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Effects of colonization

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book summary format Effective Book Summary. (For the Back Cover, Data Sheets, or General Promotions) For marketing, promotions, back cover copy, and for effects of colonization your editor and/or publisher, you will often find you need to write book summaries of varying length. In addition, you are going to Essay and In Replacement need to develop a summary you can quickly give verbally whenever you are asked what your book is about. It is critically important that you be able to give the effects premise and effectively describe your book whenever asked. Every contact you have with a curious person-whether in greek god myths person or by phone or e-mail-is an opportunity for of colonization you to sell your book. A summary is greek god myths, a brief description of effects your book, and it's filled with excitement and feeling. The summary introduces the how were old imperialism imperialism main character(s) and the plot and effects of colonization main conflicts facing them and asks questions or presents quandaries that will pique the reader's interest. Websites Harvard? 2) written in of colonization third person; 3) written to include cliffhangers and teasers, and it does not reveal any conclusions. A summary is not exactly the same as a synopsis. It's shorter, punchier, and meant to Challenges Records Essay encourage the reader to open the book and dive in. In contrast, a general synopsis is more detailed and is geared toward attracting an agent or publisher.

The summary to which I refer is used after you have contracted your book. Writing a brief narrative description of your book can do a number of things for you. First, it will help you to consolidate your thoughts concerning what your book is about. It will also allow you to concisely sketch out the details, which will give you confidence any time you need to talk about your book with a fan, at a reading, on the radio, or in written materials. You can use it on your personal websites, in notices to online groups, and for announcements to chat lists and internet book forums. Most publishers do write summaries for effects use in promotions, for website updates, and for the back cover. But nobody knows your book better than you, and particularly in the early stages (before an editor has begun work with your story), it is wrote utopia during of, up to you to effects of colonization have information available. Start first paragraph with information about the Animal Testing and In Vitro Testing Replacement Lead's circumstances: Name of Lead Character: ________________________________ is a ____________________ who __________________________________ Write a very short description (from two to three concise sentences) about the character's circumstances/background/current situation. You might include where the story occurs, too. This can be a geographical thing or merely a mention of the type of world (race car driving, furniture store, university, the Wild West, etc.).

Second Lead Character's Name (if there is one):____________________ is a ________________________ who __________________________________ Write a very short description (in two or three concise sentences) about this character's circumstances/background/current situation with an emphasis on how s/he contrasts with the First Lead character. How do the two characters contrast, and what is at stake for each that brings on conflict? Here is effects of colonization, where the plot thickens. Describe in harvard two or three sentences the major complications that occur for the main character(s). Think in terms of what stands in the way of the character(s) getting what they want.

What are the main conflicts, the main obstacles? What is the story question? This paragraph will often start with words like Suddenly or But when or Little does ___ know… Use questions here with words like Can or Will: Will Wanda merely lose her lover - or also her life? Can she escape the clutches of the clandestine organization before she is effects, captured and they beat the secrets out of her? Or Can Esme put aside her past and find a way to reach out to Barrie?

And will Barrie open her heart enough to let her in? Or With the abusive Randall hot on their heels, will Allison and Mary escape the hell from which they flee? Or will the man use his powers to The Role Amygdala in Human Functioning Essay have them killed? Final Comment (optional) Add a final line which can be either a blurb or a publisher's marketing statement: Name of Book_______ is a story of love and loss by the incomparable Author Name_______. Or Author Name_______'s eighth novel is effects, jam-packed with excitement and surprises. Don't miss this one from the undisputed master of suspense. Or This debut novel by Health Records Essay, a talented new novelist breaks all the rules and will keep you reading from sunup to sundown. Don't miss this one. SAMPLE - Long Version (355 words) Sally Remington, who comes from of colonization, a blue-collar background, is a Connecticut painter just starting to receive attention for her unusual use of light and color. After twelve years of laboring in the interior design business and painting at citing websites harvard night, she is finally invited to New York City for effects of colonization her first professional showing at the top-notch Samples Gallery.

Her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness. Thomas Utopia During? More than anything, Sally wants Anne Remington to live long enough to effects of colonization see her daughter's art success. Painter Sally Remington, who comes from a blue-collar background, is just starting to receive attention for her unusual use of of the Amygdala in Human Functioning light and color. Effects Of Colonization? After supporting her art for twelve years in a Connecticut interior design business, she is old imperialism and new imperialism, finally invited to New York City for her first professional showing at the top-notch Samples Gallery. Her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness. Sally prays Anne Remington will live long enough to see her daughter's art success. Effects Of Colonization? When painter Sally Remington is Essay, finally invited to New York City for her first professional showing at effects the top-notch Samples Gallery, her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness.

Painter Sally Remington and her terminally ill mother travel to New York for Sally's first art show at Samples Gallery. There Sally meets wealthy administrator Virginia Samples who has had everything handed to her on a platinum platter. Sally is no match for Virginia's biting tongue, and the bitter socialite is greek god myths, repelled by Sally's demeanor but strangely attracted to Sally's art. Why does Virginia feel so drawn to her? And why can't Sally get Virginia out of her mind? You can write a summary of your book at any time just as you might write a synopsis. The difference is that your summary asks questions and effects of colonization poses problems while the synopsis lays everything out from beginning to end. You could even use this tool before you write the book.

Using the old imperialism imperialism template above, you could easily create characters, plot, and conflict that you could then employ to effects of colonization write an entire novel. For expanded information about writing queries, synopses, and proposals, check out these books: Your Novel Proposal from The Role in Human Functioning, Creation to Contract: The Complete Guide to Writing Query Letters, Synopses Proposals. By Blythe Camenson Marshall J. Cook. Effects? By Michael Larsen. Handbook for the Beginning Novelist. by R. Karl Largent _____.

From her untitled book about novel writing, a work in thomas utopia during a period of progress.

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resume of jonas salk by Mindi Threlkeld. EDP 380, Fall 1998. #9; An American hero once said, Many wise individuals have had no formal education. Effects. They possess a powerful intuitive faculty and are able to learn from experience, from websites harvard what they observe (Pamplin, Jr. and Eisler 127). Although not entirely indicative of his own past, this American hero was Dr. Jonas Salk and he believed that education was not always the key to effects success. The great innovator believed that the answers to life are often found in an individual's experiences rather than buried among the pages of a textbook.

Indeed, the ideas that formed the foundation of Salk's greatest accomplishment#150;the first effective polio vaccine#150;were not found in any fancy college textbook, but came to light because he did not believe that some established scientific theories were the only way that problems could be solved. More specifically, as a young medical student in 1936 sitting in a lecture for a course entitled Bacteriology and of Electronic Records, Immunology, Salk recalls an effects of colonization experience that altered the course of his life (Sherrow 31): #9; I remember very vividly all the details about where I was sitting and what was happening, almost as if the light was turned on and everything became clear. We were told that one could immunize against diphtheria and tetanus. #9;In the next lecture , we were told it was not possible to immunize with a chemically treated or noninfectious (killed) virus vaccine, so that struck me as rather odd. How could both statements be true?

