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Research in Developmental Psychology Essay

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arabic essays The Arabs gave to a large part of the world not only a religion - Islam - but also a language and an alphabet. Where the Muslim religion went, the Arabic language and Arabic writing also went. Arabic became and has remained the national language - the mother tongue - of North Africa and all the Arab countries of the Middle East. Research In Developmental? Even where Arabic did not become the national language, it became the language of religion wherever Islam became established, since the Quran is written in Arabic, the Profession of Faith is to be spoken in Arabic, and five times daily the practicing Muslim must say his prayers in fat client Arabic. In Developmental Psychology? Today, therefore, one can hear Arabic spoken - at least for religious purposes - from Mauritania on the Atlantic, across Africa and This Is The Essay, most of Research Essay Asia, and as far east as Indonesia and the Philippines.

Even in China (which has a Muslim population of Shortcomings some forty million) and the Central Asian republics of the CIS (ex-USSR), Arabic can be heard in the shahadah, in prayer, and in the chanting of the Quran. Of those people who embraced Islam but did not adopt Arabic as their everyday language, many millions have taken the Arabic alphabet for their own, so that today one sees the Arabic script used to write languages that have no basic etymological connection with Arabic. The languages of Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan are all written in the Arabic alphabet, as was the language of Turkey until some fifty years ago. It is Research in Developmental, also used in turkey Kashmir and in some places in the Malay Peninsula and the East Indies, and in Africa it is used in Somalia and down the east coast as far south as Tanzania. Photo: The basmalah (In the name of Research Psychology Essay God the Merciful the Compassionate - the opening words of the Quran) is here done in an elaborate thuluth script with the letters joined so that the entire phrase is written without lifting the pen from the uk paper.

It is generally accepted that the Arabic alphabet developed from the script used for Research Nabataean, a dialect of Aramaic used in northern Arabia and what is now Jordan during roughly the thousand years before the who did start of the Islamic era. It seems apparent that Syriac also had some influence on its development. The earliest inscription that has been found that is identifiably Arabic is one in Sinai that dates from about A.D. 300. Another Semitic script which was in in Developmental Psychology use at about the same time and who did, which is found on inscriptions in southern Arabia is the origin of the alphabet now used for Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia. Research In Developmental Psychology Essay? The Arabic alphabet has twenty-eight letters (additional letters have been added to serve the needs of non-Arabic languages that use the Arabic script, such as those of Iran and Pakistan), and john marry, each of the letters may have up to four different forms. All of the letters are strictly speaking consonants, and unlike the Roman alphabet used for English and most European languages Arabic writing goes from right to left. Another significant difference is that the Arabic script has been used much more extensively for in Developmental Psychology decoration and as a means of turkey artistic expression. This is not to say that the Roman alphabet (and others such as the Chinese and Japanese, for instance) are not just as decorative and have not been used just as imaginatively.

Since the invention of printing from type, however, calligraphy (which means, literally beautiful writing) has come to be used in English and the other European languages only for special documents and on special occasions and has declined to the status of a relatively minor art. Photo: Another basmalah in ornamental thuluth script is written in the shape of an oval. In the countries that use the Arabic alphabet, on the other hand, calligraphy has continued to be used not only on important documents but for a variety of other artistic purposes as well. One reason is that the cursive nature of the Arabic script and certain of Psychology Essay its other peculiarities made its adaptation to printing difficult and fat client client, delayed the introduction of the printing press, so that the Arab world continued for some centuries after the time of Gutenberg to rely on handwriting for in Developmental Essay the production of books (especially the turkey airlines Quran) and of legal and other documents. The use of Arabic script has therefore tended to develop in the direction of calligraphy and the development of artistically pleasing forms of hand lettering, while in the West the trend has been toward printing and the development of ornamental and sometimes elaborate type faces. Another and perhaps more important reason was a religious one.

The Quran nowhere prohibits the representation of humans or animals in drawings, or paintings, but as Islam expanded in its early years it inherited some of the in Developmental Psychology prejudices against visual art of this kind that had already taken root in the Middle East. In addition, the early Muslims tended to oppose figural art (and in turkey uk some cases all art) as distracting the Research Essay community from the worship of God and hostile to The Future of Mankind the strictly unitarian religion preached by Muhammad, and in Developmental Psychology, all four of the schools of fat client Islamic law banned the use of images and, declared that the painter of animate figures would be damned on the Day of in Developmental Psychology Essay Judgment. Wherever artistic ornamentation and decoration were required, therefore, Muslim artists, forbidden to depict, human or animal forms, for the most part were forced to resort either to what has since come to be known as arabesque (designs based on strictly geometrical forms or patterns of leaves and flowers) or, very often, to calligraphy. Fat Client? Arabic calligraphy therefore came to be used not only in producing copies of the Quran (its first and for many centuries its most important use), but also for all kinds of other artistic purposes as well on porcelain and Research in Developmental Essay, metalware, for carpets and other textiles, on coins, and as architectural ornament (primarily on mosques and fat client, tombs but also, especially in later years, on other buildings as well). Photo: The basmalah is here written in ornamental floriated kufic (above) and in naskhi (below). At the start of the Islamic era two types of script seem to have been in use - both derived from different forms of the Nabataean, alphabet. One was square and angular and was called kufic (after the town of Kufa in Iraq, though it was in use well before the Psychology Essay town was founded). It was used for the first, handwritten copies of the Quran, and for architectural decoration in the earliest years of the Islamic Empire. The other, called naskhi, was more rounded and cursive and was used for Utilitarianism Shortcomings Essay letters, business documents, and wherever speed rather than elaborate formalism was needed. Psychology Essay? By the twelfth century kufic was obsolete as a working script except for special uses and in northwest Africa, where it developed into the maghribi style of writing still used in the area today. Naskhi, the rounded script, remained in Essay on of Mankind use and from it most of the many later styles of Arabic calligraphy have been developed.

Photo: The ruq'ah script is used for headlines and titles and is the everyday written script of most of the in Developmental Psychology Arab world. The Future Of Mankind? Calligraphy flourished during the Umayyad era in Damascus. During this period scribes began the modification of the original thick and heavy kufic script into the form employed today for decorative purposes, as well as developing a number of new scripts derived from the more cursive naskhi. It was under the 'Abbasids, however, that calligraphy first began to Research in Developmental Psychology be systematized. In the first half of the tenth century the 'Abbasid vizier Ibn Muqlah completed the development of kufic, established some of the rules of shape and proportion that have been followed by calligraphers since his time, and was first to This Moment develop what became the traditional classification of Arabic writing into the six styles of cursive script: naskhi (from which most present day printing types are derived), thuluth (a more cursive outgrowth of naskhi), rayhani (a more ornate version of Research Essay thuluth), muhaqqaq (a bold script with sweeping diagonal flourishes), tawqi' (a somewhat compressed variety of thuluth in which all the letters are sometimes joined to each other), and ruq'ah (the style commonly used today for ordinary handwriting in most of the Arab world).

It was from these six, and This Moment, from kufic, that later calligraphers, not only in the Arab world but in Research in Developmental Essay Iran, Turkey, and elsewhere as well, developed and elaborated other scripts. Photo: The graceful Persian ta'liq script is This Is The, used in a sentence which starts Beauty is a spell which casts its splendor upon the universe. In Iran, for example, there came into use a particularly graceful and delicate script called ta'liq, in which the horizontal strokes of the letters are elongated and which is Research in Developmental Psychology Essay, often written at an angle across the page. From ta'liq, in turn, another script called nasta'liq was derived which combines the Arabic naskhi and the Persian tailiq into a beautifully light and legible script. Photo: The diwani script (top) and the so called royal diwani (below) were developed by Ottoman calligraphers for Utilitarianism and Its Essay use on state documents. It was in Research Ottoman Turkey, however, that calligraphy attained the highest development once the of Islamabad about Buildings early creative flowering had faded elsewhere in Research in Developmental Psychology Essay the Middle East. So renowned were Ottoman calligraphers, in fact, that a popular saying was that The Quran was revealed in Mecca, recited in Egypt, and written in Istanbul. The Ottomans were not content merely to improve and john adams marry, develop the types of Psychology script that they inherited from the Arabs and Persians but also added a number of new styles to the calligrapher's repertoire. One important addition by the Ottoman calligraphers was the script called diwani, so called from the word diwan (meaning state council or government office) since it was at first used primarily for documents issued by the Ottoman Council of State. It is an extremely graceful and very decorative script, with strong diagonal flourishes, though less easy to read than some other styles.

After its development in Turkey, it spread to the Arab countries and is in use today for formal documents and also as architectural decoration. John Marry? Photo: This tughra (monogram or insignia) of the Ottoman Sultan Abdu Hamid shows the three elongated vertical strokes which are characteristic of this style. Examples of more or less standard types of script such as these do not by any means exhaust the number of styles. Islamic calligraphers have experimented endlessly and have been extremely imaginative. Research Psychology Essay? Another distinctive Turkish contribution is the tughra, an Moment Essay elaborate and highly stylized rendering of the Research Psychology Essay names of the Ottoman sultan, originally used to authenticate imperial decrees. The tughra later came to be used both in Turkey and by rulers of of Mankind t the Arab countries as a kind of royal insignia or emblem, on coins and Psychology Essay, stamps and wherever a coat of This Is The Essay arms or royal monogram would be used by European governments. Photo: In the muthanna or doubled style of calligraphy shown on the left each half of the design is a mirror image of the other. The basmalah in Research Psychology Essay the thuluth script on the right has been written in the shape of an ostrich. Another unusual variation of calligraphy, not often used nowadays, is the style called muthanna (Arabic for doubled). This is not really a type of script in itself but consists of a text in one of the standard scripts such as naskhi worked into a pattern in which one half is a mirror image of the other. Even more imaginative is what may be called pictorial calligraphy, in This which the text (usually the profession of faith, a verse from the Quran, or some other e phrase with religious significance) is written in the shape of a bird, animal, tree, boat, or other object.

A Quranic verse in Essay the kufic script, for example, may be written so that it forms the picture of a mosque and minarets. Photo: The angular kufic script is here used to put a well known religious expression into the form of a mosque with four minarets. The art of calligraphy is still very much alive in The Awareness of Residents about Buildings the Arab world and wherever the Arabic alphabet is used. The list of everyday uses is almost endless: coins and in Developmental Essay, paper money bear the work of expert calligraphers, wall posters and advertising signs in every town show the fat client client calligrapher's art, as do the cover and title page of every book, and the major headlines in every newspaper and magazine have been written by hand. Calligraphy - the art of beautiful writing -continues to be something that is not only highly prized as ornament and decoration but is Research in Developmental Psychology Essay, immensely practical and Energy-Efficient, useful as well.

Photo: Preeminent among artists of the Research in Developmental Psychology Essay Muslim world is the calligrapher, as it is his privilege to adorn the word of God. Here ornamental kufic is used on a Quranic page that typifies the marriage of calligraphy and illumination, an art that reached its zenith in the fourteenth century. Photo: Cursive script on a section of gold-embroidered kiswah, the black cloth covering of the Ka'bah, which is renewed each year at the time of the pilgrimage. Photo: Miniature from the Shah-Nameh (Book of on The Future of Mankind Kings), illustrating the epic of Persian poet Firdausi. Photo: The cursive script shown in detail from a fourteenth-century Persian tile. Photo: A fourteenth-century manuscript of in Developmental Psychology Essay a pharmaceutical text.

Photo: Cursive script on Quran stand of wood, dated 1360, a fine example of Mongol art from western Turkestan.

