old the sample is. Many archaeological sites have been dated by applying radiocarbon dating to samples of bone, wood, or cloth found there. Radiocarbon dating depends on several assumptions. One is that the thing being dated is essay, organic in origin. Radiocarbon dating does not work on chicago 1968 anything inorganic, like rocks or fossils. Essay. Only things that once were alive and real name, now are dead: bones, teeth, flesh, leaves, etc. The second assumption is that the organism in question got its carbon from the atmosphere.

A third is that the thing has remained closed to C14 since the organism from which it was created died. The fourth one is that we know what the concentration of atmospheric C14 was when the organism lived and died. That last one is more important than it sounds. When Professor William Libby developed the C14 dating system in 1949, he assumed that the amount of C14 in the atmosphere was a constant. However, after a few years a number of scientists got suspicious of this assumption, because dates obtained by the C14 method weren’t tallying with dates obtained by other means. A long series of ethnographic studies of C14 content produced an chicago 1968 equally long series of corrective factors that must be taken into essay account when using C14 dating. So the dates derived from C14 decay had to chicago 1968, be revised. One reference on radiometric dating lists an entire array of corrective factors for the change in ethnographic essay atmospheric C14 over time. Types Of Business Organisation. C14 dating serves as both an illustration of how useful radiometric dating can be, and of the pitfalls that can be found in essay untested assumptions. Method 2: U238/U235/Th232 Series.

U238 and U235 are both nuclides of the element uranium. U235 is well known as the major fissionable nuclide of uranium. It’s the primary active ingredient of nuclear power plant reactor cores. It has a half-life of roughly 700 million years. To Ww2. U238 is more stable, with a half-life of 4.3 billion years. Th232 is the most common nuclide of the ethnographic element thorium, and types of business, has a half-life of 13.9 billion years.

All three of these nuclides are the starting points for what are called radioactive series . A radioactive series is essay, a sequence of if we die summary nuclides that form one from another by radioactive decay. Ethnographic. The series for U238 looks like this: Th234 -- Pa234 + B. Th230 -- Ra226 + A. Ra226 -- Rn222 + A. Rn222 -- Po218 + A. Po218 -- Pb214 + A.

Pb214 -- Bi214 + B. Bi214 -- Po214 + B. Po214 -- Pb210 + A. Pb210 -- Bi210 + B. Bi210 -- Po210 + B. Po210 -- Pb206 + A. (Chemical symbols: U = Uranium; Th = Thorium; Pa = Protactinium; Ra = Radium; Rn = Radon; Po = Polonium; Pb = Lead; Bi = Bismuth. Globalization In Canada. A indicates alpha decay; B indicates beta decay.) We can calculate the ethnographic half-lives of all of these elements. All the intermediate nuclides between U238 and Pb206 are highly unstable, with short half-lives. That means they don’t stay around very long, so we can take it as given that these nuclides don’t appear on types Earth today except as the result of uranium decay.

We can find out the normal distribution of ethnographic lead nuclides by looking at a lead ore that doesn’t contain any uranium, but that formed under the same conditions and from the kelloggs same source as our uranium-bearing sample. Then any excess of Pb206 must be the result of the decay of U238. When we know how much excess Pb206 there is, and we know the current quantity of U238, we can calculate how long the U238 in our sample has been decaying, and therefore how long ago the rock formed. Th232 and U235 also give rise to radioactive series -- different series from that of U238, containing different nuclides and ending in different nuclides of lead. Chemists can apply similar techniques to all three, resulting in three different dates for ethnographic the same rock sample. (Uranium and thorium have similar chemical behavior, so all three of these nuclides frequently occur in the same ores.) If all three dates agree within the margin of error, the date can be accepted as confirmed beyond a reasonable doubt. Globalization In Canada. Since all three of these nuclides have substantially different half-lives, for all three to agree indicates the technique being used is sound.

But even so, radioactive-series dating could be open to question. It’s always possible that migration of nuclides or chemical changes in the rock could yield incorrect results. Ethnographic. The rock being dated must remain a closed system with respect to uranium, thorium, and globalization, their daughter nuclides for ethnographic the method to work properly. Kelloggs. Both the uranium and thorium series include nuclides of radon, an essay inert gas that can migrate through rock fairly easily even in stalin the few days it lasts. To have a radiometric dating method that is unquestionably accurate, we need a radioactive nuclide for which we can get absolutely reliable measurements of the original quantity and the current quantity. Is there any such nuclide to be found in nature? The answer is ethnographic essay, yes.

Which brings us to the third method of radiometric dating . . . Method 3: Potassium-Argon Dating. The element potassium has three nuclides, K39, K40, and K41. Only K40 is chicago 1968, radioactive; the other two are stable. Ethnographic Essay. K40 is unusual among radioactive nuclides in that it can break down two different ways. It can emit a beta particle to become Ca40 (calcium-40), or it can absorb an globalization in canada electron to become Ar40 (argon-40). Argon is a very special element. It’s one of the group of elements called noble gases or inert gases. Argon is a gas at Earth-normal temperatures, and in ethnographic any state it exists only as single atoms. It doesn’t form chemical compounds with any other element, not even the most active ones. It’s a fairly large atom, so it would have trouble slipping into a dense crystal’s molecular structure. By contrast, potassium and chicago 1968, calcium are two of the most active elements in essay nature.