And I remember the answer we were given was that the cells of the inoculated individual that were involved in a virus infection had to hermes greek go through the of colonization, experience of the infection itself. Wrote. Why should that be, when the cells going through that experience were thus destroyed? How could that immunize cells that did not experience infection? Something's wrong here, I thought. #9;For me, what came together was the of colonization, question: Is it true you need a live virus for a safe, effective vaccine? And if it's not true, then what can be done with viruses, as can be done with a toxin, to render them harmless while retaining their effectiveness for immunization? #9;This encounter stayed with Salk throughout his life and helped to determine the path along which he would conduct his life's work. As stated in the opening quote, this intuitive ability that he possessed did not come from spending hours learning from his textbooks, but simply came from the ordinary experience of attending a lecture for class. It was this run-of-the-mill opportunity that changed Dr.

Jonas E. Salk's life forever. #9;Born on October 28, 1914, in a tenement apartment in and new imperialism similar? the East Harlem section of effects of colonization, New York City, Jonas Edward Salk was the Functioning, first of three sons born to Dora and of colonization, Daniel Salk. As recent immigrants to the United Stated from Russia, Salk's parents worked extremely hard to support their family. Daniel Salk manufactured and designed women's clothing and was often not at how were similar?, home during the hours when Jonas and his brothers were awake; therefore, his father did not play a major role or have a lasting impact on Jonas' life. His mother, on the other hand, was a forceful woman and felt it her duty to make her presence felt in effects of colonization the world through her sons (Carter 29). This desire caused Dora Salk to hermes become a devoted homemaker and of colonization, mother, despite the long hours she spent each day working in the garment district of New York City. She was so set on driving her children to greatness that she began reading to her sons and lecturing them on the pitfalls of self-indulgence even before they could hold their heads up on hermes their own. This endless instruction throughout early childhood lead to an early breakthrough; Salk's first spoken words were dirt, dirt, rather than the effects of colonization, conventional and uninspired no, no or Mama. Although tiring at times, the Essay Testing as a, Salk children no doubt benefited from their parents' example and from the emphasis on family life and education that was seated in their strong Jewish background. #9;A shy boy, Salk found a safe haven in his books; he wore glasses for nearsightedness and was hardly spotted without reading material in his hand. Of Colonization. It was not enough for Dora Salk that Jonas was bright and responsible, she felt that he should be subject to Vitro more exceptional stimuli than the other children in of colonization the neighborhood.

She gave Jonas daily lessons in perfection and held him to ever-changing standards. As soon as Jonas measured up to [her standards], he discovered that they had been raised, as in a pole-vaulting competition (Carter 29). #9;Jonas was highly intellectual as a young boy in more wrote during elementary school and his teachers were aware that they were dealing with someone who would one day soar to effects great heights. Endlessly inquisitive, Salk would subject his instructors to a barrage of questions, arrive at a logical conclusion, and share it with his peers. One adult stated, Even as a kid, when Jonas said anything, you could put it in Challenges of Electronic Health the bank (Sherrow 7). #9;While in school, Salk did not have much interest in effects the sciences, though oddly enough, he would later dedicate himself to this discipline. He completed only one science course in high school, physics, and spent the majority of his time focusing on the areas of how were old imperialism, school that he truly enjoyed, poetry, philosophy, and history.

#9;Always pushing her sons, Dora persuaded her husband and Jonas that he was not being sufficiently challenged by the neighborhood school and, at of colonization, age 12, Jonas qualified to enter Townsend Harris Hall, a gifted high school for male students in New York City. How Were And New Imperialism Similar?. This high school was run by City College of New York and, although free of effects of colonization, charge, students were expected to graduate in three years, rather than the traditional four. Jonas quickly adjusted to his new school and thrived on the challenges it presented in the curriculum. As Salk went through school, he realized that he wanted to do something significant with his life and something at which he could work independently (Sherrow 8). Salk graduated near the top of his class in Essay the spring of 1929 and is remembered by his classmates as a nice, but unremarkable boy (Carter 30). #9;Salk began college at City College in New York City in effects 1929 when he was just fifteen.

He entered college with plans to become a lawyer because law was a field in which injustice was obstructed. Also, it was an occupation of which his mother approved. Thomas Wrote Utopia Of. However, shortly after entering college, Salk's curiosity got the better of him and he enrolled in a laboratory chemistry course. It was during this particular class that Jonas became interested in science and of colonization, decided that he was eager to learn more about the domain of chemistry. Salk soon changed his major from law to chemistry because he felt that he had found a field that would combine his logical mind and sense of order with creative thinking (Sherrow 10). It was at this time, while Salk was still in college, that Franklin Delano Roosevelt became president. Salk was inspired as he learned how the great leader had survived a bout with paralytic poliomyelitis; Roosevelt's story sparked Jonas' interest and Vitro Testing Replacement, lead Salk to think about effects how he as an individual could help to better the world. Harvard. After much thought, Salk decided to attend medical school and pursue a career in the field of medical research; more specifically, to of colonization study diseases (such as polio) and Health, find ways to treat and cure them. #9;Jonas Salk entered medical school at effects of colonization, New York University in 1934 and he held a job as a laboratory technician in how were old imperialism and new similar? order to gain some research experience as he completed his medical coursework. While at NYU, Salk learned of and reflected on the work of early scientists in the filed of viruses, as this seemed to be a field in which his interest was growing.

To name a few, he studied Dr. Of Colonization. Edward Jenner, an English scientist who developed a way to thomas wrote utopia during a period prevent smallpox (the first vaccination), Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutchman who first looked at microorganisms under a microscope, Lazzaro Spallanzani, an Italian who showed that sealing food tightly in a container prevented microorganisms from growing, Louis Pasteur, a chemist who is known as the founder of microbiology and the father of the effects of colonization, germ theory of medicine, and Robert Koch, a German scientist who was the and new similar?, first to show that a specific microorganism caused a specific disease. #9;In 1938, Jonas was presented with an opportunity that later became another defining event in his life; he approached a microbiologist by the name of Dr. Thomas Francis who was visiting NYU to ask if he could help Dr. Of Colonization. Francis in his lab. Francis later said that Salk seemed a good young man, interested, with ideas (Sherrow 22). In years to come, Francis would involve Salk in a major project to inactivate the influenza virus using ultraviolet light. Through his work with Dr. Francis, Salk learned that killed viruses stimulated the development of hermes greek god myths, antibody levels as much as the effects of colonization, live virus itself. Their work lead to the development of an influenza vaccine and and In Vitro Testing Replacement, represented Jonas Salk's first major contribution to the world of medical research. #9;In June 1939, Salk received his medical degree and was married the next day to of colonization Donna Lindsay, a psychologist who was studying at of the Amygdala in Human Functioning, the New York School for Social Work.

Salk said he was now ready to move forward in his career, with a spouse who shared his intellectual interests and goals of making the world a better place (Sherrow 23). The Road to of colonization Discovery. #9;Salk and his new wife moved in 1940 as Salk secured a medical intern position at the renowned Mount Sinai Hospital in thomas wrote during a period of New York City. Jonas found time to continue his work in the laboratory, despite the long hours he was spending seeing patients and of colonization, attending lectures. Challenges Of Electronic Essay. During this time, Salk stayed in contact with Dr. Francis, who had gone to the University of Michigan to head a viral research laboratory, and effects of colonization, Jonas often discussed his own laboratory work with his mentor.

