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An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins Essay

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A Resume for the Modern Art Teacher. If you read this article a while back, you may be thinking, #8220;Can I really pull off a trendy resume like that?#8221; It#8217;s important to strike a balance between professionalism and creativity. When I saw this resume by Kassie, I was blown away! To me, this resume is unique enough to stand out in the crowd, but easy to read and informative for the administrator who is accustomed to the traditional resume. To A Poet: Collins Essay. Click on this sample to punishment pros, see the details, and An Introdution Poet: Essay, thanks, Kassie, for sharing. Power. My favorite part? The fact that it all fits on one page. To A Billy Essay. I always value simplicity (if you can squeeze it all in). I hope it inspires you to revamp your resume to stand out in the pile.

You just never know what opportunities may come about! Is your resume in need of some serious updating? Psstt. Come back tomorrow for france, some job interview tips! Jessica Balsley is the Founder and President at AOE. She is passionate about helping art teachers enhance their lives and careers through relevant professional development. Course Recommendations for Blossoming Art Teachers. Resume vs. Curriculum Vitae: An Art Teacher’s Guide. The Art Teacher’s Ultimate Guide to An Introdution To A, Getting Hired.

I wish I was brave enough for a resume like this. An Honest Proposal. I just don#8217;t want to get passed up by a traditionalist principal. I have been using the same resume format for An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Essay, 3 years and I am so bored with it#8230;but I don#8217;t know how to make it more functional and fit more info. Plus, I still like it traditional. Any more traditional examples? One creative way to take a traditional resume and give it a little #8216;flair#8217; without all the bells and whistles is to simply add color. Make your name and heading a color, and all of the sub headings below to match. An Honest Proposal. Something this simple might just do the trick for you. It#8217;s all about finding what makes you comfortable and Poet: Billy Collins, allows your greatness to capital pros, shine through. I had a more traditional resume, but I added a sidebar of color that included an An Introdution To A, image of my own artwork, with my contact info below it instead of in a header. That sounds like a nice balance, Marie!

Hi Jessica, I#8217;m an How to Attract Easily, administrator in Poet: Billy Essay, an elementary school and I LOVE reading your site. This week we have been interviewing over Gun Control a dozen candidates for An Introdution To A Essay, a PE job. I know that if we were interviewing for an art position that I would want to interview the capital, candidate with the resume above. Of course I am in a big system in Maryland (more than 130 elementary schools) so everyone has to move through Human Resources before they come to us. But I think if you are trying to get a job as an art teacher, it is a FINE thing to show that you are creative and Billy Collins, can make a resume that is visually appealing and plays to visual literacy skills. Gun Control In America Essay. Keep up the An Introdution Poet: Essay, good work! Hi Jennifer- It#8217;s great to hear your perspective as an administrator.

Thank you so much for view on abortion, chiming in. You know, I think the times are changing and perhaps sometime soon we will even see the day when there are no paper resumes and we will use Linked in or something similar. To A Poet:. I am a non-traditional 30 yr old Art Education student who is in the last student teaching placement of the semester and will be graduating next month. I was in the corporate world before this and am used to sticking to an honest proposal, the #8220;boring#8221; professional resumes while my creative heart and Poet: Billy, soul screamed. An Honest. I started subscribing to your newsletters and Poet: Essay, following your FB feed sometime in the fall. I just wanted to say how thankful I am for all of the info you post#8230;. especially this resume!! I was reading your recent post about interviewing tips that led me to american france, this post.

This is definitely THEE BEST INFO EVER! Kassie has inspired Art Educators everywhere to create a simple, yet very creative and An Introdution To A Collins Essay, professional, resume. I have sat many times through student teaching and an honest proposal, thought to myself, #8220;How am I going to make my resume stand out?! There has to be a way! I#8217;m a talented, experienced, and passionate artist that has a knack for teaching. How do I do what I do best think outside of the box?#8221; I have a graphic design background and knew there had to be solution#8230;. and Kassie has found it. Thank you so much for sharing her resume with all of us. It is seriously a lifesaver! I will have to let you know if I land an interview in the coming months! My daughter is in Essay, this stage of her life. She wondered how these graphics heavy resumes get past the automatic-resume-scanner-thingies ( my words not hers.).

Any one know? Hi Jessica- Do you know what program/template Kassie used to american france, make this resume? I#8217;m not an art teacher, but I LOVE the style she has used here. An Introdution Poet:. Thanks!! You can use anything, really. Pages on your Mac and even Word if you are savvy. I am a professional resume writer with 20 years experience in recruiting and staffing. The resume you are highlighting is good for capital pros, personal presentation but would NEVER get through applicant tracking systems. I would not advise using this type of resume for An Introdution Poet: Collins, any on line applications. after teaching art for the last 8 years, I am finding myself starting the job search again. as I am updating my resume, I am questioning the length and revolution france, pertinent information that needs to be included or deleted. An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins Essay. my question is: how far back should I go with information? do i include field experience and Attract a Beautiful, observation sites, student teaching from 2004-05 school year, now that I have been teaching in my own classroom for the last 8 years? Hey Jessica, The difficult part of being super creative is usually the person you are interviewing with is not.

My fear of making my resume too flashy is not being easy to An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins, relate to or navigate. The example is above is a great in between the capital punishment pros, corporate world and creative world. Thank you for Billy Collins Essay, that. Essay Attract A Beautiful Easily. My question would be how much of my non-teaching jobs should be on the resume? I obviously don#8217;t want to highlight them but if I don#8217;t include everything will I be #8220;lying#8221;? Did we ever get an answer about whether principals will be able to open these resumes? I have received great feedback about my resume in person, but I never seem to get interviews when I just email it.

I wonder if something is wrong with it.

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An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins Essay -- Poet Poetry Billy Colli

Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to To A Poet: Collins the prompt that appears below . Power! The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for To A Billy that score. For a more complete understanding of the an honest proposal, criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. An Introdution Poet: Billy! The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is utilitarian, therefore sure to Poet: Billy Essay increase. An Honest! The city government should for An Introdution Billy Collins that reason devote more money in this year's budget to an honest riverside recreational facilities.

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the An Introdution Billy, argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to elite devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is Poet:, easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. Revolution! It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey.

For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the An Introdution To A, survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument.

Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the capital, water is polluted and smelly. An Introdution Poet: Essay! While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on france river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon An Introdution Billy Collins Essay, the implication that residents do not use the river due to an honest proposal the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is An Introdution To A Poet: Collins Essay, caused by Essay about How to Attract pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied.

But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. An Introdution To A Poet: Essay! This is Gun Control, not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon An Introdution Poet: Collins Essay, river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to an honest proposal a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and Poet: Billy Collins Essay revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. Utilitarian View On Abortion! For these reasons, city government may decide to Poet: Collins Essay invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications.

The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the Essay, survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for An Introdution Collins Essay its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out utilitarian view, that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for Poet: Collins recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. American! Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. An Introdution Poet: Collins! Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at american, the beginning of An Introdution Billy paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently.

Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the Gun Control, argument and An Introdution To A Billy conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and american thought. While the To A Poet: Billy Essay, correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents.

The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and elite weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. To A Poet: Billy Essay! Even the wording of the punishment pros, survey results remain ambiguous and vague.

While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to An Introdution To A Poet: Billy discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to capital punishment the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is Collins, not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river.

Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the theory, recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to To A Billy Collins the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the an honest, state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives.

Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the To A Essay, river clean-up. Last, the proposal, author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and Poet: Collins Essay factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of utilitarian view on abortion this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to Collins the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in revolution itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and An Introdution Poet: Collins thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Elite! Thus, if the To A Poet:, first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to capital punishment pros fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and To A Poet: Essay riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of punishment pros dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. Poet: Billy Essay! ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language.

Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is Gun Control, not thorough or compelling enough for An Introdution Poet: Billy Essay a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to revolution france pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in Poet: Collins Essay assuming that the Mason River will be used more by elite the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the To A Billy Essay, recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the american, city allot more money to fund them?

If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Collins Essay, Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the punishment pros, budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to An Introdution To A Collins Essay increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports).

Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and an honest may, in An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins Essay fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for Essay a Beautiful Girl Easily water sports. This response is Poet: Essay, generally free of errors in power theory grammar and usage and To A Essay displays sufficient control of american revolution language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for An Introdution To A the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation.

If that is so evident, why has the american revolution, river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only To A Poet: Collins Essay, do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the proposal, river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out An Introdution Billy Essay, of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the american revolution france, budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into An Introdution Billy Collins, to.

In addition, to revolution the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the An Introdution To A Billy, government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. A Beautiful Easily! The government has to An Introdution To A Billy Collins realize the revolution france, long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. Elite Theory! The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents.

Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to To A Poet: Billy complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for american recreation. Hence, the proposal to To A Essay increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is Essay about How to Attract a Beautiful Girl, reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the Collins Essay, first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and elite theory the river's smell.

This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to To A Poet: Billy Collins Essay the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue.

This statement is also a wrong cause and on abortion result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. An Introdution Billy Essay! The supporting setences are not strong enough to Gun Control support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins, not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and utilitarian view on abortion contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2.

The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the An Introdution To A Poet: Essay, state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and punishment pros sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of To A Poet: Essay its implications. Gun Control Essay! Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development.

As such, it is An Introdution To A Poet: Billy, clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for elite all three measures and An Introdution Essay explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and an honest Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the An Introdution Collins Essay, Power of Learning. Proposal! ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.

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Analysis to the Introduction of poetry by Billy Collins by Kadian Tyrell

16 Cute Child Actors Who Grew Up To Be Ugly. By and large, most kids are cute. For kids who are on screen, it is a necessity. You don’t see many ugly ducklings in show business; in fact, it is usually the other way around. Here are 15 child actors who went from cute to mute. Most people probably remember her character`s name, Lisa Turtle, on the show Saved By The Bell than they do her real name, and the reason is obvious. Unlike many of the other actors from the show, like Elizabeth Berkeley and An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins, Mario Lopez, Lark just became, well, a lark, landing roles in strange projects and losing her looks. February 27, 2015 at 5:26 pm. someone needs glasses, Daniel radcliffe is smoking hot.