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Developmental psychology essay

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How Did Economists Get It So Wrong? I. MISTAKING BEAUTY FOR TRUTH. It’s hard to believe now, but not long ago economists were congratulating themselves over the success of their field. Those successes — or so they believed — were both theoretical and practical, leading to a golden era for the profession. On the theoretical side, they thought that they had resolved their internal disputes. In Developmental Essay. Thus, in a 2008 paper titled “The State of Macro” (that is, macroeconomics, the study of big-picture issues like recessions), Olivier Blanchard of M.I.T., now the chief economist at the International Monetary Fund, declared that “the state of macro is good.” The battles of yesteryear, he said, were over, and there had been a “broad convergence of about vision.” And in the real world, economists believed they had things under control: the “central problem of depression-prevention has been solved,” declared Robert Lucas of the University of Chicago in his 2003 presidential address to Psychology, the American Economic Association. In 2004, Ben Bernanke, a former Princeton professor who is now the chairman of the fat client vs thin Federal Reserve Board, celebrated the Great Moderation in economic performance over Psychology Essay the previous two decades, which he attributed in The Awareness Energy-Efficient, part to improved economic policy making. Last year, everything came apart. Few economists saw our current crisis coming, but this predictive failure was the least of the field’s problems. More important was the profession’s blindness to Research in Developmental Essay, the very possibility of catastrophic failures in a market economy.

During the golden years, financial economists came to believe that markets were inherently stable — indeed, that stocks and other assets were always priced just right. There was nothing in the prevailing models suggesting the possibility of the The Awareness Energy-Efficient Buildings kind of collapse that happened last year. Meanwhile, macroeconomists were divided in their views. But the main division was between those who insisted that free-market economies never go astray and Research in Developmental Psychology Essay, those who believed that economies may stray now and then but that any major deviations from the airlines uk path of Research Psychology prosperity could and would be corrected by the all-powerful Fed. Neither side was prepared to john marry, cope with an economy that went off the Research rails despite the Fed’s best efforts. And in the wake of the crisis, the turkey airlines uk fault lines in the economics profession have yawned wider than ever.

Lucas says the Obama administration’s stimulus plans are “schlock economics,” and Research in Developmental, his Chicago colleague John Cochrane says they’re based on discredited “fairy tales.” In response, Brad DeLong of the University of California, Berkeley, writes of the “intellectual collapse” of the Chicago School, and I myself have written that comments from Chicago economists are the product of Essay a Dark Age of macroeconomics in in Developmental, which hard-won knowledge has been forgotten. What happened to the economics profession? And where does it go from turkey airlines uk here? As I see it, the economics profession went astray because economists, as a group, mistook beauty, clad in impressive-looking mathematics, for truth. Until the Great Depression, most economists clung to a vision of capitalism as a perfect or nearly perfect system. That vision wasn’t sustainable in the face of mass unemployment, but as memories of the Depression faded, economists fell back in love with the old, idealized vision of an Psychology economy in This Is The Moment Essay, which rational individuals interact in perfect markets, this time gussied up with fancy equations. The renewed romance with the idealized market was, to in Developmental Psychology Essay, be sure, partly a response to shifting political winds, partly a response to Utilitarianism and Its Shortcomings, financial incentives. But while sabbaticals at the Hoover Institution and job opportunities on Wall Street are nothing to sneeze at, the Research in Developmental central cause of the profession’s failure was the desire for an all-encompassing, intellectually elegant approach that also gave economists a chance to show off their mathematical prowess. Unfortunately, this romanticized and sanitized vision of the economy led most economists to ignore all the things that can go wrong.

They turned a blind eye to the limitations of human rationality that often lead to bubbles and busts; to the problems of institutions that run amok; to Essay, the imperfections of Research in Developmental Psychology Essay markets — especially financial markets — that can cause the economy’s operating system to undergo sudden, unpredictable crashes; and to the dangers created when regulators don’t believe in who did adams, regulation. It’s much harder to Research Psychology Essay, say where the economics profession goes from here. But what’s almost certain is turkey that economists will have to learn to live with messiness. That is, they will have to acknowledge the importance of irrational and often unpredictable behavior, face up to Research Psychology Essay, the often idiosyncratic imperfections of markets and accept that an elegant economic “theory of everything” is a long way off. In practical terms, this will translate into more cautious policy advice — and a reduced willingness to dismantle economic safeguards in of Residents Energy-Efficient Buildings, the faith that markets will solve all problems. II. FROM SMITH TO KEYNES AND BACK. The birth of economics as a discipline is usually credited to Adam Smith, who published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776. Over the next 160 years an extensive body of economic theory was developed, whose central message was: Trust the market.

Yes, economists admitted that there were cases in which markets might fail, of which the most important was the case of “externalities” — costs that people impose on others without paying the price, like traffic congestion or pollution. But the basic presumption of Research Psychology Essay “neoclassical” economics (named after the who did john adams marry late-19th-century theorists who elaborated on the concepts of their “classical” predecessors) was that we should have faith in the market system. This faith was, however, shattered by the Great Depression. Actually, even in in Developmental, the face of total collapse some economists insisted that whatever happens in a market economy must be right: “Depressions are not simply evils,” declared Joseph Schumpeter in 1934 — 1934! They are, he added, “forms of Essay The Future something which has to be done.” But many, and in Developmental, eventually most, economists turned to the insights of John Maynard Keynes for both an explanation of what had happened and a solution to future depressions. Keynes did not, despite what you may have heard, want the government to run the economy. He described his analysis in his 1936 masterwork, “The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money,” as “moderately conservative in turkey uk, its implications.” He wanted to fix capitalism, not replace it. But he did challenge the notion that free-market economies can function without a minder, expressing particular contempt for financial markets, which he viewed as being dominated by Research in Developmental Essay, short-term speculation with little regard for The Awareness Buildings fundamentals.

And he called for active government intervention — printing more money and, if necessary, spending heavily on Research in Developmental Psychology Essay, public works — to fight unemployment during slumps. It’s important to understand that Keynes did much more than make bold assertions. “The General Theory” is a work of profound, deep analysis — analysis that persuaded the Utilitarianism Shortcomings Essay best young economists of the day. Yet the story of economics over the past half century is, to a large degree, the story of a retreat from Keynesianism and a return to neoclassicism. Research Essay. The neoclassical revival was initially led by Milton Friedman of the john marry University of Chicago, who asserted as early as 1953 that neoclassical economics works well enough as a description of the way the economy actually functions to be “both extremely fruitful and deserving of much confidence.” But what about in Developmental Psychology Essay, depressions? Friedman’s counterattack against Keynes began with the doctrine known as monetarism. Fat Client Client. Monetarists didn’t disagree in principle with the idea that a market economy needs deliberate stabilization. “We are all Keynesians now,” Friedman once said, although he later claimed he was quoted out of Research in Developmental Psychology context. Monetarists asserted, however, that a very limited, circumscribed form of Essay of Mankind government intervention — namely, instructing central banks to keep the nation’s money supply, the sum of cash in circulation and bank deposits, growing on a steady path — is all that’s required to prevent depressions.

Famously, Friedman and his collaborator, Anna Schwartz, argued that if the Federal Reserve had done its job properly, the Great Depression would not have happened. Later, Friedman made a compelling case against any deliberate effort by government to Research Psychology, push unemployment below its “natural” level (currently thought to be about 4.8 percent in the United States): excessively expansionary policies, he predicted, would lead to a combination of inflation and high unemployment — a prediction that was borne out by Essay on of Mankind, the stagflation of the 1970s, which greatly advanced the Psychology credibility of the anti-Keynesian movement. Eventually, however, the anti-Keynesian counterrevolution went far beyond Friedman’s position, which came to seem relatively moderate compared with what his successors were saying. Among financial economists, Keynes’s disparaging vision of financial markets as a “casino” was replaced by fat client vs thin client, “efficient market” theory, which asserted that financial markets always get asset prices right given the available information. Meanwhile, many macroeconomists completely rejected Keynes’s framework for Research in Developmental Essay understanding economic slumps. Some returned to the view of Schumpeter and vs thin, other apologists for the Great Depression, viewing recessions as a good thing, part of the economy’s adjustment to change.

And even those not willing to go that far argued that any attempt to fight an economic slump would do more harm than good. Not all macroeconomists were willing to Research in Developmental Psychology Essay, go down this road: many became self-described New Keynesians, who continued to believe in an active role for the government. Yet even they mostly accepted the notion that investors and consumers are rational and that markets generally get it right. Of course, there were exceptions to these trends: a few economists challenged the assumption of rational behavior, questioned the belief that financial markets can be trusted and pointed to the long history of financial crises that had devastating economic consequences. But they were swimming against the tide, unable to make much headway against a pervasive and, in retrospect, foolish complacency. In the 1930s, financial markets, for obvious reasons, didn’t get much respect. Keynes compared them to “those newspaper competitions in which the competitors have to pick out the six prettiest faces from a hundred photographs, the prize being awarded to the competitor whose choice most nearly corresponds to the average preferences of the competitors as a whole; so that each competitor has to pick, not those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of the other competitors.” And Keynes considered it a very bad idea to let such markets, in which speculators spent their time chasing one another’s tails, dictate important business decisions: “When the capital development of a country becomes a by-product of the activities of a casino, the job is likely to adams, be ill-done.” By 1970 or so, however, the study of Research Psychology Essay financial markets seemed to fat client vs thin client, have been taken over by Research Psychology, Voltaire’s Dr.

Pangloss, who insisted that we live in the best of all possible worlds. Discussion of investor irrationality, of bubbles, of destructive speculation had virtually disappeared from academic discourse. The field was dominated by This Essay, the “efficient-market hypothesis,” promulgated by in Developmental Psychology Essay, Eugene Fama of the who did john adams marry University of Chicago, which claims that financial markets price assets precisely at their intrinsic worth given all publicly available information. (The price of a company’s stock, for example, always accurately reflects the Research company’s value given the information available on the company’s earnings, its business prospects and so on.) And by who did john adams marry, the 1980s, finance economists, notably Michael Jensen of the Harvard Business School, were arguing that because financial markets always get prices right, the best thing corporate chieftains can do, not just for themselves but for Research in Developmental the sake of the economy, is to maximize their stock prices. In other words, finance economists believed that we should put the capital development of the This nation in the hands of Research in Developmental Essay what Keynes had called a “casino.” It’s hard to argue that this transformation in the profession was driven by events. True, the memory of 1929 was gradually receding, but there continued to be bull markets, with widespread tales of speculative excess, followed by bear markets. In 1973-4, for example, stocks lost 48 percent of their value.

And the 1987 stock crash, in which the Dow plunged nearly 23 percent in a day for no clear reason, should have raised at least a few doubts about market rationality. These events, however, which Keynes would have considered evidence of the on The Future unreliability of markets, did little to blunt the Research in Developmental force of a beautiful idea. The theoretical model that finance economists developed by assuming that every investor rationally balances risk against reward — the so-called Capital Asset Pricing Model, or CAPM (pronounced cap-em) — is This Essay wonderfully elegant. And if you accept its premises it’s also extremely useful. CAPM not only tells you how to in Developmental Psychology, choose your portfolio — even more important from the financial industry’s point of view, it tells you how to put a price on financial derivatives, claims on claims. The elegance and apparent usefulness of the new theory led to a string of Nobel prizes for its creators, and many of the turkey theory’s adepts also received more mundane rewards: Armed with their new models and formidable math skills — the more arcane uses of CAPM require physicist-level computations — mild-mannered business-school professors could and did become Wall Street rocket scientists, earning Wall Street paychecks. To be fair, finance theorists didn’t accept the efficient-market hypothesis merely because it was elegant, convenient and lucrative. They also produced a great deal of statistical evidence, which at in Developmental Essay first seemed strongly supportive. John Adams Marry. But this evidence was of an oddly limited form. Finance economists rarely asked the seemingly obvious (though not easily answered) question of whether asset prices made sense given real-world fundamentals like earnings.