Salk began to websites harvard publish journal articles and was startled when other members of the Society for effects of colonization Experimental Biology and Medicine criticized his work. Francis helped him realize that it was not out of the ordinary for other scientists to criticize their peers who challenged traditional ideas. Hermes Greek God Myths. Overcoming the need for acceptance and validation marked a great step along Jonas' path to his discovery. #9;As Salk continued his work in the laboratory at Mount Sinai, his interest in virology grew and he decided that to best understand a disease, a physician must study the effects of colonization, ways in how were imperialism similar? which the of colonization, disease and the human body interact. Many of his colleagues criticized this concept as well when he first discussed it with them. #9;In 1941, Dr. Francis invited Salk to come and work with him in Michigan; their work was to center around the discovery of an influenza vaccine. Salk did a lot of work at this time in an attempt to god myths discover whether a vaccine containing live viruses was the most efficient way to provide a patient with immunity or whether a vaccine containing only effects, dead viruses would work just as well. These experiments mark one of The Role Amygdala Essay, Salk's major contributions to the medical field.

In 1944, the flu vaccine became available, thanks to the work of Dr. Effects Of Colonization. Francis and Dr. Salk. #9;In the next five years, Salk became recognized in his field and of Electronic, began to get invitations to address scientific conventions. This was the validation and acceptance for which Jonas had been striving since his childhood. Finally feeling truly comfortable in the field of medical research, he decided that he wanted to set up his own laboratories. Salk took a new position at the University of effects of colonization, Pittsburgh in 1947; in the same year, he was invited to take part in a national effort to of Electronic Health Records Essay identify all of the types of effects of colonization, viruses that cause poliomyelitis. The University of Pittsburgh was very excited about this opportunity for their new faculty member and allowed Jonas to develop some of the university facilities into his laboratories. Salk was ecstatic. How Were Old Imperialism And New. As Salk and his team worked to type the polio viruses, he remained in effects close contact with others in his field, such as Dr. Of The Amygdala Functioning. Thomas Francis, Dr.

Albert Sabin, and of colonization, Dr. John Enders. During this time, Salk also began thinking about developing a vaccine for Essay Testing and In Vitro Testing Replacement the crippling disease known as polio that hit the of colonization, citizens of the United States in yearly cycles. #9;In 1950, Salk was awarded research money from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to citing websites harvard begin work on a polio vaccine. Other scientists received similar grants, including Sabin and Enders; thus, the race for the cure was on. Jonas planned from the beginning to develop a vaccine containing killed viruses only, although the controversy between live-virus and killed-virus vaccines still remained. Scientists did not know whether a killed-virus vaccine would work against effects, polio and many frowned on Salk's decision. #9;Salk and his research team first hit the hermes greek god myths, news when they made progress in growing polioviruses more quickly than any other laboratory; they also showed that killed-virus vaccines prevented poliomyelitis in test monkeys. Jonas presented his work at the Second International Poliomyelitis Congress in of colonization Copenhagen, Denmark, again receiving validation from his peers. One scientist, though, who was not entirely supportive of Salk's work was Dr. Albert Sabin; he told Salk to be cautious, that the human body might react quite differently when confronted with the same substances the. team was testing in Animal Vitro experimental animals in the lab (Sherrow 58).

Salk and Sabin continuously disagreed and these conflicts increased in number in the years that followed. #9;In 1952, Salk believed that he had, in fact, developed a successful polio vaccine using dead viruses and the only way to judge its success was to begin human tests. The first experiments were done on children who lived in the D. T. Watson Home for Crippled Children in Leetsdale, Pennsylvania; these children had already had polio and knowingly underwent the testing. No children became ill and effects, the significant rise in their antibody levels was exactly what Salk had expected and Essay Animal as a Replacement, wanted. The next step was to test the effects, vaccine on individuals who had never before had poliomyelitis.

For these tests, he vaccinated himself, his wife, and his three sons. This experiment was also successful and, in 1953, he agreed to begin mass trials. #9;National testing began in hermes greek 1954 with participants who have come to be known as the Polio Pioneers, half a million children from effects age six to nine who received the polio vaccine. Another half million children made up the control group. Dr. Francis got the job of analyzing all test results, as he was viewed as an unbiased party.

#9;The long-awaited results of the study came in the spring of Health, 1955. Although not foolproof, the Salk vaccine had proven 60%-90% successful in preventing poliomyelitis. An entire nation breathed a sigh of relief; there was an answer, after all, to the horrible epidemic known as polio. A newspaper headline on April 12 read: The Salk Vaccine is effects Safe, Effective, and Potent. Polio is Conquered (Sherrow 80). #9;Salk instantly became a national hero. President Dwight D. Eisenhower presented him with the United States Medal of Merit, which Jonas accepted on behalf of thomas more utopia a period, all the effects of colonization, people, in laboratories, in the field, and those behind the The Role Amygdala in Human Functioning, lines (Sherrow 83). Dr.

Salk was the subject of of colonization, tremendous media coverage, constantly bombarded with invitations for Animal Testing Vitro radio spots, newspaper appearances, and, of course, commitments within the medical community. Salk was also awarded both the Lasker and Criss Awards, prominent awards in the medical arena, among others; several schools, streets, and buildings were named after him. The vaccine was licensed and labeled safe and, throughout the effects of colonization, process, Salk never sought material gain for his work; for this, many Americans admired him. #9;By 1962, the obvious benefit of the Salk polio vaccine was evident, as seen in the following statistics from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, and Challenges Essay, Centers for effects Disease Control: Number of polio cases reported in the U.S.

#9;Although enthusiastic about his successful discovery, one form of public recognition that Salk probably hoped to Testing Vitro Testing receive was the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He was nominated for the award, but was not selected by the committee. Many scientists claim that Salk did not deserve the Nobel Prize because his work on the killed-virus vaccine used various techniques from existing science. It was not new and effects, original work. and the Nobel Prize is reserved for scientific breakthroughs (Sherrow 88). This was undoubtedly one of the few disappointments of Dr. Functioning. Jonas E. Effects. Salk's life. #9;The National Foundation for of the Amygdala Functioning Infantile Paralysis declared in effects 1958 that polio was no longer a major American health threat and, thus, stated that they would not fund any subsequent polio research. This was more validation for Jonas that the Salk vaccine had indeed achieved its goal. A survey of Americans in that same year found that Dr. Salk was one of the two best-known American scientists; the other was Robert Oppenheimer, the physicist who had directed the secret research project to build the harvard, atomic bomb during World War II.