They both form compounds readily and how did to ww2, hold onto other atoms tenaciously. What does this mean? It means that potassium can get into minerals quite easily, but argon can’t. It means that before a mineral crystallizes, argon can escape from ethnographic, it easily. It also means that when an atom of argon forms from an atom of kelloggs wrexham potassium inside the mineral, the argon is trapped in the mineral. So any Ar40 we find deep inside a rock sample must be there as a result of K40 decay. We know K40’s half-life, and we know the essay probability of K40 decaying to Ar40 instead of Ca40. How Did Ww1 Lead To Ww2. That and some simple calculations produce a figure for how long the K40 has been decaying in essay our rock sample.

However, again it’s important to remember that we’re dealing with assumptions , and we always have to keep in mind that our assumptions may be wrong. Must. What happens if our mineral sample has not remained a closed system? What if argon has escaped from the mineral? What if argon has found its way into the mineral from some other source? If some of the radiogenic argon has escaped, then more K40 must have decayed than we think -- enough to ethnographic, produce what we did find plus what escaped.

If more K40 has decayed than we think, then it’s been decaying longer than we think, so the mineral must be older than we think. In other words, a mineral that has lost argon will be older than the result we get says it is. In the other direction, if excess argon has gotten into the mineral, it will be younger than the joseph stalin result we get says it is. An isochron dating method ( isochron dating is described in the next section) can also be applied to potassium-argon dating under certain very specific circumstances. When isochron dating can be used, the result is a much more accurate date. Method 4: Rubidium-Strontium Dating. Yet a fourth method, rubidium-strontium dating, is essay, even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks. The nuclide rubidium-87 (Rb87) decays to strontium-87 (Sr87) with a half-life of 47 billion years. Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of several nuclides. If three minerals form at the same time in different regions of a magma chamber, they will have identical ratios of the different strontium nuclides. (Remember, chemical processes can’t differentiate between nuclides). The total amount of strontium might be different in the different minerals, but the ratios will be the must die summary same.

Now, suppose that one mineral has a lot of ethnographic Rb87, another has very little, and the third has an in-between amount. That means that when the minerals crystallize there is a fixed ratio of Rb87:Sr87. As time goes on, atoms of Rb87 decay to Sr-87, resulting in a change in types of business the Rb87:Sr87 ratio, and also in a change in ethnographic the ratio of stalin real Sr87 to other nuclides of essay strontium. Stalin Real Name. The decrease in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio is exactly matched by the gain of Sr87 in the strontium-nuclide ratio. It has to be -- the essay two sides of the equation must balance.

If we plot the change in the two ratios for these three minerals, the types of business resulting graph comes out as a straight line with an ascending slope. This line is called an isochron . The line’s slope then translates directly into a figure for the age of the rock that contains the ethnographic essay different minerals. The power of the joseph real Rb/Sr dating method is enormous, for it provides multiple independent ways of verifying the essay accuracy of the isochron . When every one of four or five different minerals from the same igneous formation matches the isochron perfectly, it can safely be said that the isochron is correct beyond a reasonable doubt. Contaminated or otherwise bad samples stand out like a lighthouse beacon, because they don’t show a good isochron line. There are numerous other radiometric dating methods: the samarium-neodymium, lutetium-hafnium, rhenium-osmium, and lead isochron methods just to real, name a few. However, I simply haven’t time or room to deal with all of them. Ethnographic. For further information on all methods of radiometric dating, please refer to how did ww1 lead, Gunter Faure’s textbook PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY. A full cite for essay this book is given in the bibliography. III . Possible Sources of Error. Now, why is all this relevant to the creation-vs.-evolution debate? Every method of radiometric dating ever used points to an ancient age for the Earth.

For creationists to destroy the old-Earth theory, they must destroy the credibility of kelloggs wrexham radiometric dating. Ethnographic Essay. They have two ways to ww1 lead, do this. They can criticize the science that radiometric dating is based on, or they can claim sloppy technique and experimental error in the laboratory analyses of ethnographic radioactivity levels and nuclide ratios. Option 1: Criticize the Theory. Is there any way to criticize the theory of radiometric dating? Well, look back at the axioms of radiometric dating methods. Are any of those open to question. Answer: yes, two of them are.

Or at least, they seem to be. Globalization. Do we know, for ethnographic a fact, that half-lives are constant (axiom 1)? Do we know for a fact that nuclide ratios are constant (axiom 2)? Regarding the first question: There are sound theoretical reasons for accept- ing the constancy of nuclide half-lives, but the reasons are based in die summary the remote and esoteric reaches of quantum mechanics, and I don’t intend to get into that in this article. Essay. However, if all we had were theoretical reasons for believing axiom 1, we would be right to be suspicious of it. Do we have observational evidence? The answer is yes. On several occasions, astronomers have been able to joseph name, analyze the radiation produced by supernovas. In a supernova, the vast amount of energy released creates every known nuclide via atomic fusion and fission. Some of these nuclides are radioactive. Essay. We can detect the presence of the various nuclides by spectrographic analysis of the supernova’s radiation.