Instead, they asked only whether asset prices made sense given other asset prices. Larry Summers, now the Research top economic adviser in the Obama administration, once mocked finance professors with a parable about “ketchup economists” who “have shown that two-quart bottles of ketchup invariably sell for exactly twice as much as one-quart bottles of ketchup,” and conclude from this that the ketchup market is perfectly efficient. But neither this mockery nor more polite critiques from economists like Robert Shiller of Yale had much effect. Finance theorists continued to who did adams, believe that their models were essentially right, and so did many people making real-world decisions. Not least among these was Alan Greenspan, who was then the Fed chairman and a long-time supporter of financial deregulation whose rejection of calls to rein in subprime lending or address the ever-inflating housing bubble rested in large part on the belief that modern financial economics had everything under control. Essay. There was a telling moment in 2005, at a conference held to honor Greenspan’s tenure at the Fed. One brave attendee, Raghuram Rajan (of the University of Chicago, surprisingly), presented a paper warning that the financial system was taking on john adams marry, potentially dangerous levels of risk. He was mocked by Research in Developmental Essay, almost all present — including, by the way, Larry Summers, who dismissed his warnings as “misguided.” By October of last year, however, Greenspan was admitting that he was in a state of “shocked disbelief,” because “the whole intellectual edifice” had “collapsed.” Since this collapse of the intellectual edifice was also a collapse of real-world markets, the who did john marry result was a severe recession — the worst, by many measures, since the Great Depression. What should policy makers do?

Unfortunately, macroeconomics, which should have been providing clear guidance about how to address the slumping economy, was in its own state of disarray. “We have involved ourselves in a colossal muddle, having blundered in in Developmental Essay, the control of a delicate machine, the working of which we do not understand. The result is The Awareness about that our possibilities of wealth may run to in Developmental Psychology Essay, waste for a time — perhaps for a long time.” So wrote John Maynard Keynes in an essay titled “The Great Slump of 1930,” in which he tried to explain the catastrophe then overtaking the world. Who Did John. And the world’s possibilities of wealth did indeed run to waste for a long time; it took World War II to Research, bring the Great Depression to a definitive end. Why was Keynes’s diagnosis of the Great Depression as a “colossal muddle” so compelling at The Awareness of Residents about Energy-Efficient first? And why did economics, circa 1975, divide into opposing camps over the value of Keynes’s views? I like to in Developmental Psychology Essay, explain the john essence of Keynesian economics with a true story that also serves as a parable, a small-scale version of the messes that can afflict entire economies. Consider the travails of the Capitol Hill Baby-Sitting Co-op. This co-op, whose problems were recounted in Research Essay, a 1977 article in The Journal of turkey Money, Credit and Banking, was an association of about 150 young couples who agreed to Research Essay, help one another by baby-sitting for one another’s children when parents wanted a night out.

To ensure that every couple did its fair share of baby-sitting, the co-op introduced a form of scrip: coupons made out of heavy pieces of paper, each entitling the bearer to one half-hour of fat client client sitting time. Initially, members received 20 coupons on joining and were required to return the same amount on departing the Research Essay group. Unfortunately, it turned out adams marry that the co-op’s members, on average, wanted to hold a reserve of Psychology more than 20 coupons, perhaps, in case they should want to go out several times in a row. As a result, relatively few people wanted to spend their scrip and go out, while many wanted to baby-sit so they could add to their hoard. Airlines. But since baby-sitting opportunities arise only Research Essay, when someone goes out for adams marry the night, this meant that baby-sitting jobs were hard to find, which made members of the Research Essay co-op even more reluctant to go out, making baby-sitting jobs even scarcer. . The Awareness Of Residents Energy-Efficient. . . In short, the in Developmental Psychology Essay co-op fell into a recession. O.K., what do you think of this story? Don’t dismiss it as silly and Essay of Mankind, trivial: economists have used small-scale examples to shed light on Essay, big questions ever since Adam Smith saw the who did john adams marry roots of economic progress in a pin factory, and they’re right to Research Essay, do so. Vs Thin Client. The question is whether this particular example, in which a recession is a problem of inadequate demand — there isn’t enough demand for baby-sitting to provide jobs for everyone who wants one — gets at the essence of what happens in a recession. Forty years ago most economists would have agreed with this interpretation. But since then macroeconomics has divided into two great factions: “saltwater” economists (mainly in coastal U.S. universities), who have a more or less Keynesian vision of what recessions are all about; and “freshwater” economists (mainly at inland schools), who consider that vision nonsense. Freshwater economists are, essentially, neoclassical purists.

They believe that all worthwhile economic analysis starts from the premise that people are rational and markets work, a premise violated by the story of the baby-sitting co-op. As they see it, a general lack of sufficient demand isn’t possible, because prices always move to match supply with demand. If people want more baby-sitting coupons, the value of Research in Developmental Psychology Essay those coupons will rise, so that they’re worth, say, 40 minutes of baby-sitting rather than half an hour — or, equivalently, the cost of an hours’ baby-sitting would fall from client 2 coupons to 1.5. And that would solve the problem: the purchasing power of the coupons in circulation would have risen, so that people would feel no need to hoard more, and there would be no recession. But don’t recessions look like periods in which there just isn’t enough demand to in Developmental Psychology Essay, employ everyone willing to airlines uk, work? Appearances can be deceiving, say the freshwater theorists. Sound economics, in their view, says that overall failures of demand can’t happen — and that means that they don’t.

Keynesian economics has been “proved false,” Cochrane, of the University of Chicago, says. Yet recessions do happen. Research In Developmental. Why? In the fat client vs thin client 1970s the leading freshwater macroeconomist, the Research Nobel laureate Robert Lucas, argued that recessions were caused by temporary confusion: workers and companies had trouble distinguishing overall changes in client, the level of prices because of Essay inflation or deflation from fat client changes in their own particular business situation. And Lucas warned that any attempt to in Developmental, fight the business cycle would be counterproductive: activist policies, he argued, would just add to the confusion. By the 1980s, however, even this severely limited acceptance of the idea that recessions are bad things had been rejected by many freshwater economists. Instead, the new leaders of the movement, especially Edward Prescott, who was then at the University of Minnesota (you can see where the freshwater moniker comes from), argued that price fluctuations and changes in demand actually had nothing to do with the who did john marry business cycle. Rather, the business cycle reflects fluctuations in in Developmental Psychology Essay, the rate of technological progress, which are amplified by the rational response of workers, who voluntarily work more when the of Islamabad Energy-Efficient environment is favorable and less when it’s unfavorable. Unemployment is in Developmental Psychology Essay a deliberate decision by workers to take time off. Put baldly like that, this theory sounds foolish — was the Great Depression really the The Future Great Vacation?

And to be honest, I think it really is silly. But the basic premise of Research in Developmental Psychology Prescott’s “real business cycle” theory was embedded in turkey uk, ingeniously constructed mathematical models, which were mapped onto real data using sophisticated statistical techniques, and the theory came to dominate the teaching of Psychology Essay macroeconomics in many university departments. In 2004, reflecting the vs thin theory’s influence, Prescott shared a Nobel with Finn Kydland of Carnegie Mellon University. Meanwhile, saltwater economists balked. Where the freshwater economists were purists, saltwater economists were pragmatists. While economists like N. Gregory Mankiw at Harvard, Olivier Blanchard at M.I.T. and David Romer at Psychology Essay the University of California, Berkeley, acknowledged that it was hard to reconcile a Keynesian demand-side view of uk recessions with neoclassical theory, they found the evidence that recessions are, in Research in Developmental Psychology, fact, demand-driven too compelling to turkey uk, reject.

So they were willing to deviate from the Research Psychology assumption of perfect markets or perfect rationality, or both, adding enough imperfections to accommodate a more or less Keynesian view of recessions. Fat Client Vs Thin. And in the saltwater view, active policy to fight recessions remained desirable. But the self-described New Keynesian economists weren’t immune to the charms of Research Psychology rational individuals and perfect markets. They tried to keep their deviations from neoclassical orthodoxy as limited as possible. John Adams. This meant that there was no room in the prevailing models for such things as bubbles and banking-system collapse. The fact that such things continued to happen in the real world — there was a terrible financial and macroeconomic crisis in much of Asia in 1997-8 and a depression-level slump in Argentina in 2002 — wasn’t reflected in the mainstream of New Keynesian thinking. Even so, you might have thought that the differing worldviews of freshwater and Psychology Essay, saltwater economists would have put them constantly at john adams marry loggerheads over economic policy. Somewhat surprisingly, however, between around 1985 and 2007 the in Developmental Essay disputes between freshwater and saltwater economists were mainly about theory, not action.

The reason, I believe, is that New Keynesians, unlike the original Keynesians, didn’t think fiscal policy — changes in The Awareness about Energy-Efficient Buildings, government spending or taxes — was needed to Essay, fight recessions. They believed that monetary policy, administered by who did adams marry, the technocrats at the Fed, could provide whatever remedies the economy needed. At a 90th birthday celebration for Milton Friedman, Ben Bernanke, formerly a more or less New Keynesian professor at Princeton, and by then a member of the Research in Developmental Psychology Essay Fed’s governing board, declared of the Utilitarianism and Its Shortcomings Essay Great Depression: “You’re right. We did it. We’re very sorry. Essay. But thanks to you, it won’t happen again.” The clear message was that all you need to avoid depressions is a smarter Fed. And as long as macroeconomic policy was left in fat client vs thin client, the hands of the maestro Greenspan, without Keynesian-type stimulus programs, freshwater economists found little to complain about. (They didn’t believe that monetary policy did any good, but they didn’t believe it did any harm, either.) An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.

It would take a crisis to reveal both how little common ground there was and Research Psychology Essay, how Panglossian even New Keynesian economics had become. In recent, rueful economics discussions, an john marry all-purpose punch line has become “nobody could have predicted. Research In Developmental Psychology. . . .” It’s what you say with regard to disasters that could have been predicted, should have been predicted and actually were predicted by a few economists who were scoffed at for their pains. Take, for example, the precipitous rise and turkey airlines, fall of housing prices. Some economists, notably Robert Shiller, did identify the bubble and warn of painful consequences if it were to burst. Yet key policy makers failed to see the obvious. In 2004, Alan Greenspan dismissed talk of in Developmental Essay a housing bubble: “a national severe price distortion,” he declared, was “most unlikely.” Home-price increases, Ben Bernanke said in 2005, “largely reflect strong economic fundamentals.” How did they miss the bubble? To be fair, interest rates were unusually low, possibly explaining part of the turkey airlines uk price rise. It may be that Greenspan and Bernanke also wanted to Research in Developmental Psychology Essay, celebrate the Fed’s success in pulling the The Future of Mankind economy out of the Research in Developmental Essay 2001 recession; conceding that much of adams that success rested on the creation of a monstrous bubble would have placed a damper on the festivities. But there was something else going on: a general belief that bubbles just don’t happen. Research In Developmental Essay. What’s striking, when you reread Greenspan’s assurances, is that they weren’t based on This Is The, evidence — they were based on the a priori assertion that there simply can’t be a bubble in housing.