With this additional recognition, Salk seemed to be flying high; he had done what he had originally set out to do#150;develop a vaccine#150;and now he was being showered with the effects, attention that he had always wanted. #9;In the late 1950s, though, Salk's longtime adversary, Dr. Albert Sabin, developed a live-virus vaccine for Essay Testing poliomyelitis. The vaccine was approved by effects, the American Medical Association even before it was tested, a practice that was unprecedented; many believed that the in Human, AMA looked more favorably on Sabin's vaccine because it used the traditional live-virus technique as opposed to the new method that Salk had introduced. Also, the Sabin vaccine was easier to take; it replaced the numerous injections that the Salk method required with simple swallowings of sugar lumps containing the vaccine. The Sabin vaccine was tested on effects millions of citizens of the Soviet Union and the United States Public Health Service approved full licensing early in 1962. #9;By 1963, the Sabin oral vaccine was preferred to Salk's injected vaccine in the United States. The largest advantage of the Sabin technique over the Salk vaccine was that it could be administered by anyone, instead of only trained medical professionals since it involved placing only a few drops of liquid on a sugar cube.

Also, it meant fewer shots for innocent children. Most of the polio inoculations administered today are from the Sabin rather that the Salk vaccine (Pamplin, Jr. and Eisler 126). A Lasting Contribution and His Continuing Work. #9;Salk spent the years from Essay Animal Testing as a 1955-1960 in the public eye, promoting his vaccine and the principle of the killed-virus vaccine, while putting his laboratory research on hold. After these years of public appearances, though, he was ready to resume his lab work and effects, he was thrilled when one of his supporters from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis offered to help him build his own biological institute. Salk was excited about the possibility of bringing together leading workers in greek diverse fields and freeing them to effects of colonization collaborate with each other without departmental or administrative barriers (Sherrow 95). After a great deal of searching for the perfect place that would have the ability to evoke and inspire creativity (Sherrow 97), Salk found the ideal location in La Jolla, California, located next to San Diego. This spot was excellent not only because of the breathtaking view, but also because the mayor of old imperialism, San Diego had been crippled by of colonization, polio. The mayor asked the Records, city to effects give Salk a piece of land along the coast and, despite some initial misgivings among the city's population, the plan for the Salk Institute was approved.

#9;Dr. Salk selected a world-famous American architect, Louis I. Kahn, to design the The Role of the Amygdala in Human, institute and worked closely with him to make the buildings function well for scientific research. Then, he carefully selected the first group of scientists that he would invite to work for effects of colonization him; his selections included: mathematician-philosopher Jacob Bronowski, physicist Francis H. More Utopia. C. Crick, physician Renato Dulbecco, theoretical physicist Edwin Lennox, and biologist Leo Szilard. The Salk Institute was officially founded in 1964, exactly ten years after national testing of the Salk vaccine had begun with the Polio Pioneers. #9;In addition to his continued administrative duties at the Salk Institute, Jonas spent his time teaching and writing. Always anxious to return to effects his primary love of medical research, though, Dr. Jonas E. Of Electronic Health. Salk announced at age 75 that he had been concentrating on AIDS research. He had started work on a killed-virus vaccine for AIDS in early 1986, again battling against those in of colonization the medical field who continued to doubt the effectiveness of Challenges Essay, a technique employing dead viruses. Although his work has not yet lead to an AIDS vaccine, Salk's research has produced an immunogen that can be administered to effects those that are HIV-positive in order to citing websites harvard slow or prevent the onset of disease.

This quasi-vaccine was the first AIDS-inhibiting product to be subjected to mass testing in the United States#150;another Salk breakthrough. Salk in Relation to Gardner's Model. #9;Dr. Jonas Salk fits into Howard Gardner#146;s model of creativity if the of colonization, guidelines of the mold are loosely applied. In other words, there are numerous instances in citing which Salk perfectly fits into Gardner#146;s parameters, while there are many other situations in which Salk defies the Gardnerian model and effects of colonization, stands in a category all his own. #9;To begin with the similarities to the model, Salk was the oldest child in his family, a trend that can be traced through subjects that Gardner has studied in the past, such as Sigmund Freud. God Myths. Jonas#146; place in his family#146;s birth order helps to explain the effects, later drive and determination that he demonstrated in his chosen domain. Another early factor in Salk#146;s life was the old imperialism imperialism, family environment, a determinant Gardner often cites as aiding in the future career choices of gifted creators.

As with the other innovators in Creating Minds , the of colonization, household in which Jonas grew up was comfortable and never failed to provide him with everything he needed to Challenges Health Essay succeed. Gardner also alludes to the fact that many great creators have parents who are not highly educated but, nonetheless, value education and of colonization, wish for their children the and new similar?, opportunity for of colonization learning that they did not have. This was indeed the case in the Salk household; his parents, both garment workers with only hermes greek god myths, eighth-grade educations, pushed Jonas to effects strive for excellence and helped him to succeed at The Role of the Functioning Essay, a gifted high school. #9;As Jonas matured, he discovered his area of of colonization, interest at the age of fifteen; he was just a youngster as many of Gardner#146;s other subjects, like Albert Einstein. Salk began to concentrate on his medical studies and worked closely with a mentor, Dr.

Thomas Francis, again following Gardnerian guidelines; this relationship bore likeness to citing websites harvard the alliance between Igor Stravinsky and effects of colonization, Serge Diaghilev. Jonas maintained this relationship with Francis for many years, while also keeping in close contact with others in his domain, namely Dr. Albert Sabin and Dr. Vitro Testing Replacement. John Enders. Salk had enormous support at home from his wife while he performed the research that lead to his greatest medical contribution#150;the polio vaccine#150;and this support at the time of a breakthrough was also predicted by Howard Gardner#146;s model. Further, Gardner believes that for an individual to truly be creative, the domain in which one concentrates must recognize the work. Salk received such validation after his great discovery by being awarded several honors, namely the Lasker Award and effects, the Criss Award. #9;Howard Gardner laid out more general guidelines upon Essay Animal and In Vitro as a, which to measure creativity and effects, Jonas Salk follows these as well. First, he made a Faustian bargain.

Although he cared deeply about his wife and sons, Jonas knew that he could not spend large amounts of time with them while also researching a cure for polio. Therefore, he made a sacrifice and decided that he would spend quality time with them, but that he would make an websites even bigger committment to his chosen work. The concept of a Faustian bargain is a common characteristic that is seen time and effects of colonization, again in The Role in Human Functioning Essay Creating Minds ; this idea is most evident in the case of Pablo Picasso who completely devoted himself to of colonization painting when one of his sisters died of a critical illness. Also, Gardner often speaks of a 10-year cycle surrounding a creator#146;s breakthroughs. The Role Functioning Essay. This cycle can easily be seen in the work of T. S. Of Colonization. Eliot, Martha Graham, as well as Jonas Salk. Jonas worked for Dr.

Francis#146; research team and, in Essay Testing as a Replacement 1944, because of their work, the influenza vaccine became nationally available. Just a decade later, of effects of colonization, course, Salk made his greatest contribution to The Role of the Amygdala medicine when, in effects of colonization 1954, national testing of the poliomyelitis vaccine began with the Polio Pioneers. The Role Amygdala In Human. Finally, ten years later, in 1964, Salk made another breakthrough; the Salk Institute was officially founded. Despite all of the similarities, Jonas Salk does not fit flawlessly into Howard Gardner#146;s model of creativity. First, unlike many in Gardner#146;s book, Creating Minds , Jonas was not a child prodigy. He was strong in academics, namely in his logical-mathematical skills, but Jonas worked diligently in school and was not that extraordinary a student. Of Colonization. Also, as Salk grew up and citing websites harvard, began his family, he did not alienate them as some subjects like Einstein did; rather, he spent limited amounts of quality time with them.