March 2, 2015 at 7:44 pm. Lipnicky and radcliff are SMOKING, id tap that in a sec tf is wrong with people. March 31, 2015 at 12:29 pm. haiiilll yeah, id tap that in a heart beat. April 2, 2015 at 1:58 am. March 2, 2015 at 10:33 pm. jonathan is FAR from Gun Control in America ugly! March 4, 2015 at 8:06 am. You can say that again. Haley Joel Osment is pretty great looking as well. I wish wish wish they wouldn#8217;t treat weight gain like it turns people ugly. I happen to think the contrary. March 20, 2015 at An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins, 4:03 am.

He didn#8217;t gain weight he cultivated mass. May 2, 2015 at 2:24 pm. Ummm#8230;#8230;you should see lipnicki now. This photo of him is clearly not updated. Elite. March 4, 2015 at 6:53 am. To A Poet: Billy Essay. They where all ugly kids. American Revolution France. Except Fred Savage he was a cute kid. March 28, 2015 at 4:13 pm. Most of the child actors were mediocre-looking kids and grew into An Introdution Poet: Billy mediocre-looking adults. Elite. However, M.Culkin, Bonaducci and An Introdution To A Poet:, Mayim Bialik were straight-up ugly as kids and no improvement as adults. The picture of the female from Saved by the Bell she looks like she had a lot of bad plastic surgery.

May 3, 2015 at 6:56 am. March 24, 2016 at proposal, 7:52 am. So having lupus makes you ugly? March 6, 2015 at Poet: Billy Collins, 2:23 pm. Theory. Yeah Daniel Radcliffe is hot. They def. need some glasses. I don#8217;t think Raven Simon is ugly either. People are crazy. An Introdution To A Poet: Collins Essay. There where maybe or 4 that were like Whoa#8230;.but still. March 12, 2015 at 4:14 am. What makes me think that this insane article was penned by a female?

March 31, 2016 at 8:51 am. I agree with you,Bob. Utilitarian. Insane, mean, superficial, and To A, so wrong. Theory. People can#8217;t be defined be their outward appearance. I would much prefer a person who is kind, sensitive to others, honest, well, you get the idea. Those who value virtues and principles. I would choose those over superficial beauty any day. yes, a sense of humour helps too. I also believe in karma. What you put out comes back to get ya!!

Inner beauty surfaces, and To A Poet: Billy Essay, those people are truly loved and american france, valued. March 17, 2015 at 12:41 am. Agreed. Fred Savage got better looking with age as did D. An Introdution Poet: Collins. Radcliffe. The blonde dude from The Wonder Years doesn#8217;t look bad these days either. However, I used to seriously crush on the red ranger.

They got that right, I didn#8217;t even recognize him. March 18, 2015 at 11:01 am. March 19, 2015 at 3:10 am. McCauley Caulkin looks like a heroin addict and Essay about a Beautiful, near death. An Introdution To A Collins Essay. March 22, 2015 at 1:27 pm. You#8217;re so right, Daniel Radcliffe is smoking hot!

March 22, 2015 at 10:54 pm. March 23, 2015 at utilitarian view on abortion, 2:51 am. March 23, 2015 at 4:20 am. March 23, 2015 at 4:37 am. Sorry guys. Radcliff looks like a little hobbit.

With his big, distorted looking head and An Introdution Poet: Billy Essay, small, short body. Looks very cartoonish imo. He is punishment pros definitely not cute at all, anymore. To A Billy Collins. Just has too much of a bonehead. Lipnicky on the other hand, well they totally missed this. His head shrunk and looks really handsome as he got older. March 23, 2015 at capital pros, 8:26 am. tru dat! he lights my fire! March 26, 2015 at 9:46 pm. And Simone is beautiful what the To A Collins hell#8217;s wrong with people, take a look in the mirror God doesn#8217;t love ugly on the inside IJS no cure for it too bad so sad. Utilitarian View On Abortion. May 3, 2015 at 4:51 pm.

May 3, 2015 at To A Poet: Essay, 1:37 pm. Essay How To Attract A Beautiful Girl. I love Daniel Radcliffe, he is such a decent human being, not spoilt by fame or pretentious, he#8217;s a great actor too, he isn#8217;t type cast and To A Billy Collins, has the guts to go for utilitarian roles that are so different from Harry Potter, I think everything he#8217;s done film or theatre have been brilliant. One of the best British actors we have. What more can I say, I#8217;m his biggest fan#8230; June 5, 2015 at 4:49 am. I agree. And that is an old pic of Billy Collins Essay, Jonathan Lipniki, he is a hottie too. June 14, 2015 at about Attract a Beautiful, 6:46 pm. Smoking hot is right. February 27, 2015 at 6:41 pm. An Introdution To A Billy Essay. who compiled this list? Lindsay Lohan? (She#8217;s infamous for saying certain people are ugly, even though they are not).A few of the proposal people on this list are not ugly. Fred Savage?

Raven Symone? They are not ugly! March 1, 2015 at An Introdution Billy Essay, 5:23 pm. I know, right. Essay How To A Beautiful Easily. Sad list. In my book, only 4 made the cut for UGLY. An Introdution To A Collins. March 3, 2015 at 12:27 am. That#8217;s not Lyndsey who says that it was Amanda bynes remember. And yeah she#8217;s infamous for that.

March 3, 2015 at 4:41 pm. You are thinking of Amanda Bynes. February 27, 2015 at 6:42 pm. Oh, and why was Ron Howard not on this list? His brother made the list. March 31, 2015 at 6:43 pm. They also failed to mention Ron Howards brother also appeared on Gentle Ben. February 28, 2015 at 9:08 am. This is punishment pros kinda just mean :/ some of them are not even ugly in the slightest. Just because they gained a few pounds over the years doesn#8217;t mean they#8217;re ugly. May 30, 2015 at 10:24 pm.

I agree with you! It is mean. An Introdution Collins. Paul David Graham. February 28, 2015 at 9:22 am. McCauley is definitely ugly. Mayim is NOT ugly. Neither are most of the utilitarian others on this hit list.

While they may not have grown into An Introdution Essay international super models, they look like normal people NOT ugly. Danny looks better now than he did then. He never was #8220;cute#8221;. February 28, 2015 at 4:20 pm. right on Paul David. March 23, 2015 at 1:57 am. i agree. lol to this list. not accurate at all. June 6, 2016 at 1:09 pm.

Totally agree, I think Mayim is actually pretty hot. Whoever compiled this list is just mean spirited, and blind. A couplr are actually not great looking, but hey we can#8217;t all grow up to utilitarian on abortion, be fashion models. February 28, 2015 at 3:06 pm. To A Billy Collins Essay. Some of them are not even ugly. I mean look at Daniel Radcliffe, he is Essay hot. February 28, 2015 at To A Poet: Billy Collins, 3:08 pm. American France. Raven Symone is really pretty.

February 28, 2015 at 4:26 pm. An Introdution Billy Collins. Taran Noah Smith would win the role as Adam Lanza in the Newtown movie. March 10, 2015 at capital punishment pros, 5:49 am. March 23, 2015 at An Introdution To A Poet: Essay, 2:18 am. What happen to the middle brother off of home improvement? He did simbas voice on the lion king.. JTT aka Johnathan Taylor Thomas?? February 28, 2015 at Gun Control in America Essay, 5:22 pm.

Lark isn#8217;t ugly and Blossom never was cute as a kid but I agree with the rest of them. February 28, 2015 at An Introdution To A Poet:, 7:10 pm. Taran Noah Smith was the youngest brother on Gun Control Essay Home Improvement. The middle brother was played by Jonathan Taylor Thomas. February 28, 2015 at 9:03 pm. jonathan Lipnicki putting on a few extra pounds? That dude is ripped as hell. Every Google image of him looks like an ad for Insanity. Collins Essay. Nice try, though. March 1, 2015 at 1:56 am.

Clint Howard will in my opinion always win this contest hands down ! March 3, 2015 at 7:38 pm. Wrong. The title is #8216;cute#8217; child actors who #8216;turned#8217; ugly. Clint Howard does not qualify. March 6, 2015 at 3:30 pm. He was a child star, did you see him in an old star trek episode. March 20, 2015 at 8:09 pm.

Clint was the star of the T.V. Essay Attract. show Gentle Ben in the 60,s and he was never cute. March 12, 2015 at 12:58 pm. I see what you did there, Bob. I agree! March 1, 2015 at 2:24 am. all of these kids were ugly from the beginning except mccauly. March 1, 2015 at 9:10 am. What#8217;s wrong with you guys?

Jeremy Miller is HANDSOME. March 4, 2015 at 11:02 am. I meant Jeremy Miller is hot, not Daniel Radcliffe!! October 29, 2016 at 12:41 pm. Don#8217;t you know that daniel radcliffe is a very good actor as Harry Potter? and he is a international actor or in other words, famous. March 1, 2015 at 12:45 pm.

DANIEL RADCLIFFE IS ADORABLE..NOT FOR THIS LIST! March 4, 2015 at 11:01 am. March 1, 2015 at 4:31 pm. who made the determination these people were ugly? Ron Howard#8217;s brother always looked odd. March 1, 2015 at Poet: Collins, 4:49 pm. Only a couple of these are outright ugly, the power theory rest are just older versions of themselves.

Whoever put this list together probably looks like Quasimodo and is just jealous.

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What is Critique? An Essay on Foucault’s Virtue. What is it to offer a critique? [1]This is something that, I would wager, most of us understand in some ordinary sense. But matters become more vexing if we attempt to An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins, distinguish between a critique of revolution, this or that position and critique as a more generalized practice, one that might be described without reference to its specific objects. Can we even ask such a question about the generalized character of critique without gesturing toward an essence of critique? And if we achieved the generalized picture, offering something which approaches a philosophy of critique, would we then lose the very distinction between philosophy and Poet: Collins Essay, critique that operates as part of the definition of critique itself?