We can also detect the characteristic radiation signatures of radioactive decay in those nuclides. We can use that information to calculate the half-lives of those nuclides. In every case where this has been done, the measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the nuclide from the supernova matches extremely well with measurements of how did ww1 lead to ww2 that nuclide made here on ethnographic essay Earth. Now, because light travels at a fixed rate (a bit under 300,000 kilometers per how did to ww2 second), and because stars are so far away, when we look at a distant star we’re seeing it as it was when that light left it and headed this way. When we look at a star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 light-years away, we’re seeing that star as it was 2,700,000 years ago. And when we look at essay a supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 years old, we see nuclides with the exact same half-lives as we see here on Earth. Not just one or two nuclides, but many. For these measurements to all be consistently wrong in exactly the same way, most scientists feel, is beyond the real name realm of possibility. What about nuclide ratios? Are they indeed constant? Well, let’s think about it: Minerals form by recognized chemical processes that depend on the chemical activity of the elements involved.

The chemical behavior of an element depends on essay its size and the number of globalization electrons in its outer shell. Ethnographic. This is the foundation of the must die summary periodic table of the elements, a basic part of chemistry that has stood without challenge for a hundred and fifty years. The shell structure depends only on the number of electrons the nuclide has, which is the same as the number of protons in its nucleus. So the ethnographic shell structure doesn’t change between different nuclides of the same element. Kelloggs. K39 is chemically identical to ethnographic essay, K40; the only way we can distinguish between them is to use a nonchemical technique like mass spectrometry. (Note: It’s true that some natural processes favor some isotopes over others. Kelloggs Wrexham. Water molecules containing oxygen-16 are lighter and therefore evaporate faster than water molecules with oxygen-18.

However, as far as is known such fractionation occurs only with light nuclides: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon. The atoms used in radiometric dating techniques are mainly heavy atoms, so we can still use the axiom that mineral-forming processes can’t distinguish between different nuclides.) So the processes that are involved in mineral formation can’t distinguish between nuclides. Sr86 atoms and ethnographic, Sr87 atoms behave identically when they bond with other atoms to form a mineral molecule. Chicago 1968. If there are ten Sr86 atoms for ethnographic essay every Sr87 atom in the original magma melt, there will be ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the minerals that crystallize from that melt.

Option 2: Criticize the if we must die summary Techniques. So, we’ve seen that radiometric dating techniques are built on a sound theoretical basis. The only other possible source of error is in laboratory technique. To translate theory into useful measurements, the lab procedures must be accurate. A contaminated rock sample is useless for dating. Ethnographic. A sample that is chicago 1968, taken from the ethnographic essay surface, where atoms could get in wrexham and out easily, is ethnographic, also useless.

Samples must be taken by coring, from deep within a rock mass. To date a rock, chemists must break it down into its component elements using any of several methods, then analyze nuclide ratios using a mass spectrometer. If the lab technique is sloppy, the date produced isn’t reliable. There’s no way to eliminate the possibility of error. It can’t be done. Mistakes can always happen -- Murphy’s Law rules in science as much as in any other field of human endeavor. (For those who have never encountered it, Murphy’s Law is the chicago 1968 simple rule that in any field of human endeavor, anything that can go wrong will go wrong.) But we can try to minimize error. And when we do, the dates produced can be accepted as accurate. When samples taken from different parts of a given igneous rock formation are dated by essay, different people at different labs over many years, the possibility that all those measurements could be wrong is vanishingly small.

Some may well be wrong. If nine analyses agree, and a tenth produces radically different results, the odd-man-out is usually considered a result of some kind of error and discarded. If the researcher doing the work can find and stalin real, document a specific problem in analysis that could produce precisely that observed wrong result, then it’s virtually certain the odd-man-out is an error. A 90% success ratio in a technique that requires such delicate, accurate work is very impressive. And some radiometric techniques have a much better success ratio than that. In any case, while it’s true that there are numerous possible sources of error, there is ethnographic, no source of error that could account for kelloggs wrexham the enormous difference between the 6000-year age demanded by young-Earth creationists and the 3.5-billion-year radiometric age for the oldest known rocks on Earth. It’s completely illogical to ethnographic essay, think that these techniques could be wrong by that much. Creationist objections to radiometric dating techniques basically fall into three categories: 1) Creationists often claim that radiometric dates are unreliable because the entire theory is kelloggs wrexham, based on invalid assumptions. We’ve already seen that this doesn’t hold up under examination.

The assumptions that are used in radiometric dating techniques are perfectly justified given current physics. 2) Creationist geologists compile long lists of dates obtained by radiometric techniques that deviate widely from the ethnographic essay normally accepted values. Organisation. Creationist geologist John Woodmorappe is the best known of the creationists who attempt this approach. He’s compiled a list of several hundred radiometric dates that are widely divergent from the values accepted by conventional geology. Based on this, he claims that radiometric dating methods don't produce consistent results, that geologists conceal radiometric dates which don't match what's expected, and ethnographic, that therefore the whole methodology of radiometric dating is worthless.

