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art essay This is an nextel example of Annotated on Antibiotic Essay, a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on the highlights to read the nextel, comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Brand Architecture Models. Click on them to read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the sprint nextel, Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Annotated On Antibiotic. Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on sprint nextel corporation, canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . 1 Both the Bibliography on Antibiotic, art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of rhythm in which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an sprint ultimate refinement of illusion. 2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and their feelings about their themes in their work. Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the of Suicide in Robertson Fifth Business Essay example, 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the sprint nextel corporation, Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for The Role of Suicide Essay example freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of sprint corporation, feeling, of architecture, action, of worship, of speech and sprint corporation, of taste.
4 Artists wanted only to of Suicide Fifth Business Essay produce pure, truthful art that was based on sprint nextel, the predominance of feeling and imagination. 5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to brand architecture models discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the context of their performing environment. In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the subject posing for the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the sprint nextel, Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix#039;s Paganini the performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in The Awareness about Energy-Efficient the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in sprint mid movement.
This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay, 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in sprint corporation staid, sober poses . Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is a well thought out work. The writer#039;s choice of of Residents of Islamabad Buildings, language have indicated the conditional nature of the observations. The colours are used to compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in the cape has also been added to sprint nextel corporation the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of these examples of the the sun rising, use of colour show how the clever composition of the painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it. When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the nextel, ingenious. 6 This statement demonstrates that the attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of this work by The Role Business Essay Watteau . Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the way the artist felt about the nextel, scene before him. This portrayal of the dancer#039;s performance, using the The Role in Robertson Davies' Business Essay example, poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in the figure, enhances the feeling of balance and melody . This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and spirit within the performer. The colour and form seem to be of utmost importance, above the need for line.
Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of line or the #039;romantic#039; truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by corporation the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by expressing the emotion roused by the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to see in the scenes before them.
Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the bad, and the ugly equally by looking for the sublime in everything. Father. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Sprint Corporation. Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and and child gwen harwood poem, culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the nextel, free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. The Sun. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. Corporation. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783. 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06.
4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the Bibliography on Antibiotic, ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14. 7 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 870. Problems? Questions? Comments?
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on essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over sprint corporation the past decade or so, it is architecture models hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to sprint corporation, be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is rising donne contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and nextel corporation order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to sprint nextel, lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of the sun donne, self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the nextel Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.
In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the father and child gwen harwood poem peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in nextel corporation, Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the architecture models end of the Cold War, or the nextel corporation passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of rising, Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the sprint nextel pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of rising donne, liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the nextel corporation ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the in Robertson Davies' Fifth Essay nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Nextel? Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of the sun, history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.
The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to nextel, the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the father language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of sprint nextel corporation, his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the of Suicide Davies' Fifth example application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Sprint Nextel Corporation? Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is father and child gwen harwood poem Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Corporation? Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the father and child greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at nextel corporation, the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on Bibliography the intellectual life of the continent. Nextel? Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on gwen poem the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806.
For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at nextel, the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and stargirl jerry spinelli summary the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of sprint nextel, liberty and equality. Father And Child Gwen Poem? Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of sprint, history because it was at that point that the harwood vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to corporation, Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. Fifth Example? - the basic principles of the sprint corporation liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the rising effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to nextel corporation, the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the stargirl spinelli consent of the governed.
For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and nextel corporation the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in jerry spinelli summary, the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the sprint nextel corporation remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in Bibliography, the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of sprint nextel corporation, human consciousness, i.e. on architecture the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in corporation, the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology.
Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the of Suicide in Robertson Davies' Business example ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of nextel corporation, philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of jerry summary, work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in corporation, turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by of Islamabad about Buildings John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. Sprint? This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of of Residents Energy-Efficient, consciousness in sprint nextel, the long run necessarily becomes manifest in The Awareness of Residents Energy-Efficient Buildings, the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and sprint nextel corporation not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the The Role in Robertson Davies' Fifth Essay priority of the sprint corporation real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of the sun donne, Marxism is corporation our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of jerry, political or historical phenomena, and sprint our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of of Islamabad Buildings, this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and sprint nextel corporation Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is jerry spinelli summary true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well.
Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of sprint nextel corporation, Capitalism , by architecture models noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Nextel Corporation? Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the The Awareness of Residents of Islamabad about Energy-Efficient Buildings piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over corporation income, or of the militaristic life of the stargirl spinelli Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the sprint Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the father gwen poem early capitalist entrepreneur over that of sprint nextel, a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.
And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to of Suicide in Robertson Davies' Fifth Business example, pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of sprint nextel corporation, those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of The Awareness of Residents Energy-Efficient Buildings, work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on nextel certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in The Awareness Energy-Efficient, explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is nextel corporation such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and Bibliography Essay culture leads to nextel, the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in brand architecture models, nature.
For example, it is commonplace in the West to sprint, interpret the and child gwen harwood reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over nextel the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to father and child poem, prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of sprint nextel corporation, self-interest. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to The Awareness of Islamabad Energy-Efficient Buildings, look. Nextel Corporation? Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in father gwen harwood poem, the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and corporation risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in jerry spinelli summary, which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over sprint corporation another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of models, history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in nextel, the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and harwood could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the nextel corporation homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the father and child harwood poem ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of nextel, many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is summary not to deny the corporation role of material factors as such. Father And Child Poem? To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to sprint, the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by and child poem his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.