And the in Developmental Psychology finance theorists were even more adamant on this point. In a 2007 interview, Eugene Fama, the father of the turkey uk efficient-market hypothesis, declared that “the word ‘bubble’ drives me nuts,” and in Developmental Essay, went on to explain why we can trust the housing market: “Housing markets are less liquid, but people are very careful when they buy houses. It’s typically the biggest investment they’re going to vs thin client, make, so they look around very carefully and they compare prices. The bidding process is very detailed.” Indeed, home buyers generally do carefully compare prices — that is, they compare the price of Research Psychology Essay their potential purchase with the turkey airlines prices of other houses. But this says nothing about whether the Research Psychology overall price of houses is justified. It’s ketchup economics, again: because a two-quart bottle of ketchup costs twice as much as a one-quart bottle, finance theorists declare that the price of ketchup must be right. In short, the belief in turkey uk, efficient financial markets blinded many if not most economists to the emergence of the biggest financial bubble in Research, history.

And efficient-market theory also played a significant role in inflating that bubble in the first place. Now that the undiagnosed bubble has burst, the uk true riskiness of supposedly safe assets has been revealed and the financial system has demonstrated its fragility. U.S. households have seen $13 trillion in wealth evaporate. Research Essay. More than six million jobs have been lost, and the unemployment rate appears headed for its highest level since 1940. So what guidance does modern economics have to offer in our current predicament? And should we trust it? Between 1985 and 2007 a false peace settled over the field of macroeconomics. Turkey. There hadn’t been any real convergence of Research Psychology views between the saltwater and freshwater factions. This Moment Essay. But these were the years of the Great Moderation — an extended period during which inflation was subdued and recessions were relatively mild.

Saltwater economists believed that the Federal Reserve had everything under control. Research. Fresh­water economists didn’t think the Fed’s actions were actually beneficial, but they were willing to turkey airlines, let matters lie. But the crisis ended the phony peace. Research Psychology Essay. Suddenly the narrow, technocratic policies both sides were willing to accept were no longer sufficient — and the need for a broader policy response brought the old conflicts out into the open, fiercer than ever. Why weren’t those narrow, technocratic policies sufficient? The answer, in a word, is zero. During a normal recession, the on The Future of Mankind Fed responds by Research Essay, buying Treasury bills — short-term government debt — from banks. This drives interest rates on government debt down; investors seeking a higher rate of return move into other assets, driving other interest rates down as well; and normally these lower interest rates eventually lead to an economic bounceback.

The Fed dealt with the recession that began in 1990 by driving short-term interest rates from Shortcomings Essay 9 percent down to in Developmental Psychology Essay, 3 percent. Of Mankind. It dealt with the recession that began in 2001 by Research in Developmental Psychology Essay, driving rates from 6.5 percent to 1 percent. And it tried to deal with the current recession by driving rates down from 5.25 percent to zero. But zero, it turned out, isn’t low enough to end this recession. And the Fed can’t push rates below zero, since at near-zero rates investors simply hoard cash rather than lending it out. So by late 2008, with interest rates basically at what macroeconomists call the “zero lower bound” even as the recession continued to deepen, conventional monetary policy had lost all traction. Now what? This is the fat client second time America has been up against the zero lower bound, the previous occasion being the Great Depression. And it was precisely the observation that there’s a lower bound to interest rates that led Keynes to Research, advocate higher government spending: when monetary policy is ineffective and the private sector can’t be persuaded to spend more, the public sector must take its place in supporting the vs thin client economy. Fiscal stimulus is the Keynesian answer to the kind of depression-type economic situation we’re currently in.

Such Keynesian thinking underlies the Obama administration’s economic policies — and the freshwater economists are furious. Essay. For 25 or so years they tolerated the Fed’s efforts to manage the economy, but a full-blown Keynesian resurgence was something entirely different. Essay The Future. Back in Research Psychology, 1980, Lucas, of the University of turkey airlines Chicago, wrote that Keynesian economics was so ludicrous that “at research seminars, people don’t take Keynesian theorizing seriously anymore; the Psychology Essay audience starts to whisper and on The Future, giggle to one another.” Admitting that Keynes was largely right, after all, would be too humiliating a comedown. And so Chicago’s Cochrane, outraged at the idea that government spending could mitigate the Research in Developmental Psychology latest recession, declared: “It’s not part of what anybody has taught graduate students since the 1960s. They [Keynesian ideas] are fairy tales that have been proved false.

It is very comforting in who did john adams marry, times of stress to go back to the fairy tales we heard as children, but it doesn’t make them less false.” (It’s a mark of Research in Developmental Psychology Essay how deep the division between saltwater and Essay on, freshwater runs that Cochrane doesn’t believe that “anybody” teaches ideas that are, in fact, taught in places like Princeton, M.I.T. and Harvard.) Meanwhile, saltwater economists, who had comforted themselves with the belief that the Psychology great divide in macroeconomics was narrowing, were shocked to realize that freshwater economists hadn’t been listening at all. Freshwater economists who inveighed against the stimulus didn’t sound like scholars who had weighed Keynesian arguments and found them wanting. This Is The. Rather, they sounded like people who had no idea what Keynesian economics was about, who were resurrecting pre-1930 fallacies in the belief that they were saying something new and profound. And it wasn’t just Keynes whose ideas seemed to in Developmental Psychology Essay, have been forgotten. As Brad DeLong of the University of The Awareness of Residents of Islamabad Energy-Efficient Buildings California, Berkeley, has pointed out in his laments about the Research Psychology Chicago school’s “intellectual collapse,” the school’s current stance amounts to a wholesale rejection of Milton Friedman’s ideas, as well. Friedman believed that Fed policy rather than changes in fat client vs thin, government spending should be used to stabilize the economy, but he never asserted that an increase in government spending cannot, under any circumstances, increase employment. In fact, rereading Friedman’s 1970 summary of his ideas, “A Theoretical Framework for Monetary Analysis,” what’s striking is how Keynesian it seems.

And Friedman certainly never bought into in Developmental Psychology Essay, the idea that mass unemployment represents a voluntary reduction in work effort or the idea that recessions are actually good for the economy. Yet the current generation of turkey freshwater economists has been making both arguments. Thus Chicago’s Casey Mulligan suggests that unemployment is so high because many workers are choosing not to take jobs: “Employees face financial incentives that encourage them not to work . . . decreased employment is Research explained more by reductions in the supply of who did marry labor (the willingness of people to work) and less by the demand for labor (the number of workers that employers need to hire).” Mulligan has suggested, in particular, that workers are choosing to remain unemployed because that improves their odds of in Developmental receiving mortgage relief. And Cochrane declares that high unemployment is actually good: “We should have a recession. People who spend their lives pounding nails in Nevada need something else to do.” Personally, I think this is crazy.

Why should it take mass unemployment across the whole nation to get carpenters to move out of Nevada? Can anyone seriously claim that we’ve lost 6.7 million jobs because fewer Americans want to work? But it was inevitable that freshwater economists would find themselves trapped in this cul-de-sac: if you start from the assumption that people are perfectly rational and markets are perfectly efficient, you have to conclude that unemployment is voluntary and recessions are desirable. Yet if the crisis has pushed freshwater economists into absurdity, it has also created a lot of soul-searching among saltwater economists. Their framework, unlike that of the Chicago School, both allows for the possibility of involuntary unemployment and client, considers it a bad thing. But the Research Psychology New Keynesian models that have come to dominate teaching and research assume that people are perfectly rational and financial markets are perfectly efficient.

To get anything like the turkey airlines uk current slump into their models, New Keynesians are forced to introduce some kind of fudge factor that for reasons unspecified temporarily depresses private spending. Research Psychology Essay. (I’ve done exactly that in john, some of my own work.) And if the analysis of where we are now rests on this fudge factor, how much confidence can we have in the models’ predictions about where we are going? The state of macro, in short, is not good. So where does the profession go from here? Economics, as a field, got in trouble because economists were seduced by the vision of a perfect, frictionless market system. If the Essay profession is to redeem itself, it will have to reconcile itself to a less alluring vision — that of a market economy that has many virtues but that is also shot through with flaws and frictions. Of Residents Energy-Efficient. The good news is that we don’t have to start from scratch. Even during the Psychology heyday of perfect-market economics, there was a lot of work done on the ways in which the real economy deviated from the theoretical ideal.

What’s probably going to happen now — in fact, it’s already happening — is that flaws-and-frictions economics will move from the periphery of Essay economic analysis to its center. There’s already a fairly well developed example of the kind of Research economics I have in mind: the school of thought known as behavioral finance. Practitioners of this approach emphasize two things. First, many real-world investors bear little resemblance to uk, the cool calculators of efficient-market theory: they’re all too subject to herd behavior, to Research, bouts of irrational exuberance and unwarranted panic. Second, even those who try to base their decisions on cool calculation often find that they can’t, that problems of trust, credibility and limited collateral force them to run with the herd. On the first point: even during the heyday of the efficient-market hypothesis, it seemed obvious that many real-world investors aren’t as rational as the prevailing models assumed. This. Larry Summers once began a paper on finance by declaring: “THERE ARE IDIOTS. Look around.” But what kind of in Developmental Essay idiots (the preferred term in who did john, the academic literature, actually, is “noise traders”) are we talking about? Behavioral finance, drawing on the broader movement known as behavioral economics, tries to answer that question by relating the apparent irrationality of Research Essay investors to known biases in human cognition, like the tendency to Is The Moment Essay, care more about small losses than small gains or the tendency to in Developmental, extrapolate too readily from small samples (e.g., assuming that because home prices rose in the past few years, they’ll keep on of Mankind, rising). Until the crisis, efficient-market advocates like Eugene Fama dismissed the Psychology Essay evidence produced on john adams, behalf of behavioral finance as a collection of “curiosity items” of no real importance. That’s a much harder position to maintain now that the collapse of in Developmental Psychology Essay a vast bubble — a bubble correctly diagnosed by Utilitarianism and Its Shortcomings Essay, behavioral economists like Robert Shiller of Yale, who related it to past episodes of “irrational exuberance” — has brought the world economy to its knees.

On the Research Essay second point: suppose that there are, indeed, idiots. Moment Essay. How much do they matter? Not much, argued Milton Friedman in an influential 1953 paper: smart investors will make money by buying when the idiots sell and selling when they buy and will stabilize markets in in Developmental Psychology Essay, the process. But the second strand of behavioral finance says that Friedman was wrong, that financial markets are sometimes highly unstable, and right now that view seems hard to The Future, reject. Probably the most influential paper in this vein was a 1997 publication by Andrei Shleifer of Harvard and Robert Vishny of Chicago, which amounted to Research in Developmental Psychology, a formalization of the old line that “the market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent.” As they pointed out, arbitrageurs — the people who are supposed to buy low and The Awareness Energy-Efficient, sell high — need capital to do their jobs. And a severe plunge in Research, asset prices, even if it makes no sense in terms of fundamentals, tends to deplete that capital. As a result, the smart money is forced out of the market, and prices may go into a downward spiral. The spread of the current financial crisis seemed almost like an object lesson in the perils of financial instability.

And the general ideas underlying models of financial instability have proved highly relevant to economic policy: a focus on the depleted capital of financial institutions helped guide policy actions taken after the fall of Lehman, and it looks (cross your fingers) as if these actions successfully headed off an even bigger financial collapse. Meanwhile, what about macroeconomics? Recent events have pretty decisively refuted the idea that recessions are an fat client vs thin client optimal response to fluctuations in the rate of technological progress; a more or less Keynesian view is the only plausible game in town. Yet standard New Keynesian models left no room for a crisis like the one we’re having, because those models generally accepted the Research in Developmental Psychology Essay efficient-market view of the financial sector. There were some exceptions.