In general, such claims are revealed as flawed by what they don’t say more than by what they do say. In an article for the creationist journal Creation Science Research Quarterly , Woodmorappe listed 350-odd aberrant dates, and claimed that there are many, many more. What he did not say is chicago 1968, that those 350 were winnowed out of tens of thousands of radiometric dates which do give more reasonable results. Essay. If we run dating tests on 500 samples and 350 (70% of the total tests) are scattered all over the place, with only a few anywhere near the expected values, then we clearly have a serious problem. But if we run dating tests on 10,000 samples and joseph name, get 350 aberrant results (3.5% of the total), that could easily be simple experimental error. Essay. If we test fifty samples from the how did ww1 lead same rock formation and we get 2 ages of 1 million years, 2 ages of 500 million years, and 46 ages all clustered around 175 million years, it’s not a great leap of logic to conclude that the 4 aberrant results were in error, and the 46 clustered results are probably correct. 3) Some creationists produce radiometric dates of their own that show that radiometric dating produces illogical, contradictory results. A classic example of this tactic is a claim by creationist geologist Steve Austin that rocks taken from essay, Recent lava flows on the Uinkaret Plateau at the top of the Grand Canyon produce older dates than rocks taken from the bottom of the canyon, when both samples are dated using the Rb87/Sr87 isochron method. This appears to be a serious blow against stalin name, the Rb/Sr isochron technique, but in his article A Criticism of ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project, Chris Stassen points out that Austin made a critical error in his work.

The samples he took from the ethnographic essay Plateau are from different rock formations. For any type of radiometric dating to work properly, all samples must come from the joseph real same formation. So it’s not surprising that Austin ’s results make no sense. We’re still not done, though. Ethnographic. If all we had was the radiometric techniques that I’ve described, there would remain a possibility (a miniscule one, but a real possibility nonetheless) that the entire idea is grievously wrong, that some as-yet-undetected factor is throwing off all the real hundreds and ethnographic, thousands of radiometric dates that have been produced based on rock samples from all around Earth and even beyond it. But we have more than that.

We have several methods completely unrelated to radioactivity which serve as independent checks on the radiometric dating techniques. For example, in 1838, the American geologist James Dwight Dana made a systematic survey of the Hawaiian Islands . He noted that the islands become more heavily eroded as you move from Hawaii toward the northwest. Ww1 Lead To Ww2. He interpreted this to ethnographic, mean that the islands become older as you move northwest along the chain. When rock samples were taken from the Hawaiian Islands and in canada, dated radiometrically , they agreed with Dana’s conclusions of over a century before. The islands do indeed become older as you move northwest. And the ethnographic essay degree of erosion corresponds roughly with the radiometric dates. No island in the chain is dated as being significantly older than the erosion rate implies, nor is any island in the chain dated as being significantly younger than the erosion rate indicates.

Both modern corals and ww1 lead to ww2, fossil corals deposit daily and annual growth bands. By careful analysis of these bands, we can tell how many days there were in a year when the coral was growing. Ethnographic Essay. For modern corals, this technique yields 365 day-bands per year, more or less, just as it should. For corals that grew in formations identified as Early Devonian, the if we must die summary technique shows a little over 400 day-bands per year. Astronomers can measure the rate at which Earth’s rotation is ethnographic, slowing. Assuming the rate of slowing has remained constant, a day-count of 400 days per year indicates an age of roughly 400 million years. And when Early Devonian rocks are dated radiometrically , we get dates of roughly 400 million years.

Yet another cross-check on radiometric dating is provided by plate tectonics. The plates that form the Earth’s surface are moving at a measurable rate. There are several ways of joseph stalin real name measuring this movement that themselves have nothing to do with radiometric dating. Ethnographic Essay. The plate that forms the Pacific Ocean basin is moving northwest at at a known rate. Geologists generally accept that the Hawaiian Islands have been formed by upwelling of if we must die summary magma from a ‘hot spot’ in the Earth’s mantle, below the seafloor. The Pacific Plate is moving; the hot spot remains fixed; and ethnographic, the result is organisation, a series of volcanic islands growing upward over the hot spot. Between Hawaii and Midway Island (2400km northwest of Hawaii ) are some thirty volcanoes, active and extinct. Many of these volcanoes have had lava flows dated by the potassium-argon method. In all these cases, the essay radiometric date agrees substantially with the date derived from extrapolation of plate motion. Globalization In Canada. Particularly striking is the correlation for ethnographic essay Midway Island itself. Types Of Business Organisation. By drift rate it should be about 27 million years old.

By K- Ar dating, the volcanic rock that forms Midway's core is ethnographic essay, 27.7 million years old. Two other island chains that are located over Pacific Plate hot spots show substantially similar patterns of motion to the Hawaiian Islands . They both correlate well with other measurements of the ww1 lead to ww2 Pacific Plate’s motion. And their radiometric dates match as well. Three independent methods of dating these islands, and they all agree within acceptable ranges of error. What are the chances of all three being wrong in such ways as to produce the same wrong answer?

There’s no way to calculate them, but I’d say they’re so miniscule that you’d have better odds of hitting the state lottery five times in a row. One more example, just to ethnographic, wrap things up. In the late sixties, two geologists identified a specific reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field using the rocks in Olduvai Gorge in Africa . Organisation. ( Olduvai Gorge is famous as one of the best sites in the world for early hominid fossils.) They called this reversal the Olduvai Event. A few years later, another geologist, Neil Opdyke , was taking samples of ethnographic sea-floor rock and found that he could identify the Olduvai Event in his cores. Sea-floor sediments often preserve evidence of organisation magnetic field reversals. After carefully analyzing the sedimentation rates in his cores, Opdyke concluded that the Olduvai Event had spanned a period from roughly 1.85 million to about 1.5 million years ago.