Though he dedicated many of his hours to research, his loved ones always knew that he cared for them tremendously. Next, Gardner states that many innovators develop a new code for their domain, such as Martha Graham did in the modern dance arena. Of Colonization. Salk, in fact, did develop a unique medical technique, that of the killed-virus vaccine, but he did not codify a new language persay. This was the argument that other scientists used when they did not select Salk to be the recipient of the Nobel Prize. Lastly, unlike most of similar?, Gardner#146;s subjects, Jonas Salk was not conducting his work in a major city. Although Pittsburgh did have a large population base, it was not seen as a center of research in the 1940s and 50s.

If Salk had lived in New York City at the time of his discovery, place would have made a more significant contribution to his work. Salk was content, though, to keep in contact with his collegues by mail and telephone and this prevented him from having to effects of colonization move his family#150;something that was extremely important to him. #9;On June 23, 1995, one of the Essay and In Vitro Replacement, greatest scientific minds of the effects of colonization, modern era died of hermes, congestive heart failure at home in La Jolla, California. At the age of 80, the death of. Dr.

Jonas Salk, a pioneering researcher, shook the medical community. His colleagues say that his death represents a great loss to the medical field; Donald Francis, a clinical scientist and long-time admirer of Salk stated, Jonas was#150;in his own words#150;a change ahead of his time. It#146;s a shame that all the controversy buried the real accomplishments. The sad thing is that he never got the Nobel Prize for his work#150;he developed a technology rather than making a fundamental discovery (Sankaran 19). Although the vaccine was never patented and Salk personally gained no monetary benefits from his discovery, this was never his intent.

Jonas simply had a special vision of doing research and understanding humans as a whole. Effects Of Colonization. Named as one of the 12 heroes of our time (Sherrow 110), this is exactly how many Americans viewed him. Salk had a part in of the in Human Functioning three medical breakthroughs#150;participating in research that lead to vaccines for influenza, poliomyelitis, and AIDS. He is a researcher in a class occupied by few others and his legacy will live on for years to effects of colonization come. Amygdala In Human Functioning Essay. Jonas [was] in touch with the effects, world. He [was] aware of the world and concerned about it. He [saw] beyond the microscope at The Role Amygdala in Human, the larger world and found ways to make it better. He has inspired other to do the same (Sherrow 108).

Carter, Richard. Breakthrough: The Saga of Jonas Salk . New York: Trident Press, 1965. Gardner, Howard. Creating Minds . New York: Basic Books, 1993. Pamplin, Jr., Dr. Of Colonization. Robert B. and Eisler, Gary K. American Heroes: Their Lives, Their Values, Their Beliefs . Hermes. New York: Mastermedia Limited, 1995. Rowland, John. The Polio Man . New York: Roy Publishers, 1960.#9; Sankaran, Neeraja.

The Scientist . Vol. 9(15), pg. 19, July 24, 1995. Sherrow, Victoria. Effects. Makers of god myths, Modern Science: Jonas Salk . New York: Facts on File, 1993. The Importance of Dr. Salk's work --

This Document was last modified on effects Tuesday, August, 14 2001.

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Modern Physics and Hindu Philosophy. Emeritus Prof. of Physics, Department of Physics, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) 402 N. Effects? Blackford Street, Indianapolis, IN, 46202-3273. There are amazing similarities between implications of theories of modern physics and ancient Hindu philosophy as expressed in Essay Animal Vitro as a Vedas and Upanishads. The basis of Hindu philosophy is the mystical idea of Brahman. The Brahman is usually described by the words “Neti, Neti “meaning, not this, not this! When I went into of colonization study of physics, I realized that, as far as knowledge of ultimate reality is concerned, physicists are in exactly same situation as the ancient Rishis. Both cannot describe it in everyday language.

In Mundak Upanishad, knowledge is divided into two parts: Para Vidya which deals with the eternal truth that can lead to self realization and Apara Vidya which deals with knowledge about material world. Under this classification, Physics might come under Apara Vidya. But, I would like to convince you that Modern Physics is also Para Vidya! A number of early pioneers in quantum theory such as Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg and later Bohm, were deeply influenced by eastern mystical ideas. How Were Old Imperialism And New Imperialism Similar?? A number of books have been written on this subject.

Fritz Capra’s book in seventies on “The Tao of Physics” started the ball rolling. More recently, physicists Subhash Kak, Amit Goswami, John Hagelin (Maharshi Mahesh Yogi’s group) and of colonization, some others have published extensively on this subject. Now, I will describe briefly implications of some of the theories of modern physics for non-physicists. Physics which was discovered before the 20 th century is known as classical physics which describes everyday physics like major parts of mechanics, heat, electricity-magnetism, optics etc which are used extensively in engineering and technology. At the beginning of 20 th century, experimental data and certain inconsistency problems compelled physicists to accept two revolutionary theories: Quantum theory and Relativity theory. Physicists were forced to of Electronic Records, change their view of nature drastically as a result. Of Colonization? Initially, there was immense reluctance to give up classical ideas. They were forced into quantum theory and relativity theory kicking and screaming. First of more wrote utopia a period of, all, it was found that the world is effects, not made out of rigid firm objects like billiard balls or bricks. At the atomic and sub-atomic level it consists of fuzzy wavelike objects and lot of empty space.

So the solid nature of objects we see around is only apparent. As one goes deeper and Records, deeper, one keeps on finding vacuum all the effects of colonization way. Websites Harvard? This reminds one of the ideas of effects, sunyata and Maya or illusion covering the whole universe, as Adi Shankaracharya said “Brahma Satyam, Jagat Mithya”. Brahman is the only truth; the world is a false illusion. Now, just like us, he must have seen solid bodies, rigid walls and hermes, trees. Effects? I believe he realized that all of this disintegrates and thus cannot be fundamental reality. Thus, because of the covering of Maya, one does not see the underlying real Brahman. And New Imperialism? (Previously, the concept of Maya from Mandukya Upanishad was emphasized by Shankaracharya’s spiritual grandfather Gaudapadacharya). Similarly, in effects of colonization physics, one sees only the material objects around and does not see strange quantum fuzzy world underlying all the matter. Moreover, the particles of modern physics are believed to and new imperialism, be in some kind of suspended state devoid of of colonization, any specific properties until they are measured. They are in some sense both here and there at the same time and old imperialism, are described by a wave function, a superposition of seemingly contradictory properties. Such a description is very similar to effects of colonization, the description of Amygdala in Human Essay, Brahman e.g. in Ishopanishad: “It moves and it moves not; it is far and it is near; it is within all this and effects of colonization, it is also outside all this.” Then the ultimate shock of quantum theory came when Bell’s theorem and subsequent experiments proved the so called entanglements to be right.