One line of work, pioneered by none other than Ben Bernanke working with Mark Gertler of New York University, emphasized the way the lack of sufficient collateral can hinder the ability of businesses to raise funds and pursue investment opportunities. A related line of Essay on work, largely established by my Princeton colleague Nobuhiro Kiyotaki and John Moore of the London School of Economics, argued that prices of assets such as real estate can suffer self-reinforcing plunges that in turn depress the economy as a whole. But until now the impact of dysfunctional finance hasn’t been at Research Psychology Essay the core even of Keynesian economics. Clearly, that has to change. So here’s what I think economists have to do. First, they have to face up to the inconvenient reality that financial markets fall far short of perfection, that they are subject to extraordinary delusions and the madness of crowds. Utilitarianism. Second, they have to admit — and this will be very hard for the people who giggled and Essay, whispered over Keynes — that Keynesian economics remains the best framework we have for making sense of recessions and depressions.

Third, they’ll have to do their best to incorporate the fat client vs thin client realities of finance into Research Essay, macroeconomics. Many economists will find these changes deeply disturbing. It will be a long time, if ever, before the vs thin new, more realistic approaches to finance and macroeconomics offer the same kind of Psychology Essay clarity, completeness and sheer beauty that characterizes the full neoclassical approach. To some economists that will be a reason to cling to neoclassicism, despite its utter failure to make sense of the greatest economic crisis in three generations. This seems, however, like a good time to Moment, recall the Research Psychology Essay words of H. L. Mencken: “There is always an easy solution to every human problem — neat, plausible and wrong.” When it comes to the all-too-human problem of recessions and This Essay, depressions, economists need to abandon the neat but wrong solution of assuming that everyone is rational and markets work perfectly. Essay. The vision that emerges as the of Islamabad about Energy-Efficient Buildings profession rethinks its foundations may not be all that clear; it certainly won’t be neat; but we can hope that it will have the virtue of being at Research in Developmental Psychology Essay least partly right. Because of an editing error, an article on This, Page 36 this weekend about the failure of economists to anticipate the latest recession misquotes the economist John Maynard Keynes, who compared the financial markets of the in Developmental Essay 1930s to newspaper beauty contests in which readers tried to correctly pick all six eventual winners. Keynes noted that a competitor did not have to pick “those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to The Awareness about Energy-Efficient, catch the fancy of the other competitors.” He did not say, “nor even those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of other competitors.” Paul Krugman is a Times Op-Ed columnist and winner of the Psychology 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science. His latest book is “The Return of and Its Shortcomings Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008.”

A version of this article appears in in Developmental, print on , on Page MM36 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: How Did Economists Get it So Wrong?. Today's Paper | Subscribe. We’re interested in your feedback on and Its Essay, this page. Research Psychology Essay. Tell us what you think.

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Fraternity Brotherhood Essays and Research Papers. Brotherhood Brotherhood cannot be walked away from. It is a lifelong relationship with who you call brothers. Research In Developmental. From my . Is The. experience with brotherhood , its a promise they have between one another. Psychology Essay. Brothers stay together when they are at their best, and their worse, that’s the respect that is given and fat client vs thin received with brothers.

The difference between friendships and brotherhood's are the internal bond you have and the pure love between them. Research In Developmental Psychology Essay. But how far will a fake brotherhood go? Pat Conroy’s. Brotherhood 991 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Fraternities /Sororities are generally considered as a bad organization or . brotherhood nowadays. It affects the academic performance of many students especially some of BSIT (Bachelor of Science in Information Technology) freshmen who tried to join. Many students find that membership in a chapter gives them opportunities to develop valuable skills they have not been able to turkey airlines find elsewhere.

Sometimes, joining a fraternity /sorority is an excellent way for Essay some. Following , Fraternities and and Its Shortcomings Essay sororities , Fraternity 817 Words | 4 Pages. ? Fraternities and brotherhoods can play a significant role regarding men’s cultural citizenship. What does it mean to belong to a . brotherhood ? What are the benefits and privileges? What are the implications regarding gendered discourses of power? The collegiate experience of Research in Developmental Essay Greek-letter organisations collegiate in the United States of Moment Essay America have marked a prominent arena where men’s cultural citizenship discourse are approximated and demonstrated. Literature that have emerged in the last decades.

Alpha Phi Alpha , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 3469 Words | 12 Pages. College Fraternities A fraternity , as defined by the The American Heritage Dictionary is Psychology Essay a chiefly social organization of . male college students, usually designated by Greek letters.(pg. 523) This definition, however, is very limited and leaves plenty of space for short sighted people to believe the stereotype conveyed by the popular media, where fraternity members are depicted as drunks who accomplish nothing either scholastically or socially. Unfortunately, both this definition and media. Brotherhood , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 1508 Words | 5 Pages. and confidence. Fraternities and sororities offer students a supportive network of adams friends and mentors throughout the college years. Adjusting . to college with the assistance and support of others encourages students to get involved and learn new skills in and outside of the Essay, classroom. Essay The Future. Fraternities offer students the opportunity to learn about the process and structure of a large organization. Fraternities is beneficial for it caters to common interest among people.

Fraternities were established. College , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 696 Words | 3 Pages. The Brotherhoods in the Invisible Man. The Brotherhood in the Invisible Man Brotherhoods are associations, usually of men, that unite for common purposes. The members . in the brotherhood typically respect one another, defend one another, and cooperate to obtain specific goals. Research Psychology Essay. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States, whose goal is to create better employment opportunities for workers.

Kappa Sigma and Sigma Chi are two of the largest university fraternities in the country. Black people , Brotherhood , Invisible Man 2025 Words | 5 Pages. What is fraternity ? A fraternity (Latin frater : brother) is a brotherhood , although the term sometimes connotes . a distinct or formal organization and sometimes a secret society. A fraternity (or fraternal organization) is an organized society of john men associated together in Research an environment of companionship and brotherhood ; dedicated to the intellectual, physical, and social development of its members. * Wikipedia A fraternity is a male-only association with members who are linked by common. Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 1694 Words | 5 Pages. RESEARCH In all times and among all nations which have reached a sufficient level of client cultural development, there have always been fraternal associations . formed for higher purposes. The development of Research in Developmental Psychology Fraternities can be traced from trade unions or guilds that emerged in This England. These guilds were set up to protect and care for Psychology their members at a time when there was no welfare state, trade unions or National Health Service.

Various secret signs and handshakes were created to Moment Essay serve as proof of Research their. Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 807 Words | 3 Pages. CJ Lang Core 101-31 Are fraternities really that bad? When people think of fraternity members, they usually think of immature . This Is The Moment. guys that just get together and party all the time. Research Psychology. Well, not all the negative stereotypes of fraternity members are true, just like not everything you read on the internet is true. I believe that joining a fraternity is a very good thing to do and think it is something people should do while at college. People assume the stereotypes are true, because that may be all. College , Community service , Fraternal and service organizations 1385 Words | 4 Pages.

College Fraternities College fraternities have always struck me as being an organization of guys who spend their time . drinking beer and having their social gatherings (parties). Just moving to This Is The Austin recently (which is by no doubt a college city) has made me want to know more about the in Developmental Essay, sole purpose of these fraternities . For these reasons I chose to select this culture for my essay. The definition of a fraternity is defined as chiefly social organization of male college students. Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 734 Words | 3 Pages. Melvin R. Fontanilla III-Diamond March 2011 Chapter I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study A fraternity is defined as a group of . people united in a relationship, having some common interests, activity, and purpose.

It is a brotherhood , as the members usually say, of people at a college or university usually characterized by Greek letters. For members, fraternity means brotherhood , unity, friendship, trust and acceptance. It means meeting new people, sharing interests and accepting others'. Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 1679 Words | 7 Pages. Fraternities began establishing themselves at American colleges and universities in the early 19th century (Clay). On The Future. Although unique, the . Research In Developmental. principles upon which each Greek organization was founded are similar, including the pursuit of academic excellence, good citizenship, the development of leadership abilities among its members, and fellowship. Client. These shared principles provide the foundation of the Greek system. Hazing attacks this foundation, challenging the very principles upon which the Greek.

Abuse , Bullying , Fraternal and service organizations 1647 Words | 5 Pages. Fraternities and sororities have been associated with colleges and universities since the 1700's. In Developmental Psychology. They were first established to turkey encourage . activities outside of the classroom. There are exciting volunteer opportunities and social outlets available to you when you join one of these organizations. Not everyone will have a fabulous time in a fraternity or sorority however. Research In Developmental Psychology Essay. Fans of sororities and Is The Essay fraternities argue that the Greek system gives students leadership opportunities and lasting friendships. Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 2444 Words | 7 Pages. Initiation or Incarceration: Hazing in Fraternities and Research Essay Sororities.

Initiation or Incarceration: Hazing in Fraternities and Sororities Frat boys and sorority girls, what do they do for Is The society? They . Research In Developmental Essay. party all weekend, every weekend. None of of Residents them care about academics. Essay. They are elitist and snobby. They violate noise ordinances. They do not serve the community. They couldn’t possibly hold any value as individuals in our society, right? Wrong. Many people think of those who belong to the Greek system as the rich, preppy Caucasian students who get drunk and party. Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 1351 Words | 4 Pages.

Hazing (subjecting newcomers to Is The Moment Essay abusive or humiliating tricks and ridicule) has always been seen as a secretive campus activity when it comes to Essay . fraternities and pledging. As a result, Dr. Mark Taff resorted in his article that, ..a series of Moment Essay 168 cases of injuries and deaths related to fraternity hazing activities. [occurred] in the United States between 1923 and in Developmental Psychology Essay 1982 (2113). Essay. Young college men are being hospitalized and even worse, dying, just for a couple of friends that give them a sense of. Alpha Phi Alpha , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 2161 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentive Essay: Fraternities and Sorrorities. Against Fraternities /Sororities As portrayed in the 1978 hit movie Animal House, college fraternities /sororities . are a hotbed of excessive drinking, casual sex, vandalism, and generally licentious behavior. But, in real life, unlike the movie, the in Developmental Psychology, results of such conduct are hardly laughable. Adams. Even though the Psychology Essay, nationwide membership in fat client vs thin client both fraternities and sororities are at an all time high of 350,000 members, fraternities and sororities are still receiving harsh criticism from university.

Alpha Epsilon Pi , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 1729 Words | 6 Pages. INTRODUCTION Context National Trends Fraternities and sororities are often seen as both detrimental and beneficial to Research in Developmental college campuses. . Some acknowledge the benefits of fat client vs thin client Greek organizations for both the individuals who participate in them and for the institution. A fraternity or sorority can provide a caring and supportive subcommunity where students develop interpersonal and leadership skills (Astin 1993), make friends, learn how an organization works, develop a common cause, participate. Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 722 Words | 3 Pages. Fraternities and Sororities and Hazing Expert. think to look. Whether it is in the more common areas such as sororities and in Developmental fraternities on college campuses or between a junior and senior . Of Residents About Energy-Efficient. class in high school, hazing is hazing and Research it is of Residents about Energy-Efficient Buildings a serious, and sometimes deadly, issue.

76% of students, who joined or attempted to join a fraternity or sorority group, were hazed during the Psychology, pledging process. Most people automatically associate the turkey airlines, word ?hazing' with fraternities and sororities. But what most people don't know is that hazing occurs much more. Alpha Kappa Alpha , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 1962 Words | 6 Pages. family. Research In Developmental Psychology. “I was exposed and taken in by a fraternity brotherhood in 1998. I was exposed to the world of politics… it introduced . me to not just the world but the people comprising it” the congressman verbalized. Another set of values was probably added to him the moment he joined the brotherhood . This is like getting new Lego pieces to add up to whatever structure you are building. This was where the spark started. “It (political career) started there ( brotherhood ) and uk opened a lot of Psychology Essay avenues” he imparted.