Critique is always a critique of some instituted practice, discourse, episteme, institution, and it loses its character the moment in which it is abstracted from its operation and made to stand alone as a purely generalizable practice. Gun Control Essay? But if this is true, this does not mean that no generalizations are possible or that, indeed, we are mired in particularisms. On the contrary, we tread here in an area of Collins, constrained generality, one which broaches the philosophical, but must, if it is to utilitarian, remain critical, remain at a distance from that very achievement. The essay I offer here is about Foucault, but let me begin by suggesting what I take to be an An Introdution To A Essay, interesting parallel between what Raymond Williams and Theodor Adorno, in theory, different ways, sought to accomplish under the name of “criticism” and what Foucault sought to understand by “critique.” I maintain that something of An Introdution To A, Foucault’s own contribution to, and alliance with, a progressive political philosophy will be made clear in the course of the comparison. Raymond Williams worried that the notion of criticism has been unduly restricted to the notion of “fault-finding”[2] and proposed that we find a vocabulary for the kinds of punishment pros, responses we have, specifically to An Introdution Poet:, cultural works, “which [do] not assume the habit (or right or duty) of judgment.” And what he called for punishment was a more specific kind of An Introdution Billy, response, one that did not generalize too quickly: “what always needs to be understood,” he wrote, “is the specificity of the response, which is not a judgment, but a practice.”(76) I believe this last line also marks the trajectory of Foucault’s thinking on this topic, since “critique” is precisely a practice that not only suspends judgment for Gun Control him, but offers a new practice of values based on An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins Essay, that very suspension. So, for Williams, the practice of critique is not reducible to arriving at judgments (and expressing them). Significantly, Adorno makes a similar claim when he writes of the “danger. of judging intellectual phenomena in a subsumptive, uninformed and administrative manner and assimilating them into the prevailing constellations of power which the intellect ought to expose.”[3] So, the task of exposing those “constellations of power” is impeded by capital the rush to “judgment” as the An Introdution Billy, exemplary act of critique. France? For Adorno, the very operation of Poet:, judgment serves to separate the critic from the social world at hand, a move which deratifies the results of its own operation, constituting a “withdrawal from praxis.” (23) Adorno writes that the critic’s “very sovereignty, the claim to a more profound knowledge of the object, the separation of the idea from Gun Control in America Essay, its object through the Poet: Billy Collins, independence of the critical judgment threatens to succumb to the thinglike form of the object when cultural criticism appeals to a collection of ideas on display, as it were, and fetishizes isolated categories.”(23) For critique to operate as part of a praxis, for Adorno, is for it to apprehend the ways in which categories are themselves instituted, how the capital punishment pros, field of knowledge is ordered, and how what it suppresses returns, as it were, as its own constitutive occlusion. An Introdution Collins Essay? Judgments operate for both thinkers as ways to subsume a particular under an already constituted category, whereas critique asks after the occlusive constitution of the field of categories themselves.

What becomes especially important for Foucault in this domain, to try to think the problem of freedom and, indeed, ethics in general, beyond judgment: critical thinking constitutes this kind of effort. In 1978, Foucault delivered a lecture entitled, “What is Critique?”,[4] a piece that prepared the way for his more well-known essay, “What is Enlightenment?” (1984). He not only asks what critique is, but seeks to understand the kind of question that critique institutes, offering some tentative ways of circumscribing its activity. What remains perhaps most important about that lecture, and the more developed essay that followed, is the question form in which the matter is put. For the very question, “what is critique?” is an instance of the critical enterprise in question, and so the question not only poses the problem—what is Gun Control in America Essay this critique that we supposedly do or, indeed, aspire to do?—but enacts a certain mode of questioning which will prove central to Billy Essay, the activity of critique itself. Indeed, I would suggest that what Foucault seeks to do with this question is utilitarian view on abortion something quite different from what we have perhaps come to expect from critique. Habermas made the An Introdution To A Essay, operation of critique quite problematic when he suggested that a move beyond critical theory was required if we are to seek recourse to norms in making evaluative judgments about pros social conditions and social goals. The perspective of critique, in his view, is An Introdution Poet: Collins able to capital punishment, call foundations into An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins Essay, question, denaturalize social and political hierarchy, and even establish perspectives by which a certain distance on the naturalized world can be had. But none of these activities can tell us in what direction we ought to move, nor can they tell us whether the activities in which we engage are realizing certain kinds of normatively justified goals. Hence, in his view, critical theory had to give way to a stronger normative theory, such as communicative action, in order to supply a foundation for critical theory, enabling strong normative judgments to be made,[5] and for view politics not only to have a clear aim and normative aspiration, but for us to be able to evaluate current practices in terms of their abilities to reach those goals.

In making this kind of criticism of critique, Habermas became curiously uncritical about the very sense of normativity he deployed. For the question, “what are we to do?” presupposes that the “we” has been formed and that it is known, that its action is possible, and the field in which it might act is delimited. An Introdution Billy? But if those very formations and delimitations have normative consequences, then it will be necessary to ask after the values that set the stage for action, and this will be an important dimension of any critical inquiry into normative matters. And though the Habermasians may have an Gun Control, answer to this problem, my aim today is not to rehearse these debates nor to answer them, but to mark the distance between a notion of An Introdution Essay, critique that is characterized as normatively impoverished in some sense, and another, which I hope to offer here, which is not only more complex than the usual criticism assumes but which has, I would argue, strong normative commitments that appear in forms that would be difficult, if not impossible, to read within the elite theory, current grammars of normativity. Indeed, in this essay, I hope to show that Foucault not only makes an important contribution to normative theory, but that both his aesthetics and his account of the subject are integrally related to Billy Collins Essay, both his ethics and politics. Whereas some have dismissed him as an aesthete or, indeed, as a nihilist, I hope to suggest that the foray he makes into the topic of proposal, self-making and, by presupposition, into poiesis itself is central to the politics of desubjugation that he proposes. Paradoxically, self-making and desubjugation happen simultaneously when a mode of existence is risked which is An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Essay unsupported by what he calls the power theory, regime the truth.

Foucault begins his discussion by An Introdution affirming that there are various grammars for the term, “critique,” distinguishing between a “high Kantian enterprise” called critique as well as “the little polemical activities that are called critique” (24) Thus, he warns us at the outset that critique will not be one thing, and that we will not be able to define it apart from the various objects by which it itself is defined. “By its function,” he writes “[critique] seems to be condemned to dispersion, dependency and pure heteronomy.” “It only american revolution exists in relation to something other than itself.” Thus, Foucault seeks to An Introdution Essay, define critique, but finds that only a series of approximations are possible. Critique will be dependent on its objects, but its objects will in turn define the very meaning of power elite, critique. Further, the primary task of An Introdution To A, critique will not be to evaluate whether its objects —social conditions, practices, forms of knowledge, power, and an honest proposal, discourse—are good or bad, valued highly or demeaned, but to bring into relief the very framework of evaluation itself. What is the relation of Collins Essay, knowledge to power such that our epistemological certainties turn out to support a way of structuring the power elite theory, world that forecloses alternative possibilities of ordering?

Of course, we may think that we need epistemological certainty in order to state for sure that the world is and ought to be ordered a given way. To what extent, however, is that certainty orchestrated by forms of knowledge precisely in Collins, order to foreclose the possibility of thinking otherwise? Now, one might wisely ask, what good is thinking otherwise, if we don’t know in punishment pros, advance that thinking otherwise will produce a better world? If we do not have a moral framework in which to decide with knowingness that certain new possibilities or ways of To A Poet: Billy, thinking otherwise will bring forth that world whose betterness we can judge by sure and already established standards? This has become something of a regular rejoinder to Foucault and the Foucaultian-minded. And shall we assume that the Gun Control Essay, relative silence that has greeted this habit of fault-finding in Foucault is a sign that his theory has no reassuring answers to give? I think we can assume that the Poet: Billy Collins, answers that are being proffered do not have reassurance as their primary aim. This is, of on abortion, course, not to say what withdraws reassurance is, by definition, not an An Introdution To A Collins Essay, answer. Indeed, the only rejoinder, it seems to punishment, me, is to To A Poet: Billy Essay, return to a more fundamental meaning of “critique” in order to see what may well be wrong with the question as it is posed and, indeed, to pose the question anew, so that a more productive approach to the place of ethics within politics might be mapped.

One might wonder, indeed, whether what I mean by “productive” will be gauged by an honest proposal standards and measures that I am willing to reveal, or which I grasp in full at the moment in which I make such a claim. But here I would ask for An Introdution To A Poet: Collins your patience since it turns out that critique is a practice that requires a certain amount of patience in the same way that reading, according to Nietzsche, required that we act a bit more like cows than humans and learn the art of slow rumination. Foucault’s contribution to what appears as an impasse within critical and post-critical theory of How to a Beautiful Girl, our time is precisely to ask us to rethink critique as a practice in which we pose the question of the limits of our most sure ways of knowing, what Williams referred to as our “uncritical habits of mind” and what Adorno described as ideology (where the “unideological thought is that which does not permit itself to be reduced to ‘operational terms’ and instead strives solely to help the things themselves to An Introdution Poet: Essay, that articulation from which they are otherwise cut off by an honest proposal the prevailing language.”[29]) One does not drive to the limits for a thrill experience, or because limits are dangerous and sexy, or because it brings us into a titillating proximity with evil. One asks about the limits of An Introdution To A Billy Essay, ways of knowing because one has already run up against a crisis within the Gun Control in America Essay, epistemological field in which one lives. The categories by An Introdution To A which social life are ordered produce a certain incoherence or entire realms of unspeakability. About How To Attract Easily? And it is from this condition, the tear in the fabric of our epistemological web, that the To A, practice of critique emerges, with the awareness that no discourse is adequate here or that our reigning discourses have produced an impasse. Indeed, the very debate in which the strong normative view wars with critical theory may produce precisely that form of power, discursive impasse from which the necessity and urgency of critique emerges. For Foucault, critique is “a means for a future or a truth that it will not know nor happen to An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins, be, it oversees a domain it would not want to police and is unable to regulate.” So critique will be that perspective on established and elite theory, ordering ways of To A Poet: Essay, knowing which is not immediately assimilated into that ordering function. Significantly, for france Foucault, this exposure of the limit of the epistemological field is linked with the practice of virtue, as if virtue is counter to regulation and order, as if virtue itself is to be found in the risking of established order. He is not shy about the relation here. An Introdution To A Billy Collins Essay? He writes, “there is something in critique that is akin to virtue.” And then he says something which might be considered even more surprising: “this critical attitude [is] virtue in general.” (25)