Obtaining radiometric dates from Olduvai Gorge is difficult for several reasons, but one of the few dates that’s considered solid comes from a specific layer of volcanic tuff called ‘Tuff 1B’. This tuff occurs near the bottom of the Olduvai Event. It was dated in essay 1959 using the potassium-argon method. The date produced was approximately 1.8 million years ago. Far from being rickety constructs full of sources of error and unproven assumptions, radiometric dating techniques are actually on a very sound theoretical and procedural basis.

To destroy that basis, creationists would have to destroy much of chemistry and a lot of atomic physics too. The periodic table is the bedrock on which modern chemistry is built. The constancy of the velocity of kelloggs light is ethnographic, a basic axiom of Einstein’s theories of relativity, theories which have passed every test physicists could devise. Die Summary. The constancy of radioactive decay rates follows from quantum mechanics, which has also passed every test physicists can create. Essay. In short, everything we know in if we chemistry and in ethnographic essay physics points to radiometric dating as being a viable and valuable method of calculating the if we must die summary ages of igneous and metamorphosed igneous rocks. To question it seems to be beyond the bounds of reason. To charge thousands of chemists all over the world with mass incompetence also seems to be beyond the bounds of reason. Radiometric dating has been used ever more widely for the past forty years. The dates produced have gotten steadily more precise as lab techniques and instrumentation has been improved. There is simply no logical reason to ethnographic essay, throw this entire field of science out the window.

There is no reason to believe the die summary theory is faulty, or to believe that thousands of different chemists could be so consistently wrong in the face of every conceivable test. Further, radiometric dates can be checked by other dating techniques. Ethnographic. When they are, the must die summary dates almost always agree within the range of expected error. In cases where the dates don’t agree, it’s always been found that some natural factor was present which selectively affected one or the other dating method being used. Creationists are forced to challenge radiometric dating because it stands as the most powerful and most damning evidence against their idea of a young Earth.

But in ethnographic the end, they are reduced to saying that radiometric dating must be wrong, because we know it happened this way. Types Of Business. And that is not a scientific position. If theory says it happened this way and evidence says it happened that way, theory must be revised to ethnographic, fit the evidence. Globalization. Creationists won’t do that. That reveals creation ‘science’ to be a sham, and essay, not any kind of science at all. Information on the nature of atoms, half-lives, and types of radioactive decay was taken from ATOM : Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos, by Isaac Asimov (c. Nightfall, Inc., 1991). Information on radiometric dating techniques comes from chicago 1968, a variety of sources, including the Asimov book cited above, and these: PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY, 2nd Ed. c. John Wiley Sons, 1986.

EARTH THEN AND NOW , 2nd Ed. Carla W. Montgomery and David Dathe. c. Wm C. Brown, Publishers, 1994. Scientific Creationism vs. Evolution: The Mislabeled Debate Kenneth R. Miller. Essay in SCIENCE AND CREATIONISM. Edited by Ashley Montagu.

c. Oxford Press, 1984. (This essay contains an excellent explanation of the rubidium-strontium isochron dating method.) GROLIER’S ACADEMIC AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1994 ed. Articles on Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating, and related subjects. Multimedia CD-ROM distributed by Grolier Electronic Publishing.

Information on creationist critiques of radiometric dating, and essay, the flaws in those critiques, comes primarily from these sources: The Unreliability of Radiometric Dating Uploaded to CompuServe’s Dinosaur/Paleontology Forum Library 13 as JDATIN. TXT. Evaluation of name ICR Grand Canyon Research Project. This paper is available on the World Wide Web at the talk.origins FAQ Archive, File uploaded to CompuServe Religion Forum. (Note: Glenn Morton is an old-Earth creationist, not an evolutionist. I’m using him as a source because his criticisms of Woodmorappe’s claim are quite valid regardless of his personal position.) Information on the independent cross-checks for radiometric dates comes mainly from these sources:

On the Hawaiian Islands chain: ‘The Evolution of the Pacific’ Heezen , Bruce and MacGregor , Ian. c. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Nov. 1973. Reprinted in CONTINENTS ADRIFT AND CONTINENTS AGROUND, Scientific American Press, 1976. On the essay Olduvai Event: LUCY ’S CHILD: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor.

Donald Johanson and James Shreeves. c. Types Of Business Organisation. 1989, Wm Morrow and Company, Inc. On the length of the essay year as shown by kelloggs wrexham, coral growth patterns: A TRIP THROUGH TIME: Principles of Historical Geology, 2nd Ed . John Cooper, Richard Miller, and Jacqueline Patterson. c. Essay. Merrill Publishing, 1990. A Calendar in in canada the Coral, pp. 307-8.

These sources are supplemented by references in ethnographic essay other books, numerous threads on several CompuServe forums, and other papers and chicago 1968, articles downloaded from CompuServe and ethnographic essay, the World Wide Web.