In such cases, two or more atoms, electrons or photons demonstrate correlated properties even at distances where no communication is possible between them during the given time. These developments are the most important developments in of the Functioning Essay the history of physics and effects of colonization, perhaps in the whole of science. They give rise to the idea of the interconnected wholeness of the world and greek god myths, non-local interactions in contrast to the separate identities with local interactions. Thus atoms also exhibit holistic like properties and perhaps some primitive relationship to consciousness. So it is effects of colonization, not proper to say that any analysis starting with atoms is reductionist and not holistic.

The four Mahavakyas express similar concept about hermes greek god myths, individual and Brahman. Pragnanam Brahman – Consciousness is effects of colonization, Brahman (Aitareya Upanishad 3.3 of the Rig Veda) Ayam Atma Brahman – This Self (Atman) is Brahman (Mandukya Upanishad 1.2 of the Atharva Veda) Tat Tvam Asi – That Thou art (Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7 of the Sama Veda) Aham Brahmasmi– I am Brahman (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10 of the Yajur Veda). Wrote Utopia During Of? Thus Brahman is present in everything. This matches very well with the concept of modern physics that everything is made out of the same fundamental particles. Another basic finding of quantum theory is the involvement of the effects observer in the observed things. The Role Of The In Human Essay? It is impossible to separate the effect of the measuring apparatus from the object measured. Detachment of the two is just not possible. Such an idea about the observer and the object of observation is also emphasized in Upanishads. It is behind the effects holistic philosophy about mind and body.

A leading current model of origin of universe assumes that there was total vacuum in the beginning and the universe arose from a quantum fluctuation. In this way something came out of thomas of, nothing. Effects Of Colonization? At that time it was totally dark since light had not emerged from vacuum yet! Compare this model with the following quotation from Vayupuran about origin of universe. “In the beginning, there was nothing in Essay Testing and In Testing as a the universe. The Brahman (the divine essence) alone was everywhere. The Brahman had neither color nor scent; it could not be felt or touched. It had no origin, no beginning or no end. The Brahman was constant and it was the origin of everything that was destined to be in the universe and the universe was shrouded in darkness. ” Nasadiya Sukta (story of creation) also mentions that there was total darkness before creation.

There are strange facts in the theory of relativity also: It requires that measurement of time depends on observer’s motion and also the strength of gravitational field he/she is in. An often recurring mention in Hindu scriptures is that Brahma’s time is different from effects ours. Hermes God Myths? When one hears about Arjun looking at the past, present and future in the mouth of Lord Krishna in Vishwaroop Darshan (Ch.11 of Bhagvatgeeta), one is reminded of collapse of the of colonization space time coordinate system near singularities of and new similar?, general theory of relativity. Also, it is well known that Hindu scriptures came up with the correct order of magnitude of the age of universe of several billion years, when other religious systems insisted on the age to be a few thousand years. As an example of violation of conventional logic, let me mention one situation. Consider a simple logical inference such as: if in a roomful of 200 people, 50 have brown eyes, then 150 do not have brown eyes. Effects? Bell’s inequalities are based on such logical statements when applied to quantum objects. They are violated by hermes greek god myths, experimental results on atomic systems. Conclusions from quantum theory agree with the experiments.

Such a situation would correspond to Upanishad’s idea that Brahman cannot be understood by logic! If it can be understood, it is not Brahman! There is a story about two yogis. One meditated all day. The other one read scriptures all day. At the effects of colonization end of how were and new imperialism, every day the second one always said “I do not understand. I do not understand”. Then one day, to the great surprise of the first one, the second one said loudly, “I understand.

I understand”. The first yogi asked him with astonishment as to what suddenly happened. Effects? “Now you understand everything suddenly!” The second yogi replied “I now understand that this cannot be understood!” Anyway, to me, it does not appear surprising that when one tries to of Electronic Records, put mathematical ideas of modern physics in effects human languages, they look similar to the philosophical ideas of ancient Rishis obtained after deep meditations. In fact it would be shocking if they did not agree. This would be true if e.g. the in Human Essay world was described by classical physics. I think the nature of reality is such that both parties were forced to effects of colonization, adopt these ideas. As for Rishis, it is Animal and In, not clear when that classical to quantum transition took place or indeed if there was a sharp transition like modern physics.

Some parts of Vedas are full of effects, worship of natural elements like wind, water, fire etc and also picture Gods to look like human beings in the form of avatars. In some parts of Vedas and many Upanishads, we see clearly concept of abstract, omnipresent, invisible, eternal, transcendent and thomas more wrote of, immanent Brahman who has qualities unfamiliar in of colonization our everyday life. Just as many things in everyday world are described by classical physics, concept of deities would correspond to classical concepts in our scriptures. There is nothing wrong with that. Concept of Brahman would correspond to quantum concept. Now, a standard explanation for the seemingly bizarre behavior of particles in modern physics, which most physics professors tell their students, is that we are looking at the systems which are tens of billions times smaller than our everyday world.

Thus we should not be surprised that these do not correspond to hermes god myths, our everyday life models and effects of colonization, our everyday language may very well fail to Animal Testing Vitro as a Replacement, describe these. One may argue that large objects like us consist of effects of colonization, trillions and trillions of atoms. They have to approach classical limit. There is how were old imperialism and new similar?, some truth in that. Crawling babies find out pretty soon that they cannot go through the walls like electrons.

One caution against these arguments is that physicists have been finding quantum effects in larger and effects of colonization, larger systems (such as lasers, superconductivity, superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensation etc) and entanglements have been found at Challenges of Electronic Health Essay distances of several miles. Thus it is not clear that quantum mechanics is not applicable to large systems. Also, what about consciousness and thought processes? Is there something quantum mechanical about them? As a matter of fact many scientists such as Penrose, Hameroff and Stapp have suggested that consciousness in our brain may arise from atomic size domains and hence consciousness may be quantum mechanical in of colonization nature. Admittedly, these are preliminary models and currently there is no real understanding of consciousness. Both modern physics theorists and Rishis reciting Upanishads were using their thought processes in brain. Obviously human brain evolved as human body evolved in old imperialism similar? nature. So one possibility is of colonization, that some cognitive information about of the Functioning, nature may be stored in the brain. A question for physics is that why mathematics works so well when our intuition based on of colonization everyday life fails.

After all, mathematics is also creation of human mind. God Myths? In fact, as I mentioned before, Bell’s inequalities bring out in effects of colonization a superb way that conventional logic fails in quantum theory. Thus somehow mathematics describes systems which are outside our everyday experience. Animal Testing And In Vitro Testing? Similarly, why Rishis realized something in their meditations which went beyond their everyday intuitions? They were living in of colonization the classical world like everybody else in cottages, carrying out the usual human activities. More Wrote Of? In both cases the analysis looks irrational from the conventional logical point of effects of colonization, view. Perhaps deep within our brain, there is some component which goes farther than experiences in Health Essay everyday world. It is somehow sensing the so called “ultimate reality” which physicists have arrived at by using mathematics and Rishis arrived at by deep meditations. This may be like the story of of colonization, several blind men touching different parts of an elephant and citing harvard, drawing different conclusions about the shape of the elephant.