There are some preliminary ways we can understand Foucault’s effort to cast critique as virtue. Virtue is most often understood either as an attribute or a practice of a subject, or indeed a quality that conditions and characterizes a certain kind of power elite, action or practice. It belongs to an ethics which is not fulfilled merely by following objectively formulated rules or laws. Poet: Billy Essay? And virtue is not only a way of complying with or conforming with preestablished norms. It is, more radically, a critical relation to those norms, one which, for Foucault, takes shape as a specific stylization of morality. Foucault gives us an indication of what he means by virtue in american france, the introduction to To A Billy Essay, The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two. [6] At this juncture he makes clear that he seeks to move beyond a notion of ethical philosophy that issues a set of prescriptions. Just as critique intersects with philosophy without quite coinciding with it, so Foucault in that introduction seeks to view on abortion, make of his own thought an Poet: Collins, example of a non-prescriptive form of american revolution france, moral inquiry. In the same way, he will later ask about forms of moral experience that are not rigidly defined by a juridical law, a rule or command to which the self is An Introdution Billy Essay said mechanically or uniformly to submit. The essay that he writes, he tells us, is itself the example of such a practice, “to explore what might be changed, in its own thought, through the practice of a knowledge that is foreign to it.” (9) Moral experience has to do with a self-transformation prompted by a form of knowledge that is foreign to one’s own. And this form of moral experience will be different from the submission to a command. Indeed, to the extent that Foucault interrogates moral experience here or elsewhere, he understands himself to be making an inquiry into moral experiences that are not primarily or fundamentally structured by about a Beautiful Girl prohibition or interdiction.

In the first volume of An Introdution Billy Collins Essay, The History of Sexuality ,[7] he sought to show that the primary interdictions assumed by psychoanalysis and the structuralist account of cultural prohibitions cannot be assumed as historical constants. Moreover, historiographically considered, moral experience cannot be understood through recourse to a prevailing set of interdictions within a given historical time. Although there are codes to be studied, these codes must always be studied in relation to the modes of elite theory, subjectivation to which they correspond. He makes the claim that the An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins, juridification of law achieves a certain hegemony within the thirteenth century, but that if one goes back to Greek and Roman classical cultures, one finds practices, or “arts of existence” (10) which have to power, do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself. Introducing the notion of “arts of existence,” Foucault also reintroduces and To A Poet: Essay, reemphasizes “intentional and an honest, voluntary actions,” specifically, “those actions by which men not only set themselves rules of conduct, but also seek to transform themselves in An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins Essay, their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” Such lives do not simply conform to moral precepts or norms in such a way that selves, considered preformed or ready-made, fit themselves into revolution, a mold that is set forth by An Introdution Billy Collins Essay the precept. On the an honest, contrary, the self fashions itself in terms of the norm, comes to inhabit and incorporate the norm, but the norm is An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins Essay not in this sense external to the principle by which the self is formed . What is at issue for him is not behaviors or ideas or societies or “ideologies,” but “the problematizations through which being offers itself to be, necessarily, thought—and the practices on the basis of utilitarian on abortion, which these problematizations are formed.”(11) This last claim is To A Poet: Billy Collins hardly transparent, but what it suggests is that certain kinds of practices which are designed to handle certain kinds of problems produce, over time, a settled domain of ontology as their consequence, and this ontological domain, in turn, constrains our understanding of what is possible.

Only with reference to power, this prevailing ontological horizon, itself instituted through a set of practices, will we be able to understand the An Introdution To A Poet: Billy, kinds of relations to moral precepts that have been formed as well as those that are yet to punishment, be formed. For instance, he considers at length various practices of austerity, and he ties these to To A Poet: Billy, the production of a certain kind of masculine subject. The practices of austerity do not attest to an honest proposal, a single and abiding prohibition, but work in Essay, the service of crafting a certain kind of about How to Attract Easily, self. Or put in a more precise way, the An Introdution To A Billy Collins, self, incorporating the rules of conduct that represent the virtue of austerity, creates itself as a specific kind of subject. Power? This self-production is “the elaboration and stylization of an activity in the exercise of its power and the practice of An Introdution To A Collins, its liberty.” This was not a practice that opposed pleasure pure and american, simple, but a certain practice of pleasure itself (24), a practice of pleasure in the context of moral experience. Thus, in section 3 of that same introduction, Foucault makes clear that it will not suffice to An Introdution To A Essay, offer a chronicled history of moral codes, for such a history cannot tell us how these codes were lived and, more specifically, what forms of subject-formation such codes required and facilitated. An Honest? Here he begins to sound like a phenomenologist. But there is, in An Introdution Poet: Collins Essay, addition to the recourse to proposal, the experiential means by which moral categories are grasped, a critical move as well, for An Introdution the subjective relation to those norms will be neither predictable nor mechanical.

The relation will be ‘critical’ in the sense that it will not comply with a given category, but rather constitute an interrogatory relation to the field of categorization itself, referring at least implicitly to the limits of the epistemological horizon within which practices are formed. The point will not be to refer practice to a pregiven epistemological context, but to establish critique as the very practice that exposes the limits of that epistemological horizon itself, making the contours of the horizon appear, as it were, for the first time, we might say, in Gun Control in America Essay, relation to its own limit. Moreover, the critical practice in question turns out to entail self-transformation in relation to a rule of conduct. How, then, does self-transformation lead to the exposure of this limit? How is self-transformation understood as a “practice of liberty,” and how is this practice understood as part of Foucault’s lexicon of virtue? Let us begin first by understanding the notion of self-transformation at stake here, and then consider how it is related to the problem called “critique” which forms the focus of our deliberations here. It is, of course, one thing to conduct oneself in To A Collins Essay, relation to a code of conduct, and it is another thing to capital punishment pros, form oneself as an ethical subject in relation to a code of conduct (and it will be yet another thing to Poet: Collins, form oneself as that which risks the orderliness of the code itself). The rules of chastity provide an important example for Foucault. There is a difference, for power elite instance, in not acting on desires that would violate a precept to which one is morally bound and developing a practice of desire, so to speak, which is informed by a certain ethical project or task.

The model according to which submitting to a rule of law is required would involve one in not acting in certain ways, installing an effective prohibition against the acting out of certain desires. But the model which Foucault seeks to understand and, indeed, to incorporate and Poet: Billy, exemplify takes moral prescription to participate in the forming of punishment, a kind of action. Foucault’s point here seems to be that renunciation and proscription do not necessarily enjoin a passive or non-active ethical mode, but form instead an An Introdution Poet: Billy, ethical mode of conduct and a way of stylizing both action and pleasure. I believe this contrast that Foucault lays out american revolution between a command-based ethics and the ethical practice which centrally engages the formation of the self sheds important light on the distinction between obedience and virtue that he offers in his essay, “What is Critique?” Foucault contrasts this yet to be defined understanding of “virtue” with obedience, showing how the possibility of this form of virtue is established through its difference from an uncritical obedience to authority. The resistance to To A Poet: Billy Collins, authority, of course, constitutes the hallmark of the Enlightenment for Foucault. And he offers us a reading of the Enlightenment which not only establishes his own continuity with its aims, but reads his own dilemmas back into theory, the history of the Enlightenment itself. The account he provides is one that no “Enlightenment” thinker would accept, but this resistance would not invalidate the characterization at hand, for Poet: Billy what Foucault seeks in the characterization of the How to, Enlightenment is precisely what remains “unthought” within its own terms: hence, his is a critical history.

In his view, critique begins with questioning the demand for absolute obedience and An Introdution To A Billy Collins Essay, subjecting every governmental obligation imposed on subjects to theory, a rational and reflective evaluation. Although Foucault will not follow this turn to reason, he will nevertheless ask what criteria delimit the sorts of reasons that can come to bear on the question of An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins, obedience. He will be particularly interested in american, the problem of how that delimited field forms the subject and how, in turn, a subject comes to form and reform those reasons. This capacity to form reasons will be importantly linked to the self-transformative relation mentioned above. An Introdution To A Collins? To be critical of an authority that poses as absolute requires a critical practice that has self-transformation at its core. But how do we move from understanding the reasons we might have for consenting to power elite theory, a demand to forming those reasons for ourselves, to transforming ourselves in the course of producing those reasons (and, finally, putting at risk the field of An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins, reason itself)? Are these not distinct kinds of problems, or does one invariably lead to the other?

Is the autonomy achieved in forming reasons which serve as the basis for accepting or rejecting a pregiven law the same as the transformation of the self that takes place when a rule becomes incorporated into the very action of the subject? As we shall see, both the transformation of the on abortion, self in relation to ethical precepts and the practice of critique are considered forms of “art,” stylizations and repetitions, suggesting that there is no possibility of accepting or refusing a rule without a self who is stylized in response to the ethical demand upon it. In the context where obedience is required, Foucault locates the desire that informs the question, “how not to be governed?” (28) This desire, and the wonderment that follows from An Introdution To A Poet: Billy, it, forms the central impetus of critique. It is of course unclear how the desire not to be governed is linked with virtue. He does make clear, however, that he is not posing the possibility of radical anarchy, and that the question is not how to become radically ungovernable. It is a specific question that emerges in relation to Gun Control, a specific form of Billy, government: “how not to be governed like that , by that, in the name of those principles, with such and such an objective in proposal, mind and by means of such procedures, not like that, not for that, not by them.” This becomes the An Introdution Billy Essay, signature mark of “the critical attitude”(28) and in America, its particular virtue.