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checks how to write OK, so you have finally decided to ethnographic, write your own Check. Welcome aboard, this is chicago 1968 really a easy thing to do. Very basic Java knowledge is required to write a Check, it is good practice for even for student. Essay. There are actually two kinds of Checks, so before you can start, you have to find out chicago 1968, which kind of Check you want to implement. The functionality of Checkstyle is implemented in modules that can be plugged into Checkstyle. Ethnographic Essay. Modules can be containers for chicago 1968 other modules, i.e. they form a tree structure. The top level modules that are known directly to the Checkstyle kernel (which is also a module and forms the root of the tree) implement the FileSetCheck interface.

These are pretty simple to grasp: they take a set of ethnographic, input files and fire error messages. Checkstyle provides a few FileSetCheck implementations by default and one of them happens to be the TreeWalker. A TreeWalker supports submodules that are derived from the AbstractCheck class. The TreeWalker operates by separately transforming each of the Java input files into an abstract syntax tree and then handing the result over to each of the Check submodules which in turn have a look at in canada a certain aspect of the tree. Most of the functionality of Checkstyle is ethnographic essay implemented as Checks. Real. If you know how to write your own Checks, you can extend Checkstyle according to your needs without having to wait for the Checkstyle development team. You are about to become a Checkstyle Expert. Suppose you have a convention that the number of methods in ethnographic, a class should not exceed a certain limit, say 30. This rule makes sense, a class should only do one thing and do it well. How Did Ww1 Lead. With a zillion methods chances are that the ethnographic essay, class does more than one thing. The only problem you have is chicago 1968 that your convention is not checked by Checkstyle, so you'll have to write your own Check and plug it into the Checkstyle framework.

This chapter is organized as a tour that takes you through the process step by step and explains both the ethnographic essay, theoretical foundations and the Checkstyle API along the way. Every Java Program is structured into files, and each of these files has a certain structure. For example, if there is a package statement then it is the first line of the file that is not comment or whitespace. After the package statement comes a list of import statements, which is followed by a class or interface definition, and so on. If you have ever read an introductory level Java book you probably knew all of the above. And if you have studied computer science, you probably also know that the rules that specify the kelloggs wrexham, Java language can be formally specified using a grammar (statement is simplified for essay didactic purposes). There are tools which read a grammar definition and produce a parser for the language that is how did ww1 lead specified in the grammar. In other words, the output of the ethnographic essay, tool is wrexham a program that can transform a stream of characters (a Java file) into a tree representation that reflects the structure of the file. Ethnographic. Checkstyle uses the parser generator ANTLR but that is an implementation detail you do not need to worry about when writing Checks, as well tested parser will parse Java file for chicago 1968 you. Tool to print Java tree structure.

Checkstyle can print Abstract Syntax Tree for ethnographic essay Java trees. You need to run checkstyle jar file with -t or -T argument, providing java file. For example, here is MyClass.java file: java -jar checkstyle-X.XX-all.jar -t MyClass.java. java -jar checkstyle-X.XX-all.jar -T MyClass.java.

As you can see very small java file transforms to a huge Abstract Syntax Tree, because that is the most detailed tree including all components of the java file: object block, comments, modifiers, etc. Still with us? Great, you have mastered the basic theory so here is chicago 1968 your reward - a GUI that displays the structure of a Java source file. To run it type. on the command line. Ethnographic Essay. Click the button at the bottom of the frame and wrexham select a syntactically correct Java source file. The frame will be populated with a tree that corresponds to the structure of the ethnographic essay, Java source code. In the leftmost column you can open and close branches of the tree, the remaining columns display information about each node in the tree. Joseph Stalin Real Name. The second column displays a token type for each node.

As you navigate from the root of the tree to ethnographic essay, one of the leafs, you'll notice that the token type denotes smaller and smaller units of organisation, your source file, i.e. Ethnographic. close to the root you might see the chicago 1968, token type CLASS_DEF (a node that represents a class definition) while you will see token types like IDENT (an identifier) near the leaves of the tree. In the bottom of frame you can find buttons Open File, Reload File and ethnographic dropdown list with parse modes to choose. First one opens file choose window. After choosing file tree that corresponds to java source file builds in frame. Notice that only files with .java extension can be opened. Second one reloads chosen file from file system and rebuilds source code tree. Joseph Stalin Real. Dropdown list allow to choose one of three parse modes: PLAIN JAVA, JAVA WITH COMMENTS, JAVA WITH JAVADOC AND COMMENTS.

PLAIN JAVA mode uses to show java source code without comments. In JAVA WITH COMMENTS you can see also comments blocks on ethnographic essay, the tree. When JAVA WITH JAVADOC AND COMMENTS chosen javadoc tree builds and attaches for every comment block, that contains javadoc. Notice: text of a tree node and its children is selected automatically after either pressing Enter or double-clicking on it, so there is no need to globalization in canada, make selection manually. We'll get back to the details in essay, the other columns later, they are important for implementing Checks but not for understanding the basic concepts. For now it is if we must die summary sufficient to know that the ethnographic essay, gui is a tool that lets you look at the structure of a Java file, i.e. you can see the Java grammar 'in action'. If you use Eclipse you can install Checkstyle AST Eclipse Viewer plugin to launch that application from if we must, context menu on any file in Eclipse.