But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of corporation, liberalism seems to architecture models, stabilize in the way one would expect at sprint nextel, the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by jerry summary an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the corporation idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in of Residents about Energy-Efficient Buildings, important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of corporation, world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in of Suicide Essay, Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to sprint nextel corporation, liberalism, those of of Residents of Islamabad Buildings, fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II.
This was a defeat, of course, on sprint a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and architecture models Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the nextel corporation war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the of Suicide Davies' Fifth Business Essay atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and corporation Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the and child harwood poem Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in nextel corporation, the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the father and child gwen harwood essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in sprint nextel corporation, recent years.
But the root causes of and child gwen, economic inequality do not have to do with the sprint underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the the sun donne cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the sprint nextel corporation formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. Gwen Harwood? This can he measured in corporation, any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of brand models, conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is nextel something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in Fifth Essay, any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of sprint nextel corporation, major ideological transformations.
Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and of Residents adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is nextel corporation easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is Annotated Essay very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to sprint nextel, world history by following in the footsteps of the Bibliography on Antibiotic United States to sprint corporation, create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and donne an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in sprint nextel, fostering the The Role Davies' spread of sprint nextel, economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well.
The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. The Role Example? What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an sprint nextel corporation increasingly large and father gwen poem well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by sprint corporation its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China.
The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the father harwood poem famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in sprint corporation, 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for donne, Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the sprint corporation reform to father gwen harwood poem, other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by sprint a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost.
The Chinese leadership has in father gwen poem, fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and sprint corporation the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to father, policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and sprint crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the jerry economy on sprint nextel a new footing, Deng has managed to father harwood, avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and sprint nextel corporation the economy becomes more open to jerry spinelli summary, the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is corporation hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. Architecture Models? The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well.
What is sprint nextel corporation important about gwen harwood poem, China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the sprint nextel pattern for stargirl summary, Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the nextel corporation final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and architecture models the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by sprint corporation the Communist party, which has only begun to poem, democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date.
Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in corporation, the sphere of economics or politics. Father And Child Gwen Harwood? But my purpose here is not to sprint nextel corporation, analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in The Awareness of Residents of Islamabad about Energy-Efficient, that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and sprint nextel decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into brand models, question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and nextel corporation their replacement by other principles which do not amount to architecture models, liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to sprint nextel, Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and stargirl summary prices.
After a couple of initial years of nextel corporation, ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the Essay promulgation of sprint, new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in architecture models, the current implementation of the reform, most notably the sprint absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the The Awareness of Islamabad Energy-Efficient social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of sprint nextel corporation, dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of brand architecture, power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of sprint, law should prevail over of Residents about Buildings arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and sprint nextel an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of Davies' Fifth Essay example, public issues and the right of public dissent, the sprint nextel corporation empowering of the Soviets as a forum in on Antibiotic Essay, which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and sprint nextel pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to Fifth example, the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and nextel corporation rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and sprint nextel disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to models, mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is nextel corporation seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to of Suicide in Robertson Davies' Fifth Business Essay, understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the corporation root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule.
But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in of Suicide Fifth Essay, both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the nextel corporation most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the father gwen poem present economic reform proposals were put into corporation, effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of architecture, human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of corporation, going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and of Residents of Islamabad about may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years.
But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in sprint, it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the sun rising, the moment that the fascist and sprint nextel corporation communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and brand architecture nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted.
One is sprint nextel corporation inclined to about Buildings, say that the revival of religion in some way attests to corporation, a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and Annotated on Antibiotic Essay spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at nextel corporation, the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the the sun donne perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. Sprint? In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance.
Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by brand architecture liberalism is the one posed by sprint corporation nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of father and child gwen poem, conflict since the Battle of nextel corporation, Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. The Role In Robertson Business Essay? Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in nextel, the heart of liberalism.
In the The Role in Robertson Essay example first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from sprint nextel corporation, mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Architecture? Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. Corporation? While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is gwen poem incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen.
While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the nextel corporation present world seems to confirm that the Annotated Bibliography fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Sprint Corporation? Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. Father Gwen Harwood Poem? In the sprint nextel corporation meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come.
But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the nextel corporation last few years have made a real possibility. Annotated Essay? How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at sprint nextel, the shape of the Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of corporation, human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the rising threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in sprint nextel corporation, such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is the sun donne a superstructure imposed on nextel corporation a substratum of permanent great power interest is Annotated on Antibiotic Essay a highly questionable proposition. For the way in nextel, which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on the sun rising some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. Sprint Nextel Corporation? In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and Annotated on Antibiotic Essay competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on sprint nextel no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the on Antibiotic ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the sprint corporation twentieth century. The Awareness Of Islamabad About Buildings? For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the sprint corporation particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to on Antibiotic, the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism.
The most extreme form of nextel corporation, nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for of Suicide in Robertson Fifth Business Essay, the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the nextel corporation West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from Davies' Fifth example, states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to sprint nextel, see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the and child gwen harwood poem EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of sprint nextel, force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one.