A Great Way to Care , Brotherhood , Family 881 Words | 3 Pages. A social problem: Fraternities Hazing. some segment of the public perceive the condition as a problem, and it exists when there is certain objective condition and society define it problematic.” . Turkey Uk. (Nasibov) An on-going social problem among universities across the country involves college fraternities and Research Psychology Essay hazing. Hazing is an issue that consistently reemerges. Turkey Airlines. A large percentage of Research in Developmental hazing incidents result in serious injuries, or at times, death. This Is The Moment. Any event that causes death and despair so often when it could be prevented is a social problem. Ethanol , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 1521 Words | 5 Pages. Brotherhood in Sonny's Blues: Am I My Brother's Keeper?

Sonny's Blues James Baldwin. at least to the best of his ability. Research Psychology. Regardless of how the narrator dealt with his brother the final outcome is the most important aspect of the story, and airlines . it shows that brotherhood is capable of overcoming hardship and misunderstanding because it is so important in regard to human survival and success. The fact that brotherhood prevails over Psychology all things is an Essay important theme, and one that rings so very true. Research Psychology Essay. The first struggle that the reader is introduced to Essay in Sonny's Blues is the distinct age. American films , Brotherhood , Emotion 2025 Words | 6 Pages.

ARYAN BROTHERHOOD Growing up most people has been part of a group, one way or another. Research Psychology Essay. Girls grew up being Girl scouts or Campfire girls, . and boys had Boy scouts and baseball. Who Did John Adams Marry. Well, on that note, I remember having a pledge in Girls Scouts. In Developmental Essay. Well the Aryan Brotherhood also has a pledge: I will stand by my brother My brother will come before all others My life is forfeited should I fail my brother I will honor my brother in peace and war They also live by the motto, in for life and out. Aryan Brotherhood , Black Guerrilla Family , Mexican Mafia 1465 Words | 4 Pages. Running Head: FRATERNITY AND SORORITY MEMBERSHIP The Effects of Fraternity and Sorority . Membership on the College Experience Ivan V. Ceballos The Pennsylvania State University The Effects of Fraternity and Sorority Membership on the College Experience Fraternities and and Its sororities have been part of the collegiate experience for Essay most of American higher education’s history.

What once were literary and debating societies are now social and service-oriented. Binge drinking , Drinking culture , Fraternities and john adams sororities 1081 Words | 3 Pages. Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia: The Brotherhood of Music A pair of Research in Developmental Psychology Essay Ray Ban sunglasses, a Polo Ralph Lauren shirt, Khaki shorts that extend to an . The Awareness About Buildings. inch above the knees; what is this attire associated with? Most college students would say frat boys. Psychology. This is one of the stereotypes associated with fraternities . The immediate assumption is that members of a fraternity are all tools, douche bags, or any other insult one can think of; this being the general opinion of a normal college student. I am sure.

Brotherhood , Chapters of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia , Fraternal and service organizations 1327 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Muslim Brotherhood “Allah is our objective. Is The Moment. The Prophet is our leader. Quran is in Developmental Psychology our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah . is our highest hope.” This is the motto of the world’s largest, oldest, and most influential Islamist organization known as the turkey uk, Muslim Brotherhood , or al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun. They are an organization that operates under an umbrella of secrecy with an agenda to remove westernization of Muslim culture and establish Shari’ah law and Sunni Islamic governments.

Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser , Hamas 1622 Words | 8 Pages. Motivational Criterion and Level of Satisfaction of Members of Fraternities and Research in Developmental Psychology Essay Sororities (Chapter 1) THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Fraternity and sororities are special group of people defined by their own rules. Benefits and . challenges for college students involved in these social groups have raised a lot of issues and argumentations in the society in terms of its effect and importance. In the Philippines, fraternities and sororities are prohibited in many campuses and universities. Noting the sometimes raucous behavior of fraternity members and the danger of some of activities done. Fraternities and sororities , Hazing , Initiation 1182 Words | 4 Pages. ? “ FRATERNITY ” A fraternity (comes from This Is The, Latin word frater which means brother) is . In Developmental Essay. a brotherhood , although the turkey, term sometimes connotes a distinct or formal organization and sometimes a secret society.

A fraternity (or fraternal organization) is an organized society of men associated together in an environment of companionship and brotherhood ; dedicated to Research in Developmental Psychology the intellectual, physical, and social development of its members. Not only for men but for girls also. . Formal organization , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and turkey sororities 505 Words | 2 Pages. BROTHERHOOD OF CHRISTIAN BUSINESSMEN AND PROFESSIONALS (Mactan Chapter) BCBP COUPLES BREAKFAST EMCEES’ GUIDE . Psychology Essay. Sequence Outline: 1. Grace Before Meals 2. Brief Introduction as Emcees 3. Vs Thin. Opening Song 4. Opening Prayer 5. Background of BCBP 6. Calling of First Timers 7. Introduction of First Timers 8. Traditional BCBP Welcome to First Timers 9. Calling of Graduates . Breakfast , Brotherhood , Cebu 857 Words | 5 Pages. Even the Brotherhood , Invisible Man's proposed savior, pursued the narrator never to know him, only to use him. Brother Jack is the . accomplished, white leader of the Brotherhood , he first approaches the narrator because of his rallying speech at the scene of an eviction. Once the narrator agrees to join the Brotherhood , Brother Jack ushers him into his world, giving him a new home address, a new name, and in Developmental Psychology a job to arouse and lead the people of Harlem through the teachings of the Brotherhood . The strong. Brotherhood , Human , Invisibility 1352 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast: Frankenstein and Invisible Man. living in three different homes, he finally settles by joining a political Brotherhood . While in the Brotherhood , he is given the . opportunity to give public speeches to the community of Harlem pertaining to issues such as women and Negro rights, and in the process, gains the trust and faith of the public, as well as that of the fellow brothers, or so he thinks.

As a result of his outstanding performances, members of the Brotherhood , particularly Brother Jack, plan to take advantage of marry this brother's. Brotherhood , Frankenstein , Human 821 Words | 3 Pages. on what it takes to in Developmental Psychology be a beach lifeguard, and Essay The Future hopefully you come out of this with more knowledge about the in Developmental, water and its dangers. (Preview Statement) : . First, we will look at uk, what lifeguarding is; what are the risks? What are the rewards? ( Brotherhood ) Second, we will look at the process to becoming a beach lifeguard. (Training) Finally we will look at implications of being a lifeguard. Transition: I was first introduced to lifeguarding through my dad (Firefighter/ Paramedic) since the Psychology, fire. Brotherhood , Drowning , English-language films 927 Words | 2 Pages. Analysis on Fraternities and Rape on Campus. The first main sociological question in the Fraternities and Rape on Campus study performed by Utilitarianism Shortcomings Patricia Yancey Martin and in Developmental Essay Robert A. Hummer . was, What characteristics do fraternities have that make them prone to objectification of women and Essay on The Future of Mankind more likely to Research in Developmental Psychology commit gang rape on college campuses and why fraternities encourage the sexual coercion of women. According to Martin and Hummer (1989: 459), fraternities are vitally concerned ? more than anything else ? with masculinity (cf. Shortcomings. Kanin 1967)..

Epistemology , Fraternities and sororities , Gender 874 Words | 3 Pages. create them, eventually, they only live for them-self. In the novel Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, the protagonist gives his unconditional trust to people . when he believed were trying to in Developmental Psychology help him such as Dr. Bledsoe, the factory doctors, and the Brotherhood . In reality, these people were only trying to adams marry use him and manipulate him yet they betrayed him. When the protagonist discovers the Research in Developmental, true intentions of these people, he loses the trust and admiration he once felt for them. While the protagonist allowed. Brotherhood , Conformity , Invisible Man 1525 Words | 4 Pages. movies portray students drinking, smoking, sex, and fraternity initiations. All which sounds and looks appealing to the everyday person.

Movie . depictions of campus life can cloud judgments and attitudes of what to expect. Some people join a fraternity with high hopes of becoming a frat brother or sister. What people watch in the movies and what they have to go through in real life to become a brother or sister of airlines uk that frat are the same. Fraternities choose who they let join their group based on initiations. College , Education , Fraternal and Research in Developmental Psychology service organizations 975 Words | 5 Pages. point of the story is client that the narrator, through his own suffering and the example of Sonny, is at last able to find himself in the brotherhood . of man . It is the common experience of suffering that ties all of humankind together, and by denying his pain and suffering , he has denied himself a place among his people.

He had not only Research Psychology Essay denied himself brotherhood but he had also denied himself the relief that comes with sharing a common bond. Finally he is able to Utilitarianism feel pride in his brother’s accomplishments. Brotherhood , Jack Kerouac , Life 861 Words | 3 Pages. survive and understand the Psychology, wrath of nature against them. But his ability to comprehend it all was utterly inadequate.

It only seems to him that nature does . not care. Nature, or the seven mad gods, as he called it, is indifferent to all the courage, brotherhood and Essay on The Future of Mankind valor that the survivors have shown. They receive no complement or reward to such defiance to survive. Their prayers fall into dead ears and God, it seemed, does not care. It was at this point that Crane found it appropriate to use the word. Absurdism , Brotherhood , Existentialism 1463 Words | 4 Pages. make the best out of the situation he was dealing with. As he develops we start to see a change unfold. We begin to see that the carefree loving man turns . dark and cold by manipulating others while he himself was still being manipulated by Essay the Brotherhood . Utilitarianism And Its. He continues by Research in Developmental doing what he thought was right regardless of how he felt about the situation, he states: “What and Utilitarianism and Its Essay how much had I lost by trying to do only Essay what was expected of me instead of what I myself had wished to do?” This shows how the. African American , Baltimore , Brotherhood 1550 Words | 4 Pages.

lords of discipline- wearing of the ring. aspects of Tradd, Pig, Mark, and Will strengthen their brotherhood bond? Each one of the boys gives something different to offer to the . Of Islamabad About Buildings. brotherhood between them. Tradd comes from a wealthy family in Charleston, with his father being a graduate from The Institute. Not only is Psychology he rich, but he is also reserved and highly educated. Within the brotherhood , Tradd feels like he is the turkey airlines, outcast and is able to diffuse most fights within the brotherhood using his words. During his education at The Institute. Brotherhood , Charleston, South Carolina , Love 1415 Words | 3 Pages. Greek Life: the Essay, Negative College Experience.

thinking of a fraternity or a sorority at all. Uk. This is to Research Psychology be expected because most of these groups have somewhat dominated their campuses for . hundreds of years, or since their particular chapters were formed. Supporters of Greek life, especially of fraternities , argue that being involved in Greek life organizations encourages brotherhood , the development of leadership skills, and This Is The Moment Essay the participation in philanthropic organizations throughout the students’ collegiate career. The bonds of brotherhood within. Alcoholism , Binge drinking , Blood alcohol content 2296 Words | 6 Pages. articulate the grievances of the people for the Brotherhood . In Chapter 22, the narrator confronted Jack defending himself and standing . up for what he felt was right. In Developmental Psychology. For the first time he had done something not because someone told him to, but because he chose to. The narrator believed that Todd Clifton (a former member of the Brotherhood ) was shot and turkey killed by the police because he was black.

Jack believed that Clifton was a traitor to Research Psychology the Brotherhood , and referred to him as a Brutus. As. Brotherhood , Invisibility , Invisible Man 792 Words | 3 Pages. Fraternities and Sororities and Fraternity. Introduction “The Fraternities and Sororities of the Generation” When we hear the word “frat” it comes to This Is The Essay our mind that it’s a group of . people that doing something in Essay possible and bad influence for the students like us. All the things around that may destroy our studies. And we are all familiar to who did john this because it is widely known for different name of groups of people who are organized it. Research In Developmental. And we are also aware to the effect of it due to the news about what happened to the member of The Awareness of Islamabad about Buildings this group. Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 8147 Words | 20 Pages.

The Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood The Muslim Brotherhood is the in Developmental, largest Islamist organization in Egypt. It was founded in the . 1920s by Hassan Al-Banna. And Its Shortcomings Essay. The movement was a model of political activism combined with Islamic charity work. At first, it only aimed to spread Islamic morals, but soon became involved in politics. While the Muslim Brotherhood claims that it supports democratic principles, it aims to Psychology create a state ruled by Is The Moment Essay Al Shariaa. Al Shariaa is the Islamic law stated in Research in Developmental Psychology Essay the Quran. Egypt , Egyptians , Gamal Abdel Nasser 2475 Words | 5 Pages. an episode where she meets Carrie, the new girl in school. Carrie, who has a previous reputation of being wild, befriends Mary and This Is The Essay asks her to go to the . mall with her that afternoon. While at the mall, Carrie asks Mary if she wants to go to a fraternity party with her later that night. Mary says no at first because she knows her parents will not allow her to Research go out on a school night.

Carrie convinces her that it will be fun and encourages Mary to sneak out and not tell her parents. Mary has to. English-language films , Episode , Family 1107 Words | 3 Pages. Fraternity: Fraternities and Sororities and 100 Yard Dash. just like a fraternity . It gives you that extra something that not everyone else is of Residents Energy-Efficient Buildings getting. Fraternities are perceived by many . to be negative. A common fallacy that is passed around is in Developmental Essay that fraternities cause students to have lower grades. Another fallacy about fraternities is that they are only about partying and getting drunk.

In this speech I am going to dismiss these two fallacies, and also talk to you about the brotherhood side of a fraternity . Is The Moment. Many people believe that a fraternity will cause. Brotherhood , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 751 Words | 2 Pages. effective when applied to groups. Hazing can bond a number of individuals and make them strive harder to succeed. When a group is lined up they are to . act as one not as individuals, which is imperative in military, sports, and even in Research in Developmental Psychology Essay fraternal brotherhoods . If a single individual fails, the entire group must face the consequence together.

A single person may not be affected by vs thin the punishment, but the mental anguish they receive when watching their peers pay for their own failure is more powerful. Abuse , Dedovshchina , Fraternities and sororities 2691 Words | 7 Pages. Stigma Between Fraternity Members and Non-Members. college experience. I believe it is common knowledge that all fraternity members experience stigma, and some may even say that non-members may . experience stigma to a certain degree. I believe that both groups, fraternity members and non-members, are, at some time, stigmatized. However, the stigma that affects non-members usually only results from the members of fraternities and can be considered far less than the Research in Developmental Psychology, stigma that fraternity members receive from the rest of the population. For example. Erving Goffman , Fraternal and and Its Shortcomings Essay service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 1405 Words | 4 Pages.

“Problems in in Developmental Essay Entering a Fraternity” deeply influenced by freemasonry fraternity and client odd fellows fraternity , both are ancient fraternal organization that originated . in England on or before the year 1700's. Social fraternities usually known by their Greek letters are commonly found on Research in Developmental Psychology, college campuses, or on one campus only. Who Did John Adams Marry. Fraternity members have this humility to help each other out and protect each other from an outsider but sometimes the Research in Developmental Psychology, result of The Awareness of Residents of Islamabad about Buildings it will be a rumble or a riot. Research In Developmental. Fraternities have been question due to the number. Brotherhood , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 3234 Words | 9 Pages. talks about men in Phi Gamma Delta they think of loud obnoxious guys, who would rather think about the of Residents of Islamabad Energy-Efficient Buildings, next big party than their next test or homework . assignment.

But when they take a deeper look into the fraternity you see men who are dedicated to their morals, service, and Research in Developmental Psychology friendship. “A fraternity is an association of This men, selected in their college days by a democratic process, because of their adherence to Psychology common ideals and of Islamabad about Buildings aspirations. Out of their association arises a personal relationship which. A Great Way to Care , Chapter house , Fraternal and service organizations 1834 Words | 5 Pages. acknowledge it. Focusing on in Developmental, the removal of fraternities avoids the root of the on, problem, which is the whole campus culture. . Essay. Fraternities are one outlet on a college campus where male students engage their peers, their university and Shortcomings Essay the larger community. I have worked with many fraternity members who genuinely care about the values of brotherhood , scholarship, leadership and service their organization espouses.

Unfortunately, another common byproduct of fraternity membership is Essay group think. There was. Campus , Campuses , Fraternal and service organizations 1538 Words | 5 Pages. What is a fraternity ? The definition found on on The Future, Wikipedia.org defines a fraternity (Latin frater : brother) as a . brotherhood , though the term usually connotes a distinct or formal organization. The only true distinction between a fraternity and any other form of social organization is the implication that the members freely associate as equals for Essay a mutually beneficial purpose, rather than because of a religious, governmental, commercial, or familial bond, although there are fraternities dedicated. Decision making , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 1943 Words | 5 Pages.

Step: African American Fraternities. today’s society. It was dance that originated in Africa by gold miners who were not allowed to speak to one another and Essay on The Future of Mankind had to use their hands and feet as . Research In Developmental Essay. means of communication. Africans came to America and formed the first African American fraternity . These fraternities are the ones that created todays’ “stepping” and based it on the traditional gumboot dances. The dancers endured a lot of suffering through their journey and brought something great to America that is now a crazed sensation. The first.

African American , Dance , Fraternities and sororities 1501 Words | 4 Pages. Blake Hampton Mr. Coleman English-102 April 16, 2009 College Hazing Students come into college wanting to have fun and to uk meet new people. There is no . Research In Developmental Psychology. better way to and Its Shortcomings interact and Research in Developmental find new friends than to join a fraternity . Of Residents Of Islamabad. Fraternities come with a high cost though. Hazing is one of the Research in Developmental Essay, biggest concerns on college campuses these days. Hazing in universities across the nation has become an increasingly dangerous ritual that is seemingly becoming more difficult to who did john put an end to due to in Developmental Essay its development. Bullying , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 1402 Words | 4 Pages.

Fraternities and Sororities and Kappa Phi Fraternity. process is dangerous and Shortcomings Essay sometimes fatal. In Developmental. However, not all fraternities are the This Moment, same. But they can be, and there are enough fatalities to prove . Research In Developmental Psychology. it, often from forced binge drinking or accidents related to alcohol. Foreign Related Literature As stated in Lisa Belkin’s article “Should Parents Ban Fraternities ?”, The Princeton’s school president, Shirley M. Tilghman, announced that, freshmen will no longer be permitted to The Awareness of Islamabad Energy-Efficient join a fraternity or sorority, nor will they be allowed to participate in Research Psychology Essay “rush”. Alcoholism , Binge drinking , Drinking culture 773 Words | 2 Pages. Recent activities of secret fraternities in airlines Edo and Anambra States of Nigeria have once again brought to focus the impact of the activities of . the nefarious groups on the polity. Not too long ago, two prominent movie stars were brutally assassinated in Edo State in what was alleged as a frat-related offensive, which culminated in Research the death of about twenty individuals. Most recently inhabitants of Anambra state were terrorised by frat men, who held the state capital hostage in a brutal frat war between.

Confraternities in Nigeria , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 2291 Words | 7 Pages. Fraternities and Sororities and Fraternity. FRATERNITY A fraternity is defined as a group of people united in a relationship, having some common interests, activity, . and purpose. It is Moment Essay a brotherhood , as the members usually say, of in Developmental Psychology people at a college or university usually characterized by Greek letters. For members, fraternity means brotherhood , unity, friendship, trust and acceptance. Utilitarianism And Its. It means meeting new people, sharing interests and accepting others' as well. It helps in building confidence and Research in Developmental character because they believe that. Alpha Phi Omega , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 3344 Words | 13 Pages. Animal House Orgainzational Functions. conflict and negotiation, structure and culture. 1.) Attitudes: The first element of film was the attitudes that the fraternity brothers had . with their character and other members.

Bluto showed an organizational commitment to the frat which is a good example of his attitude he had towards the fraternity . Bluto demonstrates his commitment because he has been a part of the Delta fraternity for over seven years. Shortcomings Essay. Another example of an attitude is how Kent (Flounder) portrays an affective commitment to. Decision making , Decision making software , Decision theory 2117 Words | 5 Pages. Swot Analysis of Alabama aM University. a united front to actually abolish the in Developmental Psychology Essay, standards and constructs set up by 19th century society (Willy Lench letter). Threats 1. Sororities and . fraternities may create barriers that separate the students among AAMU campus. It seems that sororities and fraternities have a lot of power over on The Future of Mankind students. Psychology. They have their on adams, group, sense of brotherhood and friendship, are popular, and garner lots of attention. But the Research Essay, opposition to that is marry that attainment of Research in Developmental Psychology these ‘qualities’ may tend to be negative.

African American , Black people , Fraternal and service organizations 1305 Words | 4 Pages. ?Related Studies and Literature Local Related Literature In joining a fraternity , one must undergo the turkey uk, initiation rites better known as . hazing. Some dismiss hazing as a parochial issue, to Research in Developmental Psychology be dealt with only by and Its Shortcomings Essay the universities and academies involved. But in his article “Hazing should concern us all”, Juan Alvin Tiamson submits that it should concern us all. Research. He wrote that by now, hazing particularly the violent kind has invaded most of Utilitarianism and Its our institutions. It is Research Psychology now prevalent in schools even in and Its police. Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity , Hazing 2442 Words | 7 Pages.

Division 1 school, fraternities and sororities can usually be found on the campus. But with Greek life also comes the negative stereotypes . about it. Research In Developmental Essay. People think Greek life is fat client vs thin client all about binge drinking and having sex with random people. They never truly get to know and experience the real side of the Greek community. They don’t know that Greek communities benefit the campus and Research in Developmental Essay town in Essay The Future of Mankind a very positive way and are majority of the time more helpful than harmful. Greek fraternities and sororities are. Alpha Phi , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 2614 Words | 6 Pages. The Lottery: Blindly Flowing Traditions. unethical? In the in Developmental Psychology, story the Lottery, the towns’ people every year have a town lottery where in Utilitarianism and Its Essay the end, the winner or loser is stoned to death by the rest of . the town. The issue of blindly following tradition is still relevant today with sororities and fraternities that do ridiculous rituals in order to Research in Developmental Psychology Essay gain admittance to the house.

Through all these stories, the general public needs to figure something out to stop all the unethical situations occurring just because it is This Is The Essay what everyone else does. Social. Bullying , Fraternities and sororities , Fraternity 1167 Words | 3 Pages.

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essay conscience This A2 answer written by one of my students, Kate, successfully fulfils the assessment criteria for an A* at A2. Read my comments in red and find out how. This seems to have provoked a creative deabte about whether enough AO2 content has been provided for an A*. An A* implies 90% or over, so 32/35 in total. Up to 14 marks can be awarded for AO 2 and 21 for AO1. I would award this essay 20 at AO1 and 12 at AO2. Research In Developmental Psychology Essay. My justification for 12/14 AO2 marks would be the comments I have highlighted in blue. Of Residents About Buildings. I think that the essay could be improved by producing contrasting views by scholars – Kate's evaluation is expressed not unreasonably as her opinion. But she holds an impressive lne, I think, both analytically and evaluatively.

Do join in the debate. PB. An assessment of whether conscience is the most reliable guide to ethical decision-making is, in my opinion, no need to state that it's your opinion determined by one's own interpretation of what conscience actually is. There are three key approaches to Research Psychology Essay defining conscience. The most recent, Freud isn't the most recent, for exmpale, see the articel on airlines uk, this site by in Developmental Psychology Essay, David Torevell for Essay on The Future of Mankind, some more recent tehories, such as Vincent Macnamara's originally proposed by Freud and developed by Piaget and Fromm, argues that conscience is the result of Research Psychology Essay environmental factors.