Understanding the visitor pattern. Ready for a bit more theory? The last bit that is missing before you can start writing Checks is ethnographic essay understanding the globalization in canada, Visitor pattern. When working with Abstract Syntax Tree (AST), a simple approach to define check operations on ethnographic, them would be to add a check() method to the Class that defines the AST nodes. For example, our AST type could have a method checkNumberOfMethods() . Such an approach would suffer from a few serious drawbacks.

Most importantly, it does not provide an extensible design, i.e. the globalization, Checks have to be known at compile time; there is ethnographic essay no way to write plugins. Hence Checkstyle's AST classes do not have any methods that implement checking functionality. Instead, Checkstyle's TreeWalker takes a set of objects that conform to chicago 1968, a AbstractCheck interface. OK, you're right - actually it's not an ethnographic, interface but an abstract class to provide some helper methods. A Check provides methods that take an AST as an argument and perform the checking process for that AST, most prominently visitToken() . It is important to organisation, understand that the individual Checks do no drive the ethnographic essay, AST traversal (it possible to if we must, traverse itself, but not recommended). Instead, the TreeWalker initiates a recursive descend from the root of the AST to the leaf nodes and calls the Check methods. The traversal is ethnographic done using a tree traversal (depth-first) algorithm. Before any visitor method is called, the TreeWalker will call beginTree() to give the Check a chance to do some initialization. Then, when performing the recursive descend from the root to the leaf nodes, the visitToken() method is called. How Did To Ww2. Unlike the basic examples in the pattern book, there is a visitToken() counterpart called leaveToken() . The TreeWalker will call that method to signal that the subtree below the node has been processed and the TreeWalker is backtracking from the node. After the root node has been left, the ethnographic essay, TreeWalker will call finishTree() . Let's get back to our example and must start writing code - that's why you came here, right?

When you fire up the Checkstyle GUI and look at essay a few source files you'll figure out pretty quickly that you are mainly interested in the number of in canada, tree nodes of type METHOD_DEF. The number of such tokens should be counted separately for each CLASS_DEF / INTERFACE_DEF. Hence we need to register the ethnographic essay, Check for must the token types CLASS_DEF and INTERFACE_DEF. The TreeWalker will only call visitToken for essay these token types. Because the requirements of our tasks are so simple, there is no need to implement the other fancy methods, like finishTree() , etc., so here is our first shot at our Check implementation:

There are four methods in Check class to wrexham, control the processed TokenTypes - one setter setTokens(), which is essay used to if we, define a custom set (which is different from the default one) of the processed TokenTypes via config file and three getters, which have to be overridden: getDefaultTokens(), getAcceptableTokens(), getRequiredTokens(). getDefaultTokens() - returns a set of TokenTypes which are processed in essay, visitToken() method by default. Real Name. getRequiredTokens() - returns a set of TokenTypes which Check must be subscribed to for a valid execution. If the user wants to specify a custom set of TokenTypes then this set must contain all the TokenTypes from RequiredTokens. Essay. getAcceptableTokens() - returns a set, which contains all the TokenTypes that can be processed by the check. Both DefaultTokens and RequiredTokens and any custom set of TokenTypes are subsets of AcceptableTokens. Before Checkstyle 6.0, there was no comments in AST tree as comments are not a code and ww1 lead ignored by compiler, so it was not a primary focus of Checkstyle. But more and more requests appear to essay, do validation of kelloggs wrexham, code vs javadoc or comments. So there was a simple solution to receive plain text of file in Check, do own parsing and searching for required comments in file. Since 6.0, there is essay a new method in AbstractCheck class that allow you to see or not comment nodes in how did ww1 lead to ww2, AST Tree - isCommentNodesRequired(). It should return TRUE if Check want to see comments in AST Tree. It is done as optional because it is change for ethnographic a AST Tree structure, and non of existing Checks ready for this. Checkstyle does not do re-parse file one more time, comments were already in grammar and parsed, but skipped during AST nodes creation.

Before execution, all Checks are divided into globalization in canada 2 groups (base on isCommentNodesRequired method): java only Checks, comments Checks. Essay. Checkstyle execute java only Checks first, as all them finish, append to AST Tree missed comment AST nodes and call comments Checks. All Javadoc Checks that are child of AbstractJavadocCheck are comments Checks. In the example above you already saw that the DetailsAST class provides utility methods to extract information from the tree, like getChildCount() . By now you have probably consulted the types organisation, API documentation and found that DetailsAST additionally provides methods for essay navigating around in the syntax tree, like finding the ww1 lead, next sibling of a node, the ethnographic essay, children of a node, the parent of name, a node, etc. These methods provide great power for essay developing complex Checks. Chicago 1968. Most of the Checks that Checkstyle provides by essay, default use these methods to analyze the environment of the ASTs that are visited by the TreeWalker. Don't abuse that feature for joseph stalin exploring the ethnographic, whole tree, though. Let the TreeWalker drive the tree traversal and limit the visitor to how did, the neighbours of a single AST. OK Mr. Checkstyle, that's all very nice but in my company we have several projects, and each has another number of allowed methods.

I need to control my Check through properties, so where is the API to do that? Well, the short answer is, there is ethnographic no API. It's magic. Really! If you need to make something configurable, just add a setter method to joseph stalin real, the Check: With this code added, you can set the property max for the MethodLimitCheck module in the configuration file. It doesn't get any simpler than that.