Some time one hears the argument that internal world is different from external world. Of Colonization? Even some Swamijis emphasize that material and spiritual world are different. I was never convinced by that argument. World is world. How can internal laws be different from external laws? My internal world is actually somebody else’s external world!

If we assume that the internal world cannot be independent of the external world, we have to conclude that this similarity in philosophical statements of modern physics and ancient Indian mysticism is not a coincidence. It must be the “ultimate reality” of nature. Most of the western scientists and many Indian scientists believe this to be merely coincidence without any significance. In fact some western scientists have ridiculed such similarities as accidental and misleading. I have been myself wavering for a number of years about whether this is accidental and forced association or genuine. Now I am convinced that it is a real association.

I suspect there is an all pervading holistic non-local layer which we may call Brahman. Part of our consciousness may draw on this. Citing Websites? This connection may be what is effects, called Atman. Non-local entanglements of atoms may be also related to this layer. Local interactions which one sees in physics and also in everyday life may be superimposed on The Role Functioning Essay this. These are much more prevalent. The main point of this article is that somehow sensory and non sensory aspects of the universe agree. A complete answer to of colonization, these puzzles will come when we understand consciousness and its relation to the nature at large. Some authors (notably Amit Goswami) conclude that consciousness creates reality including atoms. I have some reservations about this conclusion.

From the perspective of Physics, it is well-known that quantum mechanical reactions went on during big bang and stars long before any conscious living being was born. So it is hard to believe this. Similar arguments can be made against Maharshi Mahesh Yogi’s program of unified field of consciousness. The program of grand unified field theory of physics is nowhere near completion, especially as far as gravity and strong interactions are concerned. Also, scientifically we know very little about consciousness. It is really too premature to thomas more wrote of, talk about a unified field of consciousness although it could be true. From the effects of colonization point of view of physics I would like to have a program to understand consciousness starting with atoms or elementary particles i.e. a bottom up approach rather than a top down approach. Starting with elementary particles, inanimate objects like rocks etc, then cells, plants, bacteria, animals and finally human beings would have progressively increasing consciousness. All of this will be related to the ultimate reality and it is our task to understand it. A well known physicist has talked about the and In Vitro Replacement search of a fundamental particle (Higgs particle) as “God particle” in a joking manner. But if the effects of colonization mystic association with Brahman is true then the of Electronic joke would have a sense of reality and we may be closer than ever in our understanding of Brahman.

*This article is based on a paper presented at the First International Conference on of colonization Holistic Vision and Integral Living, Oak Ridge (TN, U.S.) Aug. 27/28, 2010. Kashyap V. Vasavada. B.S. (Physics) M.S. Univ. of Essay, Baroda (India) M.S. Of Colonization? (Physics) Delhi Univ. (India) Ph.D. Wrote Utopia A Period? (Physics) Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD. Research Associate NASA. Asst.

Prof. of Physics, Univ. of Connecticut (Storrs, CT) Associate and Full Professor of Physics, Indiana-Purdue Univ. Indianapolis, IN. Visiting Professor, Cornell Univ. Of Colonization? Ithaca, NY.

Currently, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Indiana-Purdue Univ. Indianapolis IN. I have published a number of of Electronic Health Records, articles in internationally known Physics journals.

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How to Improve Your Essay Writing Quickly: A Step-by-Step Guide. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. Whatever your brand of brilliance – whether you’re a physics genius, a sporting hero or (like me) a blinky, bookish type – there comes a point in most students’ academic careers when being good at life means being good at of colonization, essays. As the subjects you study get more advanced and complex, you’re increasingly asked to think, evaluate, and have opinions where you once might have simply made calculations or learned definitions. In general, the further you progress through your education, the more rote learning will be replaced by the kind of of the Amygdala Essay analysis usually best demonstrated by essays. If by some miraculous feat you manage to effects of colonization, avoid writing anything substantial at high school, it’s something you’ll almost certainly have to face at university – yes, even if you’re studying a science subject (although the essays won’t usually be quite as long). Citing. One way or another, essay writing comes to of colonization, us all. In essays, like running, practice makes perfect; but with running the correlation is more obvious. The likelihood is that at some point in old imperialism the not-too-distant future (unless you are both incredibly reluctant and startlingly resourceful) you will have to write an essay, either in exam conditions or in your own time, that will count towards a final grade in some way.

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Before you even start planning an essay, I’d recommend you sit down and effects of colonization have a quick think about how you want to do it. First, what resources will you need? The internet, or library books? This might affect where and how you decide to work: I have wasted a huge amount of Challenges Health Records time trying to find versions of articles on the internet that I knew were in books at the library, or procrastinating because I wanted to effects of colonization, work at home rather than leaving the house. I would recommend taking yourself to a library ninety-nine times out of a hundred. Secondly, if you’re working from books or downloadable articles, can you afford to work somewhere without the internet? The absence of Facebook and Instagram will guarantee your concentration will be about a hundred times better, which will show in the quality of Testing your work. Next, make a little timeline for effects of colonization your essay. Make a list of of the Amygdala in Human everything you want to of colonization, read and try to get hold of all your material before you start. Think about how long you’re going to spend reading and researching, planning, and writing – leaving a day or two before the deadline to make any significant changes, or just in case things don’t go to plan.

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– Wikipedia: a very useful starting-point, and an increasingly reliable resource. Effects Of Colonization. However, avoid referencing it: a teacher or examiner might not like it and Essay Animal Testing Vitro as a Replacement may take against effects your essay. Citing. Instead, look at the reference section at the bottom of the article and see where the effects of colonization writer has gathered their information from. – Online blogs: in Testing and In general, stay away from these, as you don’t know who’s written them and how valuable their opinion is, or how reliable their facts. The exceptions are blogs by well-known experts. Make notes of things that seem interesting as well as the things that are strictly relevant. You want to be sure you answer the question but that interesting comment will often work its way into your essay and effects of colonization you don’t want to waste ages searching for it.

It might feel like the world’s greatest faff, but taking good notes from your sources will save you a huge amount of how were and new similar? time when you come to effects, plan and write your essay: – Type out old imperialism, notes as you read, rather than simply underlining or highlighting – thus you’ll have a summary of the most important chunks of essays ready to effects, use when you plan, rather than having to trawl through whole documents again looking for quotations. – For this reason, if you think you might want to quote something, copy it out in the exact wording of the writer. – Type notes in a different colour for thomas more during each new source you read. In order to effects of colonization, engage intelligently with what you’ve read, you’ve got to Amygdala in Human Essay, remember who said what, what they meant by of colonization it, who they were fighting against and whether you agreed with them or not. Colours are a really helpful visual aid to doing this. – At the end of each new essay or article, write a few lines summarising the author’s main points, and whether or not you agree with them.

N.B. Your critical engagement with the scholars and authors whose work you’ve read will count for a huge chunk of marks. This does not mean listing a load of names and rehearsing their arguments; nor does it mean disagreeing with everyone for the sake of of it. Instead, think about whether or not what they’re arguing holds true in your experience – or compare them to each other. Decent planning at sea will help you avoid sea monsters. Decent planning in of colonization essays will help you avoid irrelevant waffle. Planning is the Essay Testing and In as a Replacement single most important step in writing a good essay, and, frustratingly, also the step that’s most often rushed or neglected by students. If your essays often get criticised for effects of colonization having poor structure or unclear lines of argument, chances are you need to practise your planning.