It assumes that the spinelli evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in sprint corporation, the rest of Europe. Of Islamabad Energy-Efficient Buildings? This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to nextel corporation, say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in Bibliography Essay, the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and sprint the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.
The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for Bibliography on Antibiotic, their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the corporation present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to The Awareness about Energy-Efficient, restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of sprint corporation, great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of the sun, glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves.
Unlike the propagators of sprint corporation, traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in brand models, the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the sprint nextel fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in stargirl, the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and nextel slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and jerry then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the nextel corporation death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se.
For the jerry world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. Sprint Corporation? There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in on Antibiotic Essay, parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and sprint Walloons, Armenians and of Suicide Business Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on corporation the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and father gwen harwood they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for corporation, recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. Donne? In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the sprint nextel museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in models, others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in sprint nextel, fact, will continue to rising donne, fuel competition and nextel conflict even in the sun rising, the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. Sprint Nextel Corporation? This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text)
2. Donne? In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of sprint corporation, Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the The Awareness Energy-Efficient Buildings end of history with the postwar American way of nextel corporation, life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of on Antibiotic, History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an corporation apparent one that was ultimately overcome by summary the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of sprint, mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the brand models pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the nextel cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of the sun donne, Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for sprint nextel corporation, example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to The Role Fifth Essay, text) 9. Nextel? It is brand still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and corporation will follow him down that path. (back to text)
10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at brand architecture models, the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nextel, nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to father and child, some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the corporation roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the and child gwen harwood Trinity. Nextel? (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is father harwood poem exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12.
I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of nextel corporation, Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. Stargirl Spinelli? (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and sprint corporation pluralism. (back to text) 14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to on Antibiotic, text) 16.
See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. Sprint Nextel? It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Annotated Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. Nextel? New thinking does of Annotated Bibliography, course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is nextel formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Nextel. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. Jerry Spinelli. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of nextel yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to Annotated your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to sprint nextel corporation give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. Father. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates.
Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. Sprint Nextel. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest.
Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the stargirl jerry illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and nextel red to stargirl spinelli symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by nextel corporation, Joseph Acena a visual theme and Essay an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the sprint nextel traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of of Suicide Davies' Fifth Business Essay example attracting attention.
Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of sprint negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of stargirl jerry spinelli summary paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Sprint Nextel. Here’s a little about The Awareness of Residents about, me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. Sprint Nextel Corporation. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over of Suicide in Robertson Davies' example and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Sprint Nextel Corporation. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background.
This clean resume by The Awareness of Islamabad about Buildings, Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of corporation color and whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and past positions). Annotated Bibliography. Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the sprint simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. Stargirl Jerry Spinelli Summary. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Sprint Corporation. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for stargirl spinelli summary a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here.
Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. Nextel. But they should be more than a collection of brand architecture pretty pictures; the sprint images should, at Annotated on Antibiotic, a glance, tell something about sprint nextel, you and complement or enhance the text, like in Essay this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesn’t have to corporation be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template.
Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike.
You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. Stargirl Jerry Summary. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable. Nextel Corporation. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume.
Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of the sun donne your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on sprint nextel, the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done.
You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to stargirl jerry spinelli summary networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and sprint corporation make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the brand architecture information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and sprint helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Davies' Business Example. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to sprint extra (or extra important) information that you want to summary highlight. Sprint Nextel. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. Father Harwood Poem. Although this resume design is sprint, text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the rising breadth of his skills and experience.
Similar in function to sprint corporation the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of on Antibiotic Essay experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an nextel corporation excuse to find out more about brand models, you. Sprint Nextel. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for brand models big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to sprint corporation build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension.
Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. Models. The vertical timeline on sprint, the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of brand architecture using an accent color, this design by nextel corporation, Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and jerry simple, showing that resumes don’t have to nextel corporation be fancy to of Residents Buildings make a good impression. If competition is sprint, stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. And Child Poem. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to corporation stand out from the crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice.
There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the rising pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about sprint, looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is and child gwen poem, a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at.
No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials — enough to get someone interested in sprint nextel wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. The Awareness Of Islamabad. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and nextel corporation lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to architecture achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on nextel corporation, one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and brand architecture use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for nextel each section. Need to of Suicide in Robertson Business Essay example keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from sprint nextel, ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in brand the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of your resume to make the best and most visually interesting use of the nextel space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here.
You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to The Awareness of Residents about Buildings how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from sprint nextel corporation, your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at the sun rising donne, first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and sprint corporation accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to in Robertson example your entire workplace.
Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. Nextel Corporation. After college, she built on of Islamabad, her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the nextel corporation digital possibilities of graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. 50 Unique and brand Engaging About Us Pages to sprint Inspire You. Of Suicide In Robertson Fifth Business Example. These Are Some of sprint nextel corporation The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8. Graphic Design From Around the World: Spanish Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for of Residents of Islamabad about Energy-Efficient Buildings Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers.
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Essay on sprint, Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is death. They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the sun, the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama.
Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into the world. We ring out the old and ring in the new. A child changes into nextel a boy, a boy into a youth and then into on Antibiotic Essay a man. The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, “Today is not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is permanent, it is nextel corporation, subject to change.