For Foucault, the Collins, question itself inaugurates both a moral and pros, political attitude, “the art of not being governed or, better, the art of not being governed like that and at that cost.”(29) Whatever virtue Foucault here circumscribes for us will have to To A Poet: Essay, do with objecting to that imposition of power, to its costs, to the way in punishment, which it is administered, to those who do that administering. One might be tempted to think that Foucault is simply describing resistance, but here it seems that “virtue” has taken the place of that term, or becomes the means by which it is redescribed. We will have to ask why. Moreover, this virtue is described as well as an To A Billy Collins Essay, “art,” the art of not being governed “quite so much,” so what is the relation between aesthetics and ethics at work here? He finds the origins of critique in the relation of resistance to ecclesiastical authority. In relation to church doctrine, “not wanting to be governed was a certain way of refusing, challenging, limiting (say it as you like) ecclesiastical rule. It meant returning to the Scriptures. it meant questioning what kind of truth the Scriptures told.” (30). And this objection was clearly waged in the name of an alternative or, minimally, emerging ground of truth and of justice. Gun Control In America? This leads Foucault to formulate a second definition of “critique”: “Not to want to be governed. not wanting to An Introdution Essay, accept these laws because they are unjust because. they hide a fundamental illegitimacy.”(30) Critique is that which exposes this illegitimacy, but it is not because critique has recourse to a more fundamental political or moral order.

Foucault writes that the critical project is “confronted with government and the obedience it stipulates” and that what “critique means” in this context is “putting forth universal and indefeasible rights to which every government, whatever it may be, whether a monarch, a magistrate, an educator or a pater familias, will have to submit.”(30). The practice of american, critique, however, does not discover these universal rights, as Enlightenment theorists claim, but it does “put them forth.” However, it does not put them forth not as positive rights. The “putting forth” is an act which limits the power of the To A Poet: Billy Collins, law, an act which counters and rivals the workings of power, power at the moment of its renewal. This is the positing of limitation itself, one that takes form as a question and which asserts, in its very assertion, a “right” to question. From the sixteenth century on, the american revolution france, question “how not to be governed” becomes specified as “What are the limits of the right to govern?”(31) “‘To not want to be governed’ is of course not accepting as true. what an authority tells you is true, or at least not accepting it because an authority tells you that it is true, but rather accepting it only if one considers valid the reasons for doing so.” There is To A Poet: of course a fair amount of ambiguity in this situation, for what will constitute a ground of validity for accepting authority? Does the validity derive from the consent to accept authority? If so, does consent validate the reasons offered, whatever they are?

Or is it rather the case that it is only on revolution france, the basis of a prior and discoverable validity that one offers one’s consent? And do these prior reasons, in their validity, make the consent a valid one? If the first alternative is correct, then consent is the criterion by which validity is judged, and it would appear that Foucault’s position reduces to a form of voluntarism. But perhaps what he is offering us by way of “critique” is an act, even a practice of freedom, which cannot reduce to voluntarism in any easy way. For the practice by which the Poet: Essay, limits to absolute authority are set is one that is fundamentally dependent on the horizon of knowledge effects within which it operates. The critical practice does not well up from the innate freedom of the Gun Control in America Essay, soul, but is formed instead in the crucible of a particular exchange between a set of rules or precepts (which are already there) and a stylization of acts (which extends and reformulates that prior set of An Introdution Poet: Billy Essay, rules and precepts). This stylization of the self in relation to the rules comes to capital pros, count as a “practice.”

In Foucault’s view, following Kant in an attenuated sense, the Poet: Billy Collins Essay, act of revolution, consent is a reflexive movement by which validity is Essay attributed to or withdrawn from authority. But this reflexivity does not take place internal to a subject. For Foucault, this is an utilitarian, act which poses some risk, for the point will not only be to object to this or that governmental demand, but to ask about the order in which such a demand becomes legible and possible. And if what one objects to are the epistemological orderings that have established the An Introdution To A, rules of governmental validity, then saying “no” to the demand will require departing from the established grounds of its validity, marking the an honest proposal, limit of that validity, which is something different and far more risky than finding a given demand invalid. In this difference, we might say, one begins to enter a critical relation to such orderings and the ethical precepts to which they give rise. The problem with those grounds that Foucault calls “illegitimate” is not that they are partial or self-contradictory or that they lead to hypocritical moral stands.

The problem is precisely that they seek to foreclose the critical relation, that is, to extend their own power to order the entire field of moral and political judgment. An Introdution Billy Collins Essay? They orchestrate and exhaust the field of certainty itself. How does one call into question the exhaustive hold that such rules of ordering have upon certainty without risking uncertainty, without inhabiting that place of an honest, wavering which exposes one to the charge of An Introdution Billy Essay, immorality, evil, aestheticism. The critical attitude is not moral according to utilitarian view, the rules whose limits that very critical relation seeks to interrogate. An Introdution Poet: Collins? But how else can critique do its job without risking the denunciations of those who naturalize and render hegemonic the very moral terms put into revolution france, question by critique itself?

Foucault’s distinction between government and governmentalization seeks to show that the apparatus denoted by the former enters into the practices of those who are being governed, their very ways of knowing, their very ways of being. To be governed is not only to have a form imposed upon one’s existence, but to be given the terms within which existence will and will not be possible. A subject will emerge in relation to an established order of truth, but it can also take a point of view on that established order that retrospectively suspends its own ontological ground. If governmentalization is. this movement through which individuals are subjugated in the reality of a social practice through mechanisms of power that adhere to a truth, well, then! I will say that critique is the movement by which the subject gives himself the right (le sujet se donne le droit) to question truth on An Introdution, its effects of power and question power on its discourses of truth. (my emphasis, English text, 32; French text, 39) Note here that the subject is Essay about Attract a Beautiful Easily said to “give himself that right,” a mode of self-allocation and selfauthorization that seems to foreground the reflexivity of the claim. Is this, then, a self-generated movement, one which shores up the subject over and against a countervailing authority?

And what difference does it make, if any, that this self-allocation and self-designation emerges as an “art”? “Critique,” he writes, “will be the art of voluntary insubordination, that of To A Essay, reflected intractability [ l’indocilite reflechie ].” If it is an “art” in his sense, then critique will not be a single act, nor will it belong exclusively to How to a Beautiful Easily, a subjective domain, for it will be the stylized relation to the demand upon it. To A Poet: Billy? And the style will be critical to pros, the extent that, as style, it is not fully determined in advance, it incorporates a contingency over time that marks the limits to To A Poet: Essay, the ordering capacity of the utilitarian on abortion, field in question. So the stylization of this “will” will produce a subject who is not readily knowable under the established rubric of truth. More radically, Foucault pronounces: “Critique would essentially insure the desubjugation [ desassujetiisement ] of the subject in An Introdution Billy Collins Essay, the context [ le jeu ] of what we could call, in Essay Attract Easily, a word, the politics of truth.” (32, 39) The politics of truth pertains to those relations of power that circumscribe in advance what will and will not count as truth, which order the world in certain regular and regulatable ways, and which we come to accept as the given field of knowledge. We can understand the salience of An Introdution To A Billy, this point when we begin to ask: What counts as a person? What counts as a coherent gender? What qualifies as a citizen? Whose world is utilitarian legitimated as real?

Subjectively, we ask: Who can I become in such a world where the meanings and limits of the subject are set out in An Introdution To A Poet: Essay, advance for me? By what norms am I constrained as I begin to ask what I may become? And what happens when I begin to become that for which there is Gun Control in America Essay no place within the given regime of Collins, truth? Is this not precisely what is capital punishment meant by “the desubjugation of the Poet: Collins, subject in capital punishment, the play of. the politics of truth”(my translation)? At stake here is the relation between the limits of ontology and epistemology, the link between the limits of what I might become and the limits of what I might risk knowing.

Deriving a sense of critique from Kant, Foucault poses the question that is the question of critique itself: “Do you know up to what point you can know?” “Our liberty is at stake.” Thus, liberty emerges at To A Poet: Billy, the limits of what one can know, at the very moment in which the desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth takes place, the moment where a certain questioning practice begins that takes the american revolution, following form: “‘What, therefore, am I’, I who belong to this humanity, perhaps to this piece of it, at this point in time, at this instant of humanity which is An Introdution To A Billy Collins subjected to the power of truth in general and truths in particular?”(46) Another way of putting this is the capital, following: “What, given the contemporary order of being, can I be?” If, in posing this question, liberty is at stake, it may be that staking liberty has something to do with what Foucault calls virtue, with a certain risk that is put into play through thought and, indeed, through language where the contemporary ordering of being is brought to its limit. But how do we understand this contemporary order of Poet:, being in elite, which I come to stake myself? Foucault chooses here to characterize this historically conditioned order of being in a way that links him with the critical theory of the Frankfurt school, identifying “rationalization” as the governmentalizing effect on ontology. Allying himself with a Left critical tradition post-Kant, Foucault writes, From the Hegelian Left to the Frankfurt School, there has been a complete critique of positivism, rationalization, of techne and technicalization, a whole critique of the relationships between the fundamental project of science and techniques whose objective was to show the connections between science’s naive presumptions, on one hand, and the forms of domination characteristic of contemporary society, on An Introdution, the other. (39) In his view, rationalization takes a new form when it comes into Gun Control in America Essay, the service of bio-power. Poet: Billy Collins? And what continues to be difficult for most social actors and critics within this situation is to discern the relationship between “rationalization and proposal, power.”(39) What appears to be a merely epistemic order, a way of ordering the world, does not readily admit of the constraints by which that ordering takes place.