I use the following step-by-step process to turn my notes into a good plan; you can try it too, and see if it works for you. 1) Re-read your notes a couple of times, and underline anything you think is The Role Amygdala particularly important, interesting, or relevant to the area of the topic you want to discuss. As far as possible, try and organise your thoughts into sections, and see if you can link ideas together. Tip: It might be that you’ve got two or three different ideas for a topic, and you’re not sure which to go with: in this case, you can use a couple of different spider diagrams to see which works best. Where do the effects of colonization ideas link together most easily, or fall together into thomas utopia during of neat sections? Which question would you be able to of colonization, answer most fully? 2) Sit back and look at your diagram(s), perhaps alongside your notes, and work out the main ‘point’ or conclusion you want to make in your essay. Records Essay. The best essays are characterised by a clear line of argument throughout – I don’t really buy the idea that essays should present both sides of a question. I always decide what I’m trying to say ; the effects of colonization point I want to conclude with, before I start.

Now, the job you’ve got in writing the essay is to Testing and In Testing Replacement, set this conclusion up. 3) Work backwards, using the links you’ve made on your spider diagram: what do you need to argue or show to make your point? Jot these ‘points’ down in a couple of words each. This forms the beginnings of a skeleton for your essay. 4) Start to fill out effects, your skeleton with information from how were old imperialism imperialism your notes, and any extra ideas you might have. If you’re writing a literature essay, it’s CRUCIAL that you include some close analysis of passages to support your argument. Jot down the sentences that link these in to the greater structure. 5) Fill out your skeleton more and more, until it’s essentially a rough draft in bullet points. Every twist or nuance of your argument should be in there; every introductory and concluding sentence for every paragraph, making it explicit how this paragraph answers your question. Non-experts can be just as useful as experts for looking over your work; if your essay makes sense to someone who doesn’t know much about the topic at hand, that’s a good sign. 6) At this point, it’s very helpful if you can get someone (a friend or a parent will do) to read over your plan and see if it makes sense.

Does everything follow? Is it all relevant? Your plan should be so complete that the person who reads it will immediately be able to spot any flaws. Move things around, add or delete to incorporate their criticism: it’s much easier to change something in bullet-point format than when it’s all written out properly. Don’t expect this process to be quick or easy.

For a 1500-word essay, I usually write a plan of about three sides, and spend at least three hours making sure that before I put pen to paper, every kink in my argument is ironed out. Of Colonization. The pay-off of doing it this way is that the and new similar? writing process is short and effects of colonization easy – a case of joining up the dots, polishing bullet-points into sentences – much better than coming up with ideas and organising thoughts at the same time as finding the words to express them. Get better and better: If you struggle with structure or clarity, practise your planning! Give yourself a limited amount of time (say, two hours), pick three previous essay questions from an exam or coursework paper, and plan your answers as thoroughly as possible. Get your teacher to look over in Human Functioning Essay your plans when you’re done. The ‘actual writing’-bit can be the effects of colonization most daunting and citing websites harvard stressful part of the essay process, and effects of colonization is where most students get stuck. Here are some tried-and-tested solutions to common writing problems: Blank pages become much less frightening when they aren’t blank any more. Essay Animal And In As A. You can polish your style later; now is the time just to get something written. It’s quite common to of colonization, want your first sentence to be arresting, paradigm-shifting, to propel your reader headlong into god myths your essay.

However, this desire can be paralysing: one of the most stressful feelings in the world is that of staring at a blank page, thinking about the effects of colonization number of words you’ll need to fill it all up. The key to getting started is to just write something . Don’t worry about how good it is – get it down, and move on, and come back and change it when you’re well into your flow. Go back to citing websites, your plan and make sure you know what you’re arguing. If you still can’t get the words out, try and write down what you want to effects of colonization, say as simply as possible. Then move on to an old imperialism and new similar? easier section of the essay. Alternatively, you can try going for a walk, making a cup of tea or having a break. Sometimes, in the process of writing, you’ll realise that you entirely disagree with two-days-ago you, and you don’t really believe in of colonization the argument you’re trying to make. Animal Testing Vitro As A Replacement. If it is the case, go back to the drawing board. Don’t plough on effects of colonization, regardless – a lack of conviction will show in your essay.

Return to your plan, and see if you can use similar material but change the emphasis, and perhaps the odd bit of thomas more wrote during of evidence, to produce a different argument. Everyone has their own individual writing style: your might be as purple and flowery, or scientific and direct as you like (within reason). However you write, to get top marks, it’s crucial that you learn to be precise . The proverb, “Eggs and oaths are soon broken”, is an example of zeugma. Style-wise, there are two poles of effects of colonization wrongness: vagueness, and over-complication. Of course, every subject has its particular vocabulary, and learning this will be crucial, and sharpen your analysis; but remember that little words are your friends too!

Make sure that you know the exact meaning of each word you use. Crucially, make sure you know exactly what each word you’re using means, and think carefully about whether you’re applying it in the right context – remember that whoever is reading your essay will know better than you the meanings of old imperialism and new zeugma, stagflation or symbiosis. Finally, don’t hide behind subject-specific vocabulary: make sure that you’re using terms to contribute to and develop your essay, and nothing of the effects of colonization flow is Challenges of Electronic Records lost. – Get good at conventions like footnoting, and writing bibliographies. Examiners really do check these!

– When you’ve finished, leave the essay for a day or two, and then re-read it. Effects Of Colonization. If possible, get someone to proofread for websites harvard you. This way, you’ll avoid making lots of silly mistakes that threaten the clarity and of colonization flow of your essay. 25 Responses to “How to Improve Your Essay Writing Quickly: A Step-by-Step Guide” April 11, 2015 at 5:52 pm, l seales said: This article is extremely helpful in assisting me in identifying the pit falls of my essay writing.

July 01, 2015 at 9:47 pm, Reels said: Very helpful article which aims for a solid high standard. September 01, 2015 at hermes greek god myths, 3:31 pm, Seng manith said: I’m really poor in writing,so I need some advice from you. Effects Of Colonization. How can I improve it? September 03, 2015 at The Role of the Amygdala Functioning, 9:40 am, ORA Admin said: We hope this helps. November 23, 2015 at 8:06 am, Elham almoula said:

Thanks a lot for these important point.. But could you help me how to write a good ambitions essay. November 23, 2015 at 10:22 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. Unfortunately it is difficult for us to advise you on effects of colonization, your particular essay, but we have a large collection of essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of thomas more wrote during a period of use to you.

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What do you do when you’re in Amygdala in Human Functioning Essay a timed test? May 17, 2016 at 12:20 pm, Matt said: I found this extremely helpful when writing. I want to effects of colonization, be able to write college level work, and websites harvard it did work. I have gotten really high grades on my essays when I read this. July 05, 2016 at 9:29 am, Mouhcine said: I have improved my grades drastically when I started reading books that speak most to my authentic self. I do not just read on any topics. Effects. I select the citing websites harvard ones of particular interest to me.

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