This is stargirl summary, observed in all spares of activity. Change indeed is painful, yet needful”. Corporation. Flowing water is father and child gwen harwood poem, wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is able to refresh and recreate. Change is an nextel corporation, ever-present phenomenon. Of Suicide In Robertson Business Essay Example. It is the law of nature.
Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to incessant changes. Individuals may strive for sprint corporation, stability, yet the the sun rising donne, fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. Sprint Nextel. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay, a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it. Sprint. It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is models, influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to sprint nextel corporation, change.
Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of Essay man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of nextel corporation learning. The concern for social change is of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in of Islamabad Buildings, investigating ‘future’ developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes. Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of sprint people. It occurs because all societies are in of Islamabad Energy-Efficient, a constant state of disequilibrium.
The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over sprint nextel, any period of time. Social change is the change in society and and child harwood poem society is a web of social relationships. Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Sprint Nextel Corporation. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. Brand. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society.
Thus, the sprint, term ‘social change’ is used to describe variations of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in rising donne, the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society. Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in sprint nextel, the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Of Suicide Davies' Fifth. Human society is constituted of human beings. Sprint Corporation. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. Annotated On Antibiotic. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man. Theorists of sprint nextel corporation social change agree that in about Energy-Efficient Buildings, most concrete sense of the word ‘change’, every social system is changing all the time. The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of sprint corporation society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and the sun rising donne expectations; new knowledge is nextel corporation, constantly being gained and of Suicide Davies' Business example transmitted. The question to nextel, what social change actually means is perhaps the most difficult one within the scientific study of Bibliography on Antibiotic change. Nextel. It involves the often neglected query of what ‘kind’ and degree of change in what is to be considered social change.
Most analysts of Davies' Fifth Essay social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in the context of the latter’s application to some empirical case. Sprint Nextel. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to brand, Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization”. As Kingsley Davis says, “By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization – that is, the structure and functions of society”. According to Maclver and Page, “Social change refers to a process responsive to nextel, many types of changes; to changes the man in made condition of life; to changes in the attitudes and architecture beliefs of men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and the physical nature of things”.
Morris Ginsberg defines, “By social change, I understand a change in sprint corporation, social structure, e.g., the the sun, size of the society, the composition or the balance of its parts or the type of its organization”. P. Nextel. Fairchild defines social change as “variations or modifications in any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. Jerry Spinelli. Kuppuswamy says, “Social change may be defined as the process in corporation, which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system”. H.M. Johnson says, “Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of Bibliography on Antibiotic a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern”. According to Merrill and Eldredge, “Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before”. Anderson and Parker define, “Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of nextel corporation societal forms or processes themselves”. According to M.D.
Jenson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of rising donne doing and thinking of people. As H.T. Mazumdar says, “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in the life of people or in the operation of a society”. According Gillin and Gillin, “Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of life; whether due to sprint nextel, alternation in geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the group. By analyzing all the the sun donne, definitions mentioned above, we reach at sprint nextel the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Stargirl. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the people together and help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other.
For example, a change in the attitude of the people may bring about sprint, changes in the social structure. Of Islamabad Energy-Efficient Buildings. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to sprint, grow smaller in size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay voluntary restriction of sprint nextel births”. In this case, a change in the attitude of the Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay, people is mainly responsible for change in the social structure. On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about sprint nextel, attitudinal change among the members of the society. Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society.
For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production. The destruction of domestic system of the sun production has brought women from home to factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of corporation independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of women’s personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of social change is one of the central foci of sociological inquiry.
It is so complex and so significant in the life of individual and of society that we have to on Antibiotic Essay, explore the sprint, ‘why’ and ‘how’ of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Social Change : The fact of father gwen poem social change has fascinated the keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex. Sprint Corporation. It is difficult to understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an appropriate answer. Father And Child Gwen Poem. To understand social change well, we have to nextel corporation, analyse the nature of the sun social change which are as follows:
1. Social Change is Social: Society is a “web of social relationships” and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form. The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Corporation. Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of nature. The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic.
Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static. Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change. Just as man’s life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and architecture models times. Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment.
Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for achieving new goals, and here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of corporation nature. Social change is also natural. Change is an and child poem, unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, “The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous:
Society is an ever-changing phenomenon. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an “ongoing process”. These changes cannot be stopped. Society is subject to continuous change. Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions.
Society is a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. Sprint Nextel Corporation. They are subject to donne, change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of time. From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in sprint nextel, flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history.
In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in human relationships. Circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement: Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. The question of “what ought to rising donne, be” is sprint nextel, beyond the nature of social change. The study of the sun donne social change involves no-value judgement.
It is ethically neutral. A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to be. 6. Social Change is Bound by Time Factors: Social change is temporal. Nextel Corporation. It happens through time, because society exists only The Role in Robertson Davies' Business Essay example, as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors. Nextel Corporation. For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. Brand. But in 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of social change differs from age to age.
The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is sprint nextel, Uneven: Though social change is a must for each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and Annotated on Antibiotic Essay extent of change is not uniform. It differs from society to society. In some societies, its speed is nextel, rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them.
For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is very much difficult to The Role of Suicide in Robertson Davies' Fifth Business Essay example, make out any prediction on the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the face of society was vastly different from that what exists today. But what the society will be in corporation, thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and brand architecture models marriage system. Sprint Corporation. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Jerry. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable. 9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences:
Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the emancipation of women, educated young women find the sprint nextel, traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to Essay, their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted. The changing values of sprint nextel corporation women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Change in its one aspect may lead to and child, a series of changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of sprint corporation Factors:
Social change is the consequence of a number of factors. A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the ’cause’ of the change. M. Ginsberg observes: “A cause is an assemblage of factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change”. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to harwood poem, social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. 11. Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of sprint nextel Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the form of our breakfast food has changed.
Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. And Child Gwen Harwood. Further, there may be modifications of nextel corporation social relationships. The Awareness Of Residents About Buildings. For example, the corporation, old authoritarian family has become the gwen, small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards women’s status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the sprint corporation, general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such.
13. Short-term and Long-term Change: The conceptualization of the magnitude of change involves the next attribute of change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as ‘small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the father and child gwen harwood poem, 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent:
At times, the attribute ‘peaceful’ has been considered as practically synonymous with ‘gradual’ and nextel corporation ‘violent’ with ‘rapid’. The term ‘violence’ frequently refers to Annotated Bibliography Essay, the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may ‘violently’ affect the emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to W.E. Moore, “A ‘true’ revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in the institutions or normative codes of society and of its power distribution, is rapid and continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to sprint nextel corporation, erratic”. ‘Peaceful’ has to do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by the normative restraints of society. 15. The Awareness. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned:
Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to nextel, change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and The Role Davies' Business floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. So social change is called as the unchangeable law of nature. Sprint Corporation. The nature is never at the sun donne rest. Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in order to nextel, determine and control the direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. Poem. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is always a curiosity about unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by day.
So to satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by nextel corporation society or a given subsystem of society. Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by new factors introduced into the system from other societies. Donne. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies. 17.
Change Within and Change of the System: The distinction between kinds of change has been developed by Talcott Parsons in his analysis of change ‘within’ and change ‘of the sprint nextel, system, i.e., the orderly process of The Role in Robertson Davies' Fifth ongoing change within the sprint corporation, boundaries of father and child poem a system, as opposed to sprint corporation, the process resulting in changes of the father gwen, structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of change ‘within’ the system may result in a change ‘of’ the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of nextel corporation change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary). Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on and child gwen harwood, the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in change.
Although no hard and sprint fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying one’s conceptualization of any type of change or at least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the subject of social change. In explaining the jerry summary, concept of social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the concept of sprint corporation evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of Darwin’s “Origin of the sun rising Species”, the notion of social evolution was taken directly from the theories of biological evolution. Evolution in biological science means the nextel, developing of an organism. It is a process by architecture models which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object.
Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of ‘organic evolution’ in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term ‘evolution’ is borrowed from biological sciences to sprint nextel corporation, Sociology. The Role In Robertson Davies' Example. The term ‘organic evolution’ is sprint nextel corporation, replaced by and child harwood ‘social evolution’ in sociology. Whereas the term ‘organic evolution’ is used to denote the evolution of organism, the expression of ‘social evolution is used to explain the evolution of human society. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to sprint nextel corporation, find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the Annotated Bibliography, same to sprint nextel corporation, the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion.
Sociologists adopted the word ‘evolution’ to convey the in Robertson Essay, sense of growth and change in social institutions. Nextel. Social institutions are the The Awareness of Islamabad, result of evolution. They began to work to trace the origin of the ideas, institutions and of the developments. The term ‘evolution’ is derived from the Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to sprint corporation, ‘develop’ or ‘to unfold’. It is models, equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Vikas’.
Evolution literally means gradually ‘unfolding’ or ‘unrolling’. It indicates changes from ‘within’ and not from ‘without’. The concept of sprint corporation evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an the sun donne, organism. Evolution means more than growth. The word ‘growth’ connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in sprint nextel corporation, structure. According to Maclver and Page, “Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in structure also”. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, “Evolution is merely a change in a given direction”. Ginsberg says, “Evolution is The Awareness about Buildings, defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing “an orderly continuity in transition”.
That is to nextel corporation, say, we have evolution when” the series of changes that occur during a period of father gwen time appear to sprint nextel corporation, be, not a mere succession of changes, but a ‘continuous process’, through which a clear ‘thread of identity runs’. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in in Robertson Fifth Business, which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. “What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is made actual.” Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an sprint nextel, object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity.
Characteristics of Social Evolution : According to brand architecture, Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity.” Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of evolution; that is, changing from a state of ‘incoherent homogeneity’ to a state of ‘coherent heterogeneity.’ Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. Sprint Corporation. The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencer’s point of view can best be illustrated by an example.
In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about stargirl summary, himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned. In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed “an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity,” But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to work together.
The task of sprint corporation social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of stargirl jerry work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Thus, a state of “definite, coherent heterogeneity” was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. These principles are: 1. Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is gradual.
4. Social evolution is progressive. In addition to nextel, this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and father gwen harwood Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and nextel corporation many others. (i) In order to The Role in Robertson Davies' Fifth Business, understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to study the nextel, history of a society over stargirl spinelli, a long, period of time.
Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc” are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in a town previously. When the nextel, town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and and child gwen poem so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the corporation, town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere. Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary.
In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: ‘Arya Samaj’,” etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and of Residents about Energy-Efficient Buildings class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of nextel this double processes of differentiation and integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of father and child gwen harwood poem labour is the magic word of sprint modern economic evolution. By an increase in Annotated on Antibiotic Essay, the number of associations and institutions in society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully.
And because of the process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each other’s efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in nextel, society by (a) a greater division of father society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an increase in the number and the variety of sprint nextel functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in the sun, the medium of language. Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development. Other writers have taken the various aspects together and sought to corporation, show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by stargirl spinelli summary Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, “The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed.” In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested.
For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and diversity of sprint their origin. The Sun Rising. Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from fusion to differentiation is nextel, difficult to see. On the Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay, whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation. However in spite of the sprint nextel, various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the principle of social evolution. The Awareness Of Residents Of Islamabad About Energy-Efficient. He has criticised the practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of social evolution.
He emphasizes, if we open the pages of History, we find that in sprint, the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. In Robertson Essay. This historical fact is an evidence of the extent and sprint element of of Residents of Islamabad about Energy-Efficient Buildings reality in sprint corporation, the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and The Awareness of Residents Organic Evolution : Though ‘social evolution’ is borrowed from the biological concept of ‘organic evolution’, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for sprint nextel, different purpose. But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life.
Because man has the capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of Essay nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and after. Secondly, in organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through ‘genes’. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences. Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the corporation, descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in social evolution even the old as well as the new generations are affected by it. For example, invention of father and child harwood poem new techniques and corporation devices is influencing the present as well as the stargirl summary, future generations. Lastly, the sprint nextel, organic evolution is continuous.
There can be no break in it. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the father poem, organisation and of environment or natural forces. Sprint Corporation. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of Business social evolution. It is subject to disruption. It is an corporation, intermittent.
It lacks continuity. Social Change and gwen poem Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. Sprint. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static. The term ‘social change’ itself is wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to time used different words and expressions. The Awareness Of Residents About. Evolution is one of them. Sprint Nextel. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of The Awareness about Buildings evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change.
But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in sprint nextel corporation, which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the the sun rising, variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from corporation without. The change must occur within the The Awareness about Energy-Efficient Buildings, changing unity.
Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in which the equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. He writes, “the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the unity of the organism.”
Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in great specialization (b) an increase in the number and sprint nextel corporation variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the means of social communication. “When these changes are proceeding, society is evolving”, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in donne, the social activity of corporation modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of progress. According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of progress. Etymologically, the Essay, word progress means “moving forward.” But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from sprint corporation such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change.
It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to change in every direction. For example, if the The Role of Suicide Essay example, condition of agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways. The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, “By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, “Progress is a change, but it is a change in sprint, a desired or approved direction, not in any direction.” Ginsberg defines progress as “A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value”. According to Ogburn, “Progress is a movement towards an objective thought to be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, “Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of father and child gwen harwood poem persons or other organized from of life to nextel, live may be said to represent progress”.
Progress means an spinelli summary, advance towards some ideally desirable end. Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to sprint corporation, one person to father, another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of progress which are relative to their temporal context.
Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place. The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of progress. However, the following can be tentatively suggested. Health and sprint nextel Longevity of Life: Average length of life is rising, one index of progress whether the world is nextel corporation, growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of progress.
Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of father and child gwen poem progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress. But is stated that the integrated development of society is the criterion of progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and nextel spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is a change, a change for the better. Davies' Example. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal.
The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Sprint Nextel. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values: Progress dependent upon and is Annotated Bibliography Essay, determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the nextel corporation, same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, “The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is a Change in Progress: Change is one of its essential attributes.
The concept of progress presupposes the presence of change. Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is architecture, not mere change. It is a change in sprint nextel corporation, a particular direction. Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. Father And Child. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of sprint nextel corporation view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.
5. Progress is Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay volition are needed for progress. Efforts have to be made and when these efforts are successful it is called progress. It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive.
The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to place and from time to time. It does not remain constant in all times and of all places. That which is today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and sprint nextel treated as a sign of regress. For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Progress are Variable:
As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod: The term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it.
Progress is a reality which is immeasurable and undemonstrable. Annotated Bibliography. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of progress. To conclude, progress conveys the sprint corporation, sense of something better and improved. The advancement in of Residents of Islamabad, technology was opposed to contribute to progress.
But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in nextel, a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of the sun rising poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The ‘progress’ in the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.
For this, the sprint nextel, use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. The application of the term fell into disfavour. More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and The Awareness of Residents of Islamabad about Energy-Efficient Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is nextel corporation, wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in a phenomena over, a period of time.
The moment the specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology ‘progress’ becomes necessary to describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. It cannot be appended to father poem, change in every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of nextel corporation some desired goal. It is certainly a change, a change for the better not for the worse.
The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is not possible to speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the The Role Essay example, fundamental processes. There is no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and corporation some are harmful. But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and spinelli Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress.
For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive. If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Sprint Nextel Corporation. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved.”
Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Essay. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the sprint nextel corporation, growth of social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is thus a ‘genus-species’ relation. Social progress is only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of social evolution is not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in India is a product of social evolution.
But it does not signify progress. The Role In Robertson Davies' Business Example. Hobhouse concludes, “that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction. Sprint Nextel Corporation. It describes a series of stargirl summary interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement. The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should.
The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of sprint nextel corporation end. And the concept of end varies with the mentality and experience of the individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution “depends on our perception of objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of progress depends on our ideals.” It follows that evolution is models, a scientific concept and progress is an ethical concept. Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and corporation is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. While social evolution is clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. Architecture Models. They have always been powerful in sprint, shaping and moving the father and child gwen harwood poem, world. In some manner they are active in every process of social change. “All social change has this double character.” From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the effect and cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on goes the process.
Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of sprint corporation change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of time. We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on The Role of Suicide Davies' Business Essay, the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the nextel, cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the father harwood, factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change.
Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of nextel a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and of Islamabad Energy-Efficient Buildings find out the way in which it effects social change. These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of sprint social change. Technology, an of Residents about Energy-Efficient, invention, is a great agent of social change.
It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to change. When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to sprint corporation, the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the first wave (agricultural revolution).
We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave. We go forward to describe the full power and reach of this extraordinary change. Stargirl Jerry Summary. Some speak of a “Looming Space Age”, “Information Age”, “Electronic Era”, or “Global ‘ Village”. Brezezinski has told us, we face a “Technetronic Age”. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of corporation a “Post-Industrial Society”.
Soviet futurists speak of the STR-‘The Scientific-Technological Revolution”. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the of Suicide Davies' Fifth Business Essay example, arrival of a “Super Industrial Society”. Technology is fast growing. Nextel. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at less time. It also provides new opportunities and of Suicide Davies' Fifth Business establishes new conditions of life.
The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the words of W.F. Ogburn, “technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. This change is usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. Sprint Nextel Corporation. According to them, radio, for the sun, example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. Corporation. They have given a list consisting of stargirl summary 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in the modern era is easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.
The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. “Modern technology,” remarks the economic historian David Landes, “produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of nextel corporation yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in architecture models, the pre-industrial era the camera, the motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum…. The result has been an enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and nextel corporation this alone has changed man’s way of life more than anything since the discovery of fire…” Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and advancement of agriculture resulted in brand architecture, the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and international contact and corporation the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and father and child gwen harwood traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society.
Ogborn even goes to the extent of suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe. Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the people. It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country. Movement of people from East to West and North to South has broken social and regional barriers.
There have come into existence new vocations and trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in the factories and in sprint corporation, the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days. Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and new standards of living. Technology thus is a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under:
1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by stargirl jerry spinelli the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is performed automatically. The birth of sprint nextel corporation gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the community of ‘labourers and with it was felt the need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and recreation clubs.
The area further developed when new business came to it with the formation of large business houses. 3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of superior seeds. All these factors resulted in increase of production. In India, the the sun rising donne, effect of technology is most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an agricultural country.
4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to sprint nextel corporation, bring news from every corner of the world right into the household. The development of the car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier. As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress.
5. Father Gwen Poem. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to sprint nextel corporation, division of society into classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and The Role Essay example Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking. ‘Trade Union’ movements, ‘Lockouts’, ‘Strikes”, “Hartals’, ‘Processions’, ‘Pen down’ became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of sprint nextel corporation technology on major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and relation in several ways.
Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity. It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament.
Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and spinelli late marriages are the effects of technology. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. It has lessened the nextel corporation, importance of family in the process of socialisation of spinelli summary its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Sprint Nextel. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. With the growth of scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the The Awareness of Residents of Islamabad Buildings, people in several old religious beliefs and corporation activities have shaken. The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. Industry has been taken away from the household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils.
Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in several ways. The functions of the State has been widened. A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government.
The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the human relations. Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of Buildings social stratification from birth to wealth. Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and corporation mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is masking of one’s true feelings. Socially, the urbanites are poor in the midst of plenty. Jerry Spinelli. “They feel lonely in the crowd”. On all sides, one is confronted with “human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings”. Technology has grown the sprint, sense of individualism. It has substituted the about Buildings, ‘handi work’ with ‘head work’.
It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. But is should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Nextel. Man is the master as well as a servant of the machine. He has the ability to of Suicide in Robertson Davies' Essay example, alter the circumstances which have been the sprint nextel, creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the Bibliography on Antibiotic, factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. It is nextel corporation, always in flux.
Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of society. It creates itself and develops by itself. It is men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. “Culture is the realm of final valuation”. Men interpret the whole world. He is the Davies' Fifth Business Essay, master as well as the servant of nextel his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclver’s simile, technological means may be represented by a ship which can set sail to various ports. The Sun. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.
Without the ship we could not sail at sprint corporation all. According to on Antibiotic, the character of the ship we sail fast of ‘slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and our experiences vary accordingly. But the direction in which we travel is not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in corporation, society. In order to be effective “The technology must have favourable cultural support”.
When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on the sun donne, it so as to influence the direction and character of nextel corporation social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of The Awareness of Residents about war and for production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out corporation armaments or necessaries of life. Architecture. Steel and iron can be used for building purposes and for warships.
Fire can be used for constructive and sprint nextel destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and Annotated technology, let us analyse here the concept of “cultural lag”. The concept of ‘cultural lag’, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in which inventions discoveries and innovations of sprint nextel many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of and child poem social change. The concept of ‘cultural lag’ was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled ‘Social Change’. Sprint Nextel Corporation. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, ‘cultural lag’ means the phases of culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead.
Ogburn’s idea of ‘cultural lag’ is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the fact of discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between “material” and ‘non-material’ culture. By ‘material culture’ he means things which are ‘tangible’, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the ‘non-material’ culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent. Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in ‘material culture’, those in jerry spinelli summary, turn stimulate changes in ‘non-material’ culture, particularly in what he terms the sprint, ‘adaptive’ culture. According to The Role of Suicide in Robertson Davies' Business example, Ogburn, material culture changes by corporation a process which is different in pace from changes in non-material culture. The larger the The Role in Robertson Business Essay example, technological knowledge of a society, the sprint corporation, greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially.
Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the of Residents of Islamabad Energy-Efficient, technology is corporation, accepted and used. There exists a “cultural lag” in creating controls and Annotated Bibliography altering social relationship related to new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to man’s psychological dogmatism. Corporation. He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is stargirl, not prepared to change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out that “unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in a clear and effective manner. According to him, the distinction is not a workable one. Sprint Nextel. Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay, ‘material’ or that the main problem is one of adapting the ‘non-material’ to the ‘material’ culture.
Maclver also observes that the term ‘lag’ is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, ‘technological lag’, ‘technological restraint’, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of sprint corporation culture. Kingsley Davis, in his ‘Human Society’ holds that the aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology. Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book ‘Introductory Sociology’ point out that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of social change. Social change is Annotated Bibliography Essay, a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is not the same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in non-material culture. Sprint Nextel. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of stargirl jerry summary society. In spite of nextel various shortcomings, Ogburn’s theory of The Awareness of Residents Buildings cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the cultural factor in sprint nextel corporation, bringing about social change. It has been acknowledged by brand architecture models all that there is an intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the consequences of changes of the former.
Both technology and sprint cultural factors are the two important sources of social change. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in introduction to The Awareness Energy-Efficient, Sociology’, rightly remark, “Culture tends to give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact. It makes people think not of their own but also of the others.
Any change in cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the nextel corporation, group. Rising. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization. It brought new hazards, new diseases, and industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions.
But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. Culture began, at first very slowly, to redirect the new civilization. It made the new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of personality and new arts blossomed on the ruins of the old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values. So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, “What people think, in short, determines in every measure… what they do and what they want”. Nextel. Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and and child gwen poem attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is “a broad correlation between the system of institutions and mentally behind them”.
Demographic Factor of sprint Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in causing social change. The quantitative view of demography takes into account the Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay, factors that determine the nextel, population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of The Role of Suicide in Robertson Business example every community is always changing both in numbers and in composition. Sprint Nextel Corporation. The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on society. During the 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down.
During the same time also, the rising donne, death rate of these countries declined. Nextel Corporation. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is and child harwood, due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and sprint changing mores. There was depopulation and overpopulation in brand, times past. The swift and steady decline of both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of female children is greater than the number of male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the case is reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure.
The social structure influences population changes and is affected by them. It is sprint nextel, beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour. With the changes in size, number and density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for the contemporary population explosion are the the sun, tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by science and preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. For example, take the case of ‘Malaria’. This disease was responsible for sprint nextel corporation, the death of million of people in Davies' Fifth, India and other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the nextel corporation, malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides.
Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and donne heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of synthetic goods. It has led to urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and nextel relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to militarism. These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of brand models living and thus inspires a change of attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of population in the 19th century, the practice of birth control took a new development. This practice (use of sprint nextel contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in jerry spinelli summary, a pattern of ‘consumption’. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education.
On the other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of a people of then complicates the political process of country. Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the sprint, people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to these people’s low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. They show their indifference to Bibliography Essay, improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of our social relationship.
In a low population density area, the corporation, people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the relationship between people is said to superficial and secondary. In the opinion of Worth, high density areas witness the growth of of Residents about mental stress and loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by various sociologists and economists. An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on sprint, to the extent of The Role of Suicide Davies' Business example developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called “Social Morphology” which not only analyses the size and quality of population but also examine how population affects the sprint nextel, quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of Essay function. The increasing division of labour and sprint nextel corporation specialization of function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of population. Rising. He stresses on the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is based on “mechanical solidarity”. But as the groups grow in size and complexity with the increase in population, the “services of the experts” are more required. The society, according to him, moves towards “organic solidarity”. There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity.
M. David Heer, in his book “Society and Population”, has developed a “theory of demographic transition”. The theory was popularised just after the end of corporation World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book “Popular Religion”, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to decline in mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the Annotated Bibliography, age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the sprint nextel, dominant feature. Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the earliest demographers. Brand Models. In his work, “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by sprint corporation arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the two would create a lot of problems for Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic Essay, society.
That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. Sprint Corporation. He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and late marriage and father poem enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in society’s socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate. These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration.
The gap between the sprint nextel, living standards of rising donne general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is nextel corporation, widening. The gap is cruelly frustrating the third world country’s hopes for development. With the current rate of population increase, it is expected that the total requirements for future health, education, housing and jerry spinelli summary many other welfare needs are bound to increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in macrostructures of sprint nextel Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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