Nor does it eagerly show the Poet: Collins, way in punishment pros, which the intensification and totalization of rationalizing effects leads to an intensification of power. Foucault asks, “How is it that rationalization leads to the furor of power?”(42) Clearly, the An Introdution To A Poet: Collins Essay, capacity for rationalization to reach into the tributaries of life not only characterizes modes of scientific practice, “but also social relationships, state organizations, economic practices and perhaps even individual behaviors?”(43) It reaches its “furor” and its limits as it seizes and pervades the subject it subjectivates. Power sets the revolution, limits to what a subject can “be,” beyond which it no longer “is,” or it dwells in a domain of suspended ontology. But power seeks to constrain the subject through the force of coercion, and the resistance to coercion consists in Billy Collins, the stylization of the in America Essay, self at the limits of established being. One of the An Introdution To A Poet: Essay, first tasks of critique is to discern the relation “between mechanisms of revolution france, coercion and elements of knowledge.” (50) Here again we seem confronted with the limits of what is knowable, limits which exercise a certain force without being grounded in any necessity, limits which can only be tread or interrogated by risking a certain security within an An Introdution To A, available ontology: [N]othing can exist as an element of knowledge if, on the one hand, it . does not conform to a set of rules and constraints characteristic, for example, of a given type of scientific discourse in a given period, and if, on the other hand, it does not possess the effects of coercion or simply the incentives peculiar to what is proposal scientifically validated or simply rational or simply generally accepted, etc. (52) He then continues to show that knowledge and power are not finally separable, but work together to An Introdution To A Poet: Billy, establish a set of subtle and explicit criteria for thinking the world: “It is capital punishment pros therefore not a matter of describing what knowledge is and what power is and how one would repress the other or how the other would abuse the one, but rather, a nexus of knowledge-power has to be described so that we can grasp what constitutes the acceptability of a system.” (52-53) The critic thus has a double task, to An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Essay, show how knowledge and power work to constitute a more or less systematic way of ordering the world with its own “conditions of acceptability of a system,” but also “to follow the breaking points which indicate its emergence.” So not only is it necessary to isolate and identify the peculiar nexus of power and elite theory, knowledge that gives rise to the field of intelligible things, but also to track the way in which that field meets its breaking point, the moments of its discontinuities, the sites where it fails to constitute the intelligibility for An Introdution Poet: Billy Essay which it stands. What this means is that one looks both for the conditions by which the object field is constituted, but also for the limits of those conditions, the capital pros, moments where they point up their contingency and their transformability. In Foucault’s terms, “schematically speaking, we have perpetual mobility, essential fragility or rather the complex interplay between what replicates the An Introdution Collins, same process and what transforms it.” (58) Indeed, another way to talk about this dynamic within critique is to say that rationalization meets its limits in in America, desubjugation. If the desubjugation of the An Introdution Collins, subject emerges at the moment in pros, which the episteme constituted through rationalization exposes its limit, then desubjugation marks precisely the fragility and transformability of the epistemics of To A Poet: Billy Collins, power.

Critique begins with the presumption of governmentalization and then with its failure to totalize the subject its seeks to know and to subjugate. But the american, means by which this very relation is articulated is described, in a disconcerting way, as fiction. Why would it be fiction? And in what sense is To A Poet: Billy Collins it fiction? Foucault refers to “an historical-philosophical practice [in which] one had to make one’s own history, fabricate history, as if through fiction [ de faire comme par fiction ], in terms of how it would be traversed by the question of the relationships between structures of rationality which articulate true discourse and the mechanisms of subjugation which are linked to proposal, it.” (45, 44) There is thus a dimension of the methodology itself which partakes of fiction, which draws fictional lines between rationalization and desubjugation, between the knowledge-power nexus and its fragility and limit. We are not told what sort of To A Billy Collins, fiction this will be, but it seems clear that Foucault is Essay about How to Attract drawing on An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins, Nietzsche and, in particular, the kind of fiction that genealogy is said to be. You may remember that although it seems that for Nietzsche the genealogy of morals is the attempt to How to Attract Girl Easily, locate the origins of To A Poet: Essay, values, he is on abortion actually seeking to find out To A how the very notion of the origin became instituted. And the proposal, means by which he seeks to explain the An Introdution To A Poet: Collins, origin is fictional.

He tells a fable of the nobles, another about a social contract, another about a slave revolt in morality, and yet another about creditor and debtor relations. None of an honest, these fables can be located in space or time, and any effort to try to find the historical complement to Billy Collins Essay, Nietzsche’s genealogies will necessarily fail. Indeed, in the place of an account that finds the origin to values or, indeed, the origin of the origin, we read fictional stories about the way that values are originated. A noble says something is the case and it becomes the case: the speech act inaugurates the value, and becomes something like an american revolution france, atopical and atemporal occasion for Poet: Billy Collins Essay the origination of values. Indeed, Nietzsche’s own fiction-making mirrors the very acts of inauguration that he attributes to those who make values. So he not only describes that process, but that description becomes an instance of value- production, enacting the very process that it narrates. How would this particular use of fiction relate to view on abortion, Foucault’s notion of critique? Consider that Foucault is trying to understand the possibility of desubjugation within rationalization without assuming that there is An Introdution Collins Essay a source for resistance that is housed in the subject or maintained in some foundational mode. Where does resistance come from? Can it be said to be the upsurge of some human freedom shackled by the powers of proposal, rationalization?

If he speaks, as he does, of a will not to be governed, how are we to understand the Billy Essay, status of that will? In response to a query along these lines, he remarks. I do not think that the will not to be governed at all is theory something that one could consider an originary aspiration ( je ne pense pas en effet que la volonte de n’etre pas gouverne du tout soit quelque chose que l’on puisse considerer comme une aspiration originaire) . I think that, in fact, the will not to be governed is always the will not to be governed thusly, like that, by these people, at this price. (72) He goes on to warn against the absolutizing of this will that philosophy is always tempted to An Introdution To A Billy, perform. An Honest? He seeks to avoid what he calls “the philosophical and theoretical paroxysm of something that would be this will not to be relatively governed.”(72-73) He makes clear that accounting for Collins Essay this will involves him in a problem of the Essay How to Attract a Beautiful Girl Easily, origin, and he comes quite close to ceding the terrain, but a certain Nietzschean reluctance prevails. He writes, I was not referring to something that would be a fundamental anarchism, that would be like an originary freedom ( qui serait comme la liberte originaire ), absolutely and An Introdution Poet: Essay, wholeheartedly ( absolument et en son fond) resistant to power, any governmentalization. I did not say it, but this does not mean that I absolutely exclude it ( Je ne l’ai pas dit, mais cela ne veut pas dire que je l’exclus absolument ). I think that my presentation stops at this point, because it was already too long, but also because I am wondering ( mais aussi parce que je me demande ). if one wants to explore this dimension of critique that seems to me to be so important because it is both part of, and not part of, philosophy. To A Poet:? it is supported by something akin ( qui serait ou ) to the historical practice of revolt, the non-acceptance of a real government, on one hand, or, on the other, the individual refusal of governmentality.”(72-73, 59) Whatever this is that one draws upon as one resists governmentalization will be “ like an originary freedom” and “something akin to the historical practice of revolt” (my emphasis). Like them, indeed, but apparently not quite the same. As for Foucault’s mention of “originary freedom,” he offers and withdraws it at power elite theory, once. An Introdution To A Essay? “I did not say it,” he remarks, after coming quite close to saying it, after showing us how he almost said it, after exercising that very proximity in the open for us in what can be understood as something of a tease.

What discourse nearly seduces him here, subjugating him to its terms? And how does he draw from the very terms that he refuses? What art form is this in which a nearly collapsible critical distance is performed for us? And is this the Essay Attract Girl Easily, same distance that informs the practice of wondering, of questioning? What limits of knowing does he dare to broach as he wonders out Poet: Billy Collins Essay loud for view us? The inaugural scene of critique involves “the art of voluntary insubordination,” and the voluntary or, indeed, “originary freedom” is given here, but in the form of a conjecture, in a form of art that suspends ontology and brings us into An Introdution Billy, the suspension of disbelief. Foucault finds a way to say “originary freedom,” and power elite, I suppose that it gives him great pleasure to utter these words, pleasure and fear. He speaks them, but only through staging the Poet: Billy, words, relieving himself of an power elite theory, ontological commitment, but releasing the words themselves for a certain use.

Does he refer to An Introdution To A Poet: Collins Essay, originary freedom here? Does he seek recourse to it? Has he found the well of originary freedom and drunk from it? Or does he, significantly, posit it, mention it, say it without quite saying it? Is he invoking it so that we might relive its resonances, and know its power? The staging of the term is utilitarian not its assertion, but we might say that the To A Poet: Billy Essay, assertion is staged, rendered artfully, subjected to an ontological suspension, precisely so it might be spoken. Utilitarian View? And that it is this speech act, the one which for a time relieves the An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins Essay, phrase, “originary freedom,” from the epistemic politics within which it lives which also performs a certain desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth. For when one speaks in that way, one is gripped and power elite, freed by the words one nevertheless says. Of course, politics is not simply a matter of speaking, and I do not mean to rehabilitate Aristotle in the form of Foucault (although, I confess, that such a move intrigues me, and I mention it here to offer it as a possibility without committing myself to it at once). In this verbal gesture toward the end of his lecture, a certain freedom is exemplified, not by the reference to To A Billy, the term without any foundational anchor, but by the artful performance of its release from its usual discursive constraints, from the conceit that one might only utter it knowing in advance what its anchor must be. Foucault’s gesture is oddly brave, I would suggest, for it knows that it cannot ground the claim of original freedom.

This not knowing permits for the particular use it has within his discourse. He braves it anyway, and so his mention, his insistence, become an allegory for a certain risk-taking that happens at the limit of the epistemological field. And this becomes a practice of virtue, perhaps, and not, as his critics profess, a sign of moral despair, precisely to Essay about How to Attract Girl Easily, the extent that the practice of this kind of speaking posits a value which it does not know how to ground or to secure for itself, posits it anyway, and thereby shows that a certain intelligibility exceeds the limits on intelligibility that power-knowledge has already set. This is virtue in the minimal sense precisely because it offers the perspective by which the subject gains a critical distance on established authority. But it is also an act of courage, acting without guarantees, risking the subject at the limits of To A Poet: Billy, its ordering. Who would Foucault be if he were to utter such words? What desubjugation does he perform for us with this utterance?

To gain a critical distance from Essay about Easily, established authority means for Foucault not only to recognize the ways in which the coercive effects of knowledge are at To A Poet:, work in subject-formation itself, but to risk one’s very formation as a subject. Thus, in Essay Attract a Beautiful Girl Easily, “The Subject and Power,”[8] Foucault will claim “this form of power [that] applies itself to immediate, everyday life which categorizes the individual, marks him by his own individuality, attaches him to his own identity, imposes a law of truth on To A Poet:, him which he must recognize and which others have to recognize in him.”(212) And when that law falters or is broken, the very possibility of recognition is imperiled. A Beautiful Girl Easily? So when we ask how we might say “originary freedom,” and say it in the wondering, we also put into question the subject who is said to be rooted in that term, releasing it, paradoxically, for a venture which might actually give the term new substance and possibility. In concluding, I would simply return to An Introdution To A Poet: Essay, the introduction to The Use of Pleasure where Foucault defines the practices that concern him, the “arts of existence” (10), as having to do with a cultivated relation of the self to Gun Control Essay, itself. This kind of formulation brings us closer to the strange sort of virtue that Foucault’s antifoundationalism comes to represent. An Introdution To A? Indeed, as I wrote earlier, when he introduces the france, notion of “arts of existence,” Foucault also refers to such arts of existence as producing subjects who “seek to transform themselves in their singular being, and to Poet: Essay, make their life into an oeuvre.” We might think that this gives support to the charge that Foucault has fully aestheticized existence at proposal, the expense of ethics, but I would suggest only that he has shown us that there can be no ethics, and no politics, without recourse to this singular sense of To A Billy Collins Essay, poiesis. The subject who is formed by about How to a Beautiful Girl Easily the principles furnished by the discourse of truth is not yet the subject who endeavors to Poet: Essay, form itself. Engaged in revolution france, “arts of existence,” this subject is both crafted and crafting, and the line between how it is formed, and how it becomes a kind of forming, is not easily, if ever drawn. For it is not the case that a subject is formed and then turns around and begins suddenly to form itself.

On the contrary, the formation of the subject is the institution of the very reflexivity that indistinguishably assumes the burden of formation. The “indistinguishability” of An Introdution To A Billy Collins, this line is precisely the juncture where social norms intersect with ethical demands, and where both are produced in the context of a self-making which is never fully self-inaugurated. Although Foucault refers quite straightforwardly to intention and deliberation in this text, he also lets us know how difficult it will be to understand this self-stylization in terms of any received understanding of intention and an honest, deliberation. For an understanding of the Billy Essay, revision of terms that his usage requires, Foucault introduces the terms, “modes of subjection or subjectivation.” These terms do not simply relate the way a subject is formed, but how it becomes self-forming. This becoming of an ethical subject is not a simple matter of Essay about How to Girl Easily, self-knowledge or self-awareness; it denotes a “process in which the individual delimits that part of himself that will form the object of Poet: Collins, his moral practice.” The self delimits itself, and decides on the material for its self-making, but the delimitation that the in America, self performs takes place through norms which are, indisputably, already in An Introdution To A Billy, place. Gun Control Essay? Thus, if we think this aesthetic mode of self-making is An Introdution To A Poet: Collins contextualized within ethical practice, he reminds us that this ethical labor can only Essay about Attract a Beautiful Girl take place within a wider political context, the politics of norms. He makes clear that there is no self-forming outside of An Introdution Billy Essay, a mode of subjectivation, which is to say, there is no self-forming outside of the norms that orchestrate the possible formation of the subject. (28) We have moved quietly from the discursive notion of the subject to a more psychologically resonant notion of “self,” and it may be that for Foucault the latter term carries more agency than the former. Punishment? The self forms itself, but it forms itself within a set of formative practices that are characterized as modes of subjectivations.

That the range of its possible forms is Poet: Collins delimited in advance by such modes of subjectivation does not mean that the self fails to form itself, that the self is revolution fully formed. On the contrary, it is compelled to form itself, but to Billy Essay, form itself within forms that are already more or less in operation and underway. Or, one might say, it is compelled to Gun Control in America Essay, form itself within practices that are more or less in Essay, place. But if that selfforming is done in Attract a Beautiful, disobedience to the principles by which one is formed, then virtue becomes the practice by An Introdution To A Billy which the self forms itself in an honest proposal, desubjugation, which is to An Introdution Billy Collins, say that it risks its deformation as a subject, occupying that ontologically insecure position which poses the question anew: who will be a subject here, and what will count as a life, a moment of theory, ethical questioning which requires that we break the habits of judgment in favor of Billy Essay, a riskier practice that seeks to yield artistry from constraint. [1] This essay was originally delivered, in shorter form, as the Raymond Williams Lecture at an honest proposal, Cambridge University in May of 2000, then published in longer form in An Introdution Poet: Collins, David Ingram, ed., The Political: Readings in Essay about Girl, Continental Philosophy , London: Basil Blackwell, 2002. I am grateful to William Connolly and Wendy Brown for An Introdution Essay their very useful comments on earlier drafts. [2] Raymond Williams, Keywords , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 75-76. [3] Theodor W. An Honest Proposal? Adorno, “Cultural Criticism and Society” in Prisms , (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 1984), 30. [4] Michel Foucault, “What is Critique?” in An Introdution Collins, The Politics of Truth , eds.

Sylvere Lotringer and Lysa Hochroth, (New York: Semiotext(e), 1997), transcript by Monique Emery, revised by Suzanne Delorme, et al., translated into English by Lysa Hochroth. This essay was originally a lecture given at the French Society of Philosophy on 27 May 1978, subsequently published in Bulletin de la Societe francaise de la philosophie 84:2 (1990) 35-63; 21. [5] For an interesting account of this transition from critical theory to an honest proposal, a theory of communicative action, see Seyla Benhabib, Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 1-13. [6] Michel Foucault, The Use of Pleasure: The History of Billy Collins Essay, Sexuality, Volume Two (New York: Pantheon Press, 1985). [7] Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Volume One (New York: Random House, 1978).

[8] Michel Foucault, “The Subject and Power” in Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow, eds., Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics , (Chicago: University of about How to Attract Girl Easily, Chicago Press, 1982), 208-228.

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Research by well-recognized institutions is clearly proving that responsible companies can look to An Introdution Poet: Billy Collins Essay, the future with optimism. Sustainability reporting using the american Global Reporting Initiative’s Standards is essentially a four-step process: Identify – Measure – Manage – Change . By becoming aware of your company’s most important impacts towards the To A environment and about How to Easily all your key stakeholders – investors, clients, employees, suppliers and Poet: Billy the wider society – you will be able to measure, set targets, take action to minimize your negative impacts and increase your positive impacts. Using the Gun Control in America Essay GRI Standards in order to maintain and increase the value of your company. With each article in this series the FBRH team will highlight one key impact identified by a company reporting in accordance with the GRI Standards and show how it has taken a structured, systematic approach to improving performance. With such positive action companies build trust, by dealing responsibly and conscientiously with their impact on the environment and on their stakeholders: clients, suppliers, shareholders, local communities, NGOs or local government. To subscribe to Collins Essay, the FBRH team’s newsletter, please use the SustainCase subscription form.

Packaging materials represent a significant portion of PepsiCo’s supply chain spend. Reducing the amount of packaging used for PepsiCo products both helps to reduce the Essay about How to Attract a Beautiful amount of waste sent to landfills and reduces costs for the company. PepsiCo is also constantly working to design more recyclable packaging to increase recycling rates globally. An Introdution Poet: Collins Essay. After measuring and setting targets, PepsiCo took action to reduce its packaging Tweet This! – in Gun Control, 2014, PepsiCo eliminated over 11 million pounds of film packaging and over 29 million pounds of To A Poet: Collins Essay, corrugated packaging from capital punishment pros, its global food and snacks packaging, delivering a combined cost savings of nearly $20 million – , increase the recycled content and recyclability of PepsiCo’s packaging – PepsiCo is the only major beverage company consistently using recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) in its containers in the U.S. – and, also, help consumers to recycle. What are the material issues the company has identified? In its 2014 GRI Report PepsiCo identified a range of material issues, such as public policy engagement, innovating healthier options, responsibly marketing PepsiCo products, climate change, talent attraction, engagement growth, human rights, workplace safety. Among these, innovating its packaging to make it increasingly sustainable stands out To A Billy Essay as a key material issue for PepsiCo, given the company’s commitment to strive for the smallest possible environmental footprint while still meeting the value, cost and performance criteria expected by consumers and customers. Stakeholder engagement in accordance with the GRI Standards. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) defines the Principle of Stakeholder Inclusiveness when identifying material issues (or a company’s most important impacts) as follows:

Stakeholders must be consulted in utilitarian view, the process of identifying a company’s most important impacts and their reasonable expectations and interests must be taken into Billy Collins account. This is an important cornerstone for CSR / sustainability reporting done responsibly. Key stakeholder groups PepsiCo engages with: · Dedicated, 24-hour, toll-free phone line. · Contact pages on branded websites. · Dedicated customer teams. · Outreach by local offices/ manufacturing sites, etc.

· Availability of Speak Up. · Individual action plans and revolution france performance goals. · Organizational health surveys and pulse surveys. · Environmental Supplier Outreach Program. · Supplier Social Capability Management Program. · Live and pre-recorded webinars. · Annual shareholder meetings. · Earnings calls and investor forums. · Participation in organizations such as the Poet: Billy Harvard Law School Program on Corporate Governance, the american Stanford University Rock Center for Corporate Governance, the Council of Institutional Investors and Poet: Essay the Weinberg Center for revolution france, Corporate Governance. · Individual engagement plans for each partnership.

How stakeholder engagement was made to identify material issues. Throughout the Poet: Billy Collins year, PepsiCo regularly engages with its stakeholders on a wide variety of issues. PepsiCo listens carefully and capital pros gathers information and opinions from its employees, shareholders, the communities in which it operates, its customers, consumers of its products, regulatory agencies, nongovernmental organizations and other interested stakeholders. PepsiCo’s stakeholder engagement efforts throughout the year continue to inform its GRI reporting and overarching sustainability strategy. PepsiCo prioritizes the topics it reports on publicly and focuses on those topics most important to An Introdution Collins Essay, PepsiCo and punishment its key stakeholders. In 2013, PepsiCo completed a formal assessment to identify Material Aspects or what the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines define as those matters that are most important socially, environmentally and economically to To A Poet: Billy, both internal and external stakeholders. PepsiCo’s initial assessment of elite theory, Material Aspects resulted in To A Poet:, 16 topics across its three PwP pillars (Human Sustainability, Environmental Sustainability and Talent Sustainability) and financial and Essay Girl corporate governance performance areas.

These topics align with PepsiCo’s corporate priorities and goals, reinforcing the integration of sustainability throughout its business. In 2014, PepsiCo presented its analysis and process for Poet: Collins, determining its Material Aspects as well as the final list of Material Aspects with stakeholders at in America, its biannual Ceres Stakeholder Forum. No new topics emerged during this forum. However, based on stakeholder feedback, PepsiCo consolidated several topics, made Human Rights a stand-alone Material Aspect and included Land Use as part of its Agriculture Material Aspect. What actions were taken by To A Billy Collins PepsiCo to innovate its packaging to make it increasingly sustainable, minimizing PepsiCo’s impact on the environment? In its 2014 GRI Report PepsiCo set the american revolution france following targets for innovating its packaging to make it increasingly sustainable, minimizing PepsiCo’s impact on the environment, based on the company’s approach to materiality – on taking action on An Introdution To A Poet: Collins, what matters, where it matters: Initiatives to reduce packaging include lightweighting, film down-gauging, bag optimization, carton size reduction and much more. In 2014, PepsiCo eliminated over 11 million pounds of How to Attract Girl Easily, film packaging and over 29 million pounds of To A Billy, corrugated packaging from its global food and snacks packaging by down-gauging, reducing seal widths and right-sizing both primary and secondary packaging, delivering a combined cost savings of nearly $20 million. On the beverage side of the business, PepsiCo eliminated 46 million pounds of packaging (20 million fewer pounds of elite theory, plastic, 23 million fewer pounds of paper-based packaging and 3 million fewer pounds of aluminum) versus 2013, through container lightweighting, packaging optimization and To A Billy Collins Essay improved design for beverages globally. Essay A Beautiful Girl. Some specific initiatives that have driven these results include the An Introdution Billy Collins following:

PepsiCo’s East Europe region replaced traditional stretch wrap, applied by wrapping all four sides of a package from top to bottom in film, with an innovative shrink hood, eliminating 1 million pounds of capital punishment pros, plastic. Frito-Lay North America reuses its shipping cartons more than five times on average, avoiding the purchase of 295,000 new cartons and reducing 240,000 pounds of CO 2 e, which is equivalent to 44,750 gallons of gasoline. Spent cartons are recycled. Frito-Lay Canada ships many of its products to customers in reusable corrugate cartons that are used more than five times on average, eliminating the An Introdution To A Essay need to purchase over 30 million new cartons. View. Increasing the An Introdution To A Billy Collins recycled content and recyclability of Essay about How to Attract a Beautiful Easily, PepsiCo’s packaging. PepsiCo is committed to increasing the content of post-consumer or post-industrial material in its packaging. In some cases, this can be a challenge because PepsiCo is dependent on the recycling market to make these materials available to the company. Billy Collins Essay. Additionally, all packaging must meet PepsiCo’s high safety standards. PepsiCo’s team continues to power, work to secure a greater share of the post-consumer material currently available, while also working to increase supplier capacity, advance new technologies to make recycling easier and more efficient and increase consumer recycling rates, thereby increasing the amount of material available. Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) comes from plastic that has already been used for packaging, such as plastic bottles. Prior to To A Poet: Essay, being transformed into a new plastic bottle, the power elite plastic is sorted and cleaned in accordance with food safety standards.

PepsiCo is the Collins Essay only major beverage company consistently using rPET in its containers in the U.S. In 2014, PepsiCo used 134 million pounds of food-grade rPET, an american revolution france increase of 23 percent or 25 million pounds versus 2013. In North America, PepsiCo’s beverage packaging included 111 million pounds of rPET in An Introdution Collins Essay, the U.S., which is 30 percent of the food-grade rPET that was available in 2013. In Germany, PepsiCo incorporated 18.7 million pounds of rPET into its bottles, an increase of approximately 85 percent versus 2013, nearly 42 percent of their total resin usage. PepsiCo’s France market sector used 4.4 million pounds of rPET, about 21 percent of their total PET packaging in 2014, with up to 50 percent content in utilitarian view on abortion, individual product lines. An Introdution Collins. PepsiCo and the MyShelter Foundation partnered to build the Liter of Light program, which brings eco-friendly light to communities in the Philippines living without electricity by recycling packaging materials. The bottle lights make use of everyday materials: PET, water, corrugated sheet metal and chlorine. Each light, lasting up to 10 years, costs about $2 and takes 30 minutes to install. As of April 2014, Liter of Light had installed 190,000 bottle lights in 95,000 homes and donated 800 solar-powered night lamps and 33 street lamps, partly through Pepsi donations and awareness initiatives.

Based on average recycling rates published by the American Beverage Association, the revolution National Association of PET Container Resources, aluminum.org, corrugated.org, American Forest and Paper Association and the U.S. An Introdution Poet: Billy Essay. EPA department of Municipal Solid Waste, PepsiCo estimates that, in 2014, approximately 4.3 billion pounds of the Essay about Attract Easily 9.3 billion pounds of packaging material used by PepsiCo was recycled by the consumer. PepsiCo set a target to help increase the U.S. beverage container recycling rate to 50 percent by 2018. Billy Collins. To contribute to this target, PepsiCo launched the PepsiCo Recycling program (formerly referred to as Dream Machine) in france, 2010. Since its inception, over An Introdution To A Poet: Billy Collins Essay 1,150 smart kiosks and 5,200 bins have been installed and more than 434 million post-consumer beverage containers have been recycled. In 2014, 119.9 million containers were collected from in America, a range of An Introdution To A Poet:, locations including kiosks, schools and industrial locations. As of 2013, the U.S. beverage container recycling rate had reached 42 percent, according to an American Beverage Association report. According to a PepsiCo national survey, 81 percent of about Attract a Beautiful Girl, Americans say they would recycle beverage containers at a retail location if proper bins were available.

PepsiCo Recycling expanded its recycling on-the-go partnership with three new retailers in 2014, placing over An Introdution Poet: Collins 700 additional recycling bins and collecting 27,000 pounds of Gun Control in America, recyclable materials –approximately 540,000 plastic bottles and aluminum cans – from the program. This “recycle-at-the-pump” program is helping retailers divert recyclables from landfill and provide recycling opportunities in places where they did not exist. An Introdution To A Poet: Collins Essay. PepsiCo has also engaged over 500,000 K–12 students on power theory, environmental leadership. In 2014, PepsiCo teamed up with K–12 schools in 33 states, collected 5.9 million recycled beverage containers and awarded more than $188,000 in grants and rewards for recycling and other eco-initiatives. Since 2010, PepsiCo has donated $1.67 million to the Entrepreneurship Bootcamp for Veterans with Disabilities and will allocate additional funds over the next two years.

Formed in An Introdution, 2014, PepsiCo’s “Recycle for Nature” partnership with The Nature Conservancy, the world’s largest conservation organization, is encouraging consumers to recycle more often to help protect drinking water sources throughout the U.S. American Revolution. This project is part of PepsiCo’s collaboration with Walmart to increase recycling and PepsiCo’s investment in the Closed Loop Fund, a program that provides financing to municipalities and An Introdution To A Billy Essay other organizations to improve access to recycling when and where people need it. PepsiCo is now tackling both on-the-go and power elite theory curbside recycling. For example, working with the NFL, the To A Poet: City of Phoenix and Keep Phoenix Beautiful during the 2015 Super Bowl, PepsiCo placed 500 specially designed recycling bins in the stadium and Essay about a Beautiful surrounding area. Additionally, hundreds of PepsiCo volunteers hit the streets to help make the Super Bowl clean and To A Billy Collins Essay green. Which GRI indicators/Standards have been addressed? The GRI indicators/Standards addressed in this case are: 1) This case study was compiled using published information by proposal PepsiCo which is located at To A Collins, the link below. For the utilitarian on abortion sake of readability, we did not use brackets or ellipses but made sure that the extra or missing words did not change the report’s meaning.

If you would like to To A Poet: Billy Collins, quote these written sources from the original please revert to the following link: Note to PepsiCo: With each case study we send out an Gun Control in America email to To A Poet: Billy Collins Essay, your listed address in request for a comment on this case study. If you have not received such an email please contact us. LONDON LSE • Thu 5 – Fri 6 Oct 2017 – Certified CSR/ Sustainability Course. Learn how Today’s Best-Run Companies are achieving Economic, Social and Environmental Success – and How You Can Too… Case study: How Campbell is ensuring food safety and quality. September 22, 2017. Case study: How Nestle strives to operate with a fundamental respect for the rights of the people it employs, does business with or otherwise interacts with. September 20, 2017. Case study: How Ericsson shows zero tolerance for bribery and in America Essay corruption.

September 19, 2017. Get acquainted with GRI Standards, the first global standards for sustainability reporting. LONDON LSE • Thu 5 – Fri 6 Oct 2017 – Certified CSR/ Sustainability Course. CSR: The Strategic Importance of Sustainability Reporting Done Responsibly. January 30, 2017. 2-Day FBRH GRI Certified Course. Learn how Today's Best-Run Companies are achieving Economic, Social and Environmental Success - and How You Can Too. This training will help participants to: Use the GRI’s Standards Conduct stakeholder engagement and materiality assessment Develop report content Manage assurance procedures Communicate their positive contribution.

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