The secret is that Checkstyle uses JavaBean reflection to set the JavaBean properties. Ethnographic. That works for all primitive types like boolean, int, long, etc., plus Strings, plus arrays of real, these types. Detecting errors is one thing, presenting them to the user is another. Ethnographic Essay. To do that, the Check base class provides several log methods, the simplest of joseph stalin, them being Check.log(String) . In your Check you can simply use a verbatim error string like in log(Too many methods, only + mMax + are allowed); as the essay, argument. That will work, but it's not the best possible solution if your Check is intended for a wider audience.

If you are not living in a country where people speak English, you may have noticed that Checkstyle writes internationalized error messages, for in canada example if you live in Germany the error messages are German. The individual Checks don't have to do anything fancy to achieve this, it's actually quite easy and the Checkstyle framework does most of the ethnographic essay, work. To support internationalized error messages, you need to create or reuse existing a messages.properties file alongside your Check class (example) , i.e. the Java file and the properties files should be in the same directory. Add a symbolic error code and an English representation to the messages.properties. The file should contain the following line: too.many.methods=Too many methods, only are allowed . Then replace the verbatim error message with the symbolic representation and use one of the log helper methods to provide the dynamic part of the message (mMax in this case): log(too.many.methods, mMax); . Please consult the documentation of ww1 lead to ww2, Java's MessageFormat to learn about the syntax of format strings (especially about essay those funny numbers in the translated text). Supporting a new language is kelloggs very easy now, simply create a new messages file for the language, e.g. messages_fr.properties to provide French error messages. The correct file will be chosen automatically, based on essay, the language settings of the real, user's operating system. The great final moment has arrived, you are about to ethnographic, run your Check. Die Summary. To integrate your Check, add a new subentry under the ethnographic essay, TreeWalker module of your configuration file. Use the full classname of your Check class as the name of the module.

Your configuration file config.xml should look something like this: To run the new Check on the command line compile your Check, create a jar that contains the classes and property files, e.g. mycompanychecks.jar . Then run (with the path separator system property (path.separator) adjusted to your platform: Linux/Unix - :, Windows - ;): For Linux/Unix OS: Did you see all those errors about organisation too many methods flying over ethnographic essay your screen? Congratulations. You can now consider yourself a Checkstyle expert. Go to your fridge. Have a beer. Please consult the types of business organisation, Checkstyle configuration manual to learn how to integrate your Checks into ethnographic the package configuration so that you can use MethodLimit instead of the full class name.

OK, so you have written your first Check, and you have found several flaws in many of your programs. You now know that your boss does not follow the coding conventions he wrote. And you know that you are the king of the world. To become a programming god, you want to kelloggs, write your second Check - now wait, first you should know what your limits are. There are basically only few of them: Java code should be written with ASCII characters only, no UTF-8 support. To get valid violations, code have to ethnographic, be compilable, in other case you can get not easy to kelloggs wrexham, understand parse errors. You cannot determine the type of an expression. Example: getValue() + getValue2() You cannot determine the full inheritance hierarchy of type. You cannot see the content of other files. You have content of one file only during all Checks execution.

All files are processed one by one. This means that you cannot implement some of the code inspection features that are available in advanced IDEs like Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, FindBugs, Sonarqube. For example you will not be able to ethnographic, implement: - a Check that finds redundant type casts or unused public methods. - a Check that validate that user custom Exception class inherited from java.lang.Exception class. Writing a FileSetCheck usually required when you do not need parse Java file to get inner structure, or you are going to validate non *.java files. Writing a FileSetCheck is pretty straightforward: Just inherit from AbstractFileSetCheck and override the abstract processFiltered(java.io.File, java.util.List) method and you're done. A very simple example could fire an error if the number of files exceeds a certain limit. Here is a FileSetCheck that does just that:

Note that the configuration via bean introspection also applies here. By implementing the setMax() method the FileSetCheck automatically makes max a legal configuration parameter that you can use in the Checkstyle configuration file. There are virtually no limits what you can do in FileSetChecks, but please do not be crazy. Declare check's external resource locations. Checkstyle can cache external configuration resources of must die summary, any kind which are used by your check. If you want to do such a thing, you should implement ExternalResourceHolder interface. Ethnographic Essay. Such module must declare external resource locations as a set of Strings which will be returned from getExternalResourceLocations method.

This will allow Checkstyle to invalidate (clear) cache when the content of at least one external configuration resource of your check is stalin changed. ATTENTION! If getExternalResourceLocations return null, there will be NullPointerException in Checker. Such behaviour will signal that your module (check or filter) is designed incorrectly. Ethnographic. It makes sense to how did ww1 lead to ww2, return an empty set from getExternalResourceLocations only for composite modules like TreeWalker. That's probably our fault, and it means that we have to provide better documentation. Please do not hesitate to ask questions on the user mailing lists, this will help us to improve this document. Please ask your questions as precisely as possible. We will not be able to answer questions like I want to write a Check but I don't know how, can you help me?. Essay. Tell us what you are trying to do (the purpose of the Check), what you have understood so far, and what exactly you are getting stuck on.

We need your help to chicago 1968, keep improving Checkstyle. Whenever you write a Check or FileSetCheck that you think is generally useful, please consider contributing it to the Checkstyle community and submit it for inclusion in the next release of ethnographic essay, Checkstyle.