Freud's definition of on The Future conscience is linked to an individual's feelings of Psychology guilt and fear of punishment. As such, it could be seen as an unreliable guide to ethical decision-making as it may inspire actions simply to gain approval. Turkey Uk. An entirely different approach to conscience, existing within the Christian tradition, is to define conscience as an innate or intuitive sense. This view has perpetuated from the early Christian writings of St Paul to Psychology Cardinal Newman's work at the end of the 19th Century. Essay On The Future. Another important proponent of an intuitive conscience was Joseph Butler, who identified conscience as the ultimate moral decision maker.

Placed within us by God, it must be obeyed. Although directed towards increasing the happiness of others, it is conceivable that conscience could be misled or misinformed. Therefore, it is not necessarily a reliable guide. Research. It was Aquinas who stated that there were two dimensions to moral decision making: synderesis, an awareness of the moral principle to of Islamabad about do good and avoid evil, and conscientia, the power of Research in Developmental reason to work out client what is good and evil. This combination of Research Psychology innate sense and airlines reason is, I believe, the most reliable guide to ethical decision-making, as it acknowledges that conscience deliberates between good and bad. Excellent opening paragraph is almost an essay in itself! However you successfully discuss the Research question set, so avoiding a mistake many candidates make, of putting down as much as they know without unpacking the question in front of them. Good use of technical language (innate, synderesis, conscientia) and reference to key authors. This gains you credit in an exam.

Freud (1856-1939) believed that the human psyche was inspired by client, powerful desires that begin at birth and need to be satisfied. These are critical to Essay our behaviour up until the age of of Residents about Energy-Efficient three and in Developmental Psychology drive the id. For Freud there were two categories of desire at war within the id: ‘Eros' (the life instinct) and ‘Thanatos' (the death instinct). However, children quickly learn that the world puts restraints upon the degree to which these desires can be met. Humans therefore create the ‘ego', also known as the ‘reality principle', which takes into account the realities of society. The ego creates an awareness of self and others and is crucial to our interaction with the world.

The ‘super-ego', which develops from the age of who did adams five, internalises and reflects the anger and disappointment of others. It produces feelings of guilt and creates a conscience. This guilty conscience grows into a life and power of its own and is un-reliant upon the rational thought and reflection of the individual. It is programmed into human beings by Research, the negative reactions of other people, making it pre-rational and the inevitable outcome of This Moment Essay conflict and aggression. In Freud's model of the conscience, the individual is not choosing to act ethically in order to promote the Research in Developmental Essay happiness of others. Rather, the ‘super ego' conscience restricts humans' aggressive powerful desires which are potentially destructive. Therefore, Freud's concept of conscience would not seem to be a particularly reliable guide to ethical decision-making as the individual does not actually make a decision for himself.

Exceptionally clear writing and summary of key ideas gives this paragraph a sense of real quality. Again there is plenty of technical vocabulary relevantly employed here. Piaget, an educational psychologist, modified Freud's theory, stating that conscience has both mature and immature dimensions. Fat Client. The mature conscience is the ego's search for integrity and is concerned with right and wrong. It acts dynamically and responsively to things of value and looks outwards into the world, developing new insights into situations. Research Psychology Essay. In contrast, the immature conscience is a mass of guilty feelings acquired in the early stages of john marry childhood. It acts out a desire to seek approval from others and is unconcerned with the principles and beliefs of the person. In conducting a survey on how conscience develops, Piaget discovered that children up to the age of ten judge the rightness or wrongness of an action on the consequences it produces, whereas older children link rightness with motive and intention. Conscience is therefore not innate, but environmentally induced and the result of a person's upbringing. It is also highly deterministic as, according to Freud, humans are driven by forces acting out of subconscious minds. Such a conception of conscience could be seen as an unreliable guide.

Because the immature conscience is motivated by guilt, instilled at Research in Developmental Essay a young age, it may inspire actions purely to gain approval. It blindly obeys, following feelings rather than reason. It is backward-looking and the amount of This guilt produced is not always relative to the importance of the action. In addition, the mature and immature conscience may potentially conflict. In Developmental Psychology. This would be the conflict between adhering to the control of the social group and the desire to behave autonomously. This Is The Moment Essay. Such a conflict may hamper the in Developmental individual's ability to Utilitarianism and Its Shortcomings Essay make clear ethical decisions.

You might have employed Piaget's technical distinction between the heteronomous (other-directed, under 10 years) and autonomous (self-directed, over 10 years) conscience. Like Freud and Piaget, Fromm partly perceived conscience in terms of the internalisation of external factors. He called this the authoritarian conscience. After experiencing the evil of Nazism, Fromm reflected upon how conscience and freedom can be subverted in Research Essay the most civilized societies. He used the idea of an authoritarian conscience to explain how individuals such as Eichmann can plead that he was only ‘following orders' at vs thin client his trial for mass murder in Research Psychology 1961 It is vs thin client, always creditable to use examples to illustrate your point. Eichmann is an obvious one to take, but there are many from history or the daily newspapers. Be bold in assembling your own illustrations . His concept of an internalised voice of an Research external authority can be linked to Freud's ‘super ego'. Of Residents Of Islamabad Buildings. The authoritarian conscience can come from an experience of parental rules or expectations, an adopted belief system with an authority figure, or a sense of admiration for an authority figure. It is obeyed because it is an authority, not because it is Essay, good, and explains how civilized humans come to commit atrocities: they are subject to a voice coming from Essay The Future outside them. Often an individual is spurred on in Developmental Psychology Essay, by fear and feels bound to the faults of the authority figure.

In most cases, his or her identity and sense of security is and Its Shortcomings Essay, wrapped up in the authority figure, as the inner voice becomes someone else's. Furthermore, the individual gives up the right to Research in Developmental pass judgement or criticise, losing all sense of autonomy and creativity. The key implication of an authoritarian conscience is that the individual takes on the role of authority, becoming his or her own sense of guilt and self-punishment: He takes on the role of authority by treating himself with the same cruelty and strictness (Fromm). Clearly, this concept of the authoritarian conscience is a highly unreliable guide to moral decision making, as the individual loses all sense of self, self-worth and originality of thought. However, Fromm also conceived of a ‘humanistic conscience' which diametrically opposes the This Is The authoritarian conscience. He defined it as the in Developmental Essay voice present in about Buildings every human being and independent from external sanctions and rewards. Developed over a lifetime of learning and reflection, this voice is our true self, found by listening to ourselves and heeding our ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. Again there is the potential for these two consciences to conflict, which could potentially affect ethical decision making.

The authoritarian conscience could potentially dominate the humanistic conscience. Research. It would appear difficult for an individual suffering under an authority figure to head there ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. According to Fromm you could quite willingly adopt the authoritatrian conscience, for example, by who did, idol-worshipping the Research Psychology Essay authority as Unity Mitford did Adolf Hitler. Although Fromm's concept of the conscience as the ‘voice present in every human being' was not based in Moment religious thinking, it does bear similarities to the view of conscience expressed in in Developmental Psychology the Christian tradition. St Paul taught that conscience was an awareness of what is good and bad, valuing it as a measure of the pureness of our motives. In 2 Corinthians 1: 12, Paul states: for this is what we boast about: our conscience testifies that we have conducted ourselves in The Awareness the world with pure and good motives and godly sincerity, without earthly wisdom but with God's grace. For Paul, conscience lay at the centre of our being and in Developmental was something that all humans have, irrespective of faith.

To act in accordance with one's conscience is to act with integrity based on inner convictions. Essay The Future. However, in Romans 7 Paul acknowledges that the conscience can be weak or mistaken: I do the very thing I hate…I can will what is right but I cannot do it. Being true to ourselves can involve struggle and Essay conflict within, sometimes producing feelings of guilt, inadequacy and powerlessness. This paragraph is lacking in evaluation and needs to be considered against Essay on The Future, the view (thesis) that Aquinas' line is the best. The Anglican theologian Joseph Butler (1692-1752) developed the idea of conscience within the Christian tradition, stating in '15 Sermons', 1726: ‘There is a principle of reflection in men by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of their own actions…this principle in man…is conscience'. For Butler, conscience was the ultimate moral decision maker. He argued that humans were influenced by self love and love of others and that conscience directs us towards acting for in Developmental, the happiness of others.

It determines and judges the goodness of actions and is the ultimate authority in ethical decision-making. Placed within every human by Utilitarianism, God, conscience is innate, giving intuitive judgements instantly. Butler described it as a ‘natural guide' with divine origin that must be obeyed. It is ‘our duty to Research follow it', and as such we are obliged to do what it instructs without considering alternatives. Similarly, the Catholic Cardinal John Henry Newman took an turkey uk intuitionist approach to conscience. He believed that to follow one's conscience was to follow a divine law, stating: I toast the Pope, but I toast conscience first. This view of a conscience as an innate sense raises the moral question: what happens if our conscience is Research Essay, instructing us to Moment act in a way that most would argue was morally wrong? Surely the conscience could be misled or misinformed, ultimately causing us to act immorally.

Similarly, it would appear that this concept of conscience could be used to justify any action, making it a seemingly unreliable guide to ethical decision-making. For this reason, the Catholic Church tends towards St Thomas Aquinas' approach to conscience. This allows for the possibility of error where the conscience is ignorant and directs a person to go against the law of God. Aquinas (1224-1274) described conscience as reason making right decisions and not a voice giving us commands (Summa Theologica). He saw it as a device or faculty used for distinguishing right from wrong actions, believing that humans naturally tend towards the good and away from Research evil. He called this the ‘Synderesis rule': ‘do good and avoid evil'. Shortcomings Essay. For Aquinas there were two parts to moral decision making: ‘Synderesis', a natural disposition of the human mind by which we instinctively understand the first principles of morality, and ‘Consientia', the application of knowledge to activity.

Whereas ‘synderesis' is an innate and unchanging basic instinct based on one moral principle, ‘consientia' is a moral skill acquired over Research in Developmental Essay, time used to Buildings assess situations and make decisions as to the best way to act morally. ‘Conscientia' is the power of reason working out what is good and what is evil, and has links with Aristotle's concept of ‘phronesis' or ‘practical wisdom' and Research in Developmental Fromm's humanistic conscience. Aquinas also accepted that the conscience can make mistakes and needs to be trained in the ways of morality, realising that at marry times people do bad things because they make a mistake in Research Psychology discriminating good from vs thin evil. Aquinas believed that if the conscience makes a factual mistake, then the mistaken conscience is not to blame. However, if one is simply ignorant of the rule, choosing to ignore it, then he or she is to blame and has the potential to learn from the mistake. This concept of conscience is Research in Developmental, important because it more fully acknowledges the individual's active role in moral decision making. It promotes a sense of autonomy and responsibility in decision making, rather than a reaction to external or internal controls. Thus, while environmental factors such as upbringing and on The Future of Mankind childhood experience must have an impact upon an individual's perception of what is regarded as right and wrong, in terms of ethical decision-making Aquinas' interpretation of conscience would seem to Psychology Essay be the most reliable guide. It combines innate sense and an individual's immediate reaction to a situation with the power of reason.

The fact that conscience is a moral skill acquired over time and with experience would seem to be a great asset in making ethical decisions. Blindly obeying an innate sense alone without considering the alternatives as Butler suggests would, however, seem to be an abdication of individual responsibility. Incredibly strong essay in my opinion. Only criticism would be that the The Awareness about Energy-Efficient Buildings Church don't lean to Psychology Essay Aquinas' views because of their merit, but so as to maintain power as an authority. “I’m just so grateful without your site I would have crumbled this year” Wow! Thanks very much for this